The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of five species of the genus Leontopodium (Asteraceae) from Southeastern QinghaiTibet Plateau, Southwest China were investigated. Three species were studied karyomorphologically and reported for the first time: L.franchetii 2n=2x=26=6M+18m+2sm, 2A; L.calocephalum 2n=4x=48=3M+43m+2sm, 1B; L.stracheyi 2n=4x=48=13M+35m, 1A. Two species L.souliei and L.sinense presented different chromosome numbers and karyotypes from the previous reports, that is, L.souliei 2n=2x=24=13M+8m+3sm, 1B; L.sinense, the population collected at altitude 2406m a.s.l. Muli County, Sichuan Province: 2n=2x=26=4M+22m, 1B, the population collected at altitude 3074m a.s.l. Muli County, Sichuan Province: 2n=4x=52=16M+36m, 1B. The comparison of existent chromosomal data indicates that Leontopodium is a genus with symmetry karyotype, but diversified obviously among different species. Polyploidization might have played an important role in the speciation and evolution of Leontopodium on the QinghaiTibet Plateau and its southeastern peripheral regions.