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滇西北特有植物蓝果杜鹃的花色多态性研究

 马永鹏1, 吴之坤1, 张长芹1、2, 孙卫邦1   

  1. 1 中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物园,昆明650201; 2 云南特色木本花卉工程技术中心,昆明650000
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-28 出版日期:2015-01-25 发布日期:2014-07-10
  • 基金资助:

    The National Natural Science Foundation of China (31200247, U1302262); The Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (2012FB180)

Flower Color Polymorphism in Rhododendron cyanocarpum (Ericaceae), an Endangered Alpine Species Endemic to NW Yunnan, China

 MA  Yong-Peng-1, WU  Zhi-Kun-1, ZHANG  Chang-Qin-1、2, SUN  Wei-Bang-1   

  1. 1 Kunming Botanical Garden, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China;
    2 Yunnan Characteristics of Wood Flowers Engineering and Technical Research Center, Kunming 650000, China
  • Received:2014-04-28 Online:2015-01-25 Published:2014-07-10
  • Supported by:

    The National Natural Science Foundation of China (31200247, U1302262); The Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (2012FB180)

摘要:

蓝果杜鹃 (Rhododendron cyanocarpum) 为大理苍山特有的濒危植物,有粉色和白色两种花冠类型。为了探讨该物种花色多态性的意义,本研究调查了粉色花和白色花植株在已知的各居群的分布频率、花冠的反射光谱及其它的花部特征、有效传粉者及其访花频率与结实情况。结果表明:粉色花植株在所有调查的居群中占优势 (77%~100%)。粉色花的花冠反射光谱在430nm和650nm有两个峰,而白色花只在430nm有一个反射峰。同时,花特征如:花柱与柱头颜色、花冠长度、花萼长度、花梗长度以及雌雄蕊最短距离,两种花冠存在显著差异。另外,尽管熊蜂作为这两种花冠的主要传粉者,但粉红花的访花频率以及自然条件下的结实情况显著高于白色花。本研究结果推测粉红色花可能受到了稳定性选择的作用。

关键词: 蓝果杜鹃, 熊蜂, 花色多态性, 访花频率

Abstract:

 Rhododendron cyanocarpum is a narrow endemic species with pink and white floral color. In the present study, to investigate the significance of petal color morphs, we examined color morph frequencies, petal color reflectance and other associated floral characters, effective pollinators, visitation frequencies, and fruit production in the field. In all surveyed known populations, plants with pink color morph dominanted and comprised 77%-100% of individuals. Two peaks at 430 nm and 650 nm were found in the petal color reflectance of pink flowers, and only one peak at 430 nm was found in the reflectance spectrum of white flowers. In addition, color morphs were also associated with colors of style and stigma, lengths of corolla, calyx and pedicel, the closest distance between stigma and stamen, but not with style length and nectar production. Moreover, higher visitation frequency of their shared pollinators (bumblebees) and fruit production were observed of pink flowers than white flowers. Despite a briefly temporal and spacial study, we suggest that color morph frequencies, visit frequencies of bumblebees and fruit production, all favor to be stablilizing selection for the pink color morph.

Key words: Rhododendron cyanocarpum, Bumblebees, Floral color morphs, Visit frequency

中图分类号: 

  • Q 944,Q 948