Plant Diversity     2017 39 (05):  263-272    ISSN: 2096-2703:  CN: 53-1233

Assigning conservation value and identifying hotspots of endemic rattan diversity in the Western Ghats, India
Mukta Joshia,b, Bipin Charlesa, G. Ravikantha, N. A. Aravinda
a Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment(ATREE), Royal Enclave, Srirampura, Jakkur PO, Bangalore 560064, India;
b Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune, 411008, India
Received 2016-12-05  Revised 2017-08-16  Online 2017-10-25
Reference  Ali, S., Ripley, S., 1983. Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press Delhi.
Aravind, N.A., Rajashekhar, K.P., Madhyastha, N.A., 2005. Species diversity, endemism and distribution of land snails of the Western Ghats, India. Rec. West.Aust. Mus. (Suppl. 68), 31-38.
Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A.W., de Torre, J., Scott, B., 2011. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool.Zookeys 150, 117-126.
Basu, S.K., 1992. Rattans (Canes) in India: a Monographic Revision. Rattan Information Centre, Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Bhat, P.R., Shenoy, H.S.P., Kaveriappa, K.M., 2009. Studies on the Status of Some Species of Rattans (Calamus spp.) in the Forests of the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Indian for. 135.
Bhat, P.R., Shenoy, H.S.P., Kaveriappa, K.M., 2010. Status of some species of rattans in the forests of the Western Ghats of Karnataka. India. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 4, 455-463.
Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., et al., 2010. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328, 1164-1168.
Cardoso, P., Borges, P.A.V., Triantis, K.A., Ferrandez, M.A., Martin, J.L., 2011. Adapting the IUCN red list criteria for invertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 144, 2432-2440.
Chandran, M.D.S., 1997. On the ecological history of the Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 73, 146-155.
Cuni Sanchez, A., Osborne, P.E., Haq, N., 2011. Climate change and the African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): the need for better conservation strategies. Afr. J.Ecol. 49, 234-245.
Dahanukar, N., Raut, R., Bhat, A., 2004. Distribution endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. J. Biogeogr. 31, 123-136.
Daniels, R.J.R., 1992. Geographical distribution patterns of amphibians in the Western Ghats. India. J. Biogeogr. 9, 521-529.
Daniels, R.J.R., Hegde, M., Joshi, N.V., Gadgil, M., 1991. Assigning conservation value:a case study from India. Cons. Biol. 5, 464-475.
De la Estrella, M., Mateo, R.G., Wieringa, J.J., Mackinder, B., Muñoz, J., 2012. Legume diversity patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of species biology on distribution models. PLoS ONE 7, e41526.
Engler, R., Guisan, A., Rechsteiner, L., 2004. An improved approach for predicting the distribution of rare and endangered species from occurrence and pseudoabsence data. J. Appl. Ecol. 41, 263-274.
Fagundes, C.K., Vogt, R.C., De Marco Júnior, P., 2016. Testing the efficiency of protected areas in the Amazon for conserving freshwater turtles. Divers. Distrib. 22, 123-135.
Fenu, G., Mattana, E., Congiu, A., Bacchetta, G., 2010. The endemic vascular flora of Supramontes (Sardinia), a priority plant conservation area. Candollea 65, 347-358.
Furze, B., De Lacy, T., Birckhead, J., 1996. Culture, Conservation and Biodiversity: the Social Dimension of Linking Local Level Development and Conservation through Protected Areas. Wiley, New York.
Gaston, K., 2003. The Structure and Dynamics of Geographic Ranges. Oxford Univ.Press, Oxford.
Govaerts, R., Dransfield, J., Zona, S., Hodel, D.R., Henderson, A., 2014. World Checklist of Arecaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available from: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/.
Graves, G.R., Rahbek, C., 2005. Source pool geometry and the assembly of continental avifaunas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 7871-7876.
Grossi, M.A., Draper, D., Apodaca, M.J., Vitali, M.S., Pataro, L., Katinas, L., Moreno Saiz, J.C., 2017. The road to 2020 targets and the learnings from the emblematic South American plant genus Nassauvia (Asteraceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 26, 329-351.
Guisan, A., Broennimann, O., Engler, R., Vust, M., Yoccoz, N.G., Lehmann, A., Zimmermann, N.E., 2006. Using niche-based models to improve the sampling of rare species. Conserv. Biol. 20 (2), 501-511.
Hammer, O., Harper, D.A.T., 2007. Paleontological data analysis. Paleontol. Data Anal. (1999) 1-351.
Idohou, R., Peterson, T.A., Assogbadjo, A.E., Vihotogbe, R.L., Padonou, E., Kakaï, R.G., 2016. Identification of potential areas for wild palm cultivation in the Republic of Benin through remote sensing and ecological niche modeling. Genet. Resour.Crop. Evol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-016-0443-7.
IUCN, 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Jha, C.S., Dutt, C.B.S., Bawa, K.S., 2000. Deforestation and land use changes in Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 79, 231-238.
Jiménez-Alfaro, B., Draper, D., Nogués-Bravo, D., 2012. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates. Biol. Cons. 147, 190-196.
Kraft, N.J.B., Baldwin, B.G., Ackerly, D.D., 2010. Range size, taxon age and hotspots of neoendemism in the Californian flora. Divers Distrib. 16, 403-413.
Kunte, K., 2008. The Wildlife (protection) act and conservation prioritization of butterflies of the western Ghats, southwestern India. Curr. Sci. 94, 725-735.
Lakshmana, A.C., 1995. Rattans of South India. Evergreen Publishers, Bangalore, India, pp. 1-179.
López-López, P., Maiorano, L., Falcucci, A., Barba, E., Boitani, L., 2011. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe.Acta Oecol 37, 399-412.
Lyngdoh, N., Santosh, S.H., Ramesha, B.T., Rao, M.N., Ravikanth, G., Narayani, B., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Uma Shaanker, U., 2005. Rattan species richness and population genetic structure of Calamus flagellum in North-Eastern Himalaya, India.J. Bamboo Rattan 4, 293-307.
Mack, R., 2000. Cultivation fosters plant naturalization by reducing environmental stochasticity. Biol. Invasions 2, 111-122.
Manohara, T.N., Ramaswamy, S.N., Shivamurthy, G.R., 2007. Calamus-dwindling resources? Curr. Sci. 92, 290-292.
Margules, C.R., Pressey, R.L., 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405, 243-253.
Merow, C., Smith, M.J., Silander Jr., J.A., 2013. A practical guide to MaxEnt for modelling species' distributions: what it does, and why inputs and settings matter. Ecography 36, 1058-1069.
Mohan Ram, H.Y., Tandon, R., 1997. Bamboos and rattans: from riches to rags. Proc.Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. 63, 245-267.
Mohapatra, B.B., Charles, B., Aravind N.A. Conservation Value for Amphibians of the Western Ghats. (Manuscript Under Preparation).
Murray-Smith, C., Neil, A.B., Oliveira-Filho, A.T., Bachman, S., Moat, J., Lughadha, E.M.N., Lucas, E., 2006. Plant diversity hotspots in the atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Con. Biol. 23, 151-163.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J., 2000.Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853-858.
Nair, N.C., Daniel, J.C., 1986. The floristic diversity of the Western Ghats and its conservation: a review. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Anim. Sci. Plant Sci.) (Suppl. l), 127-163.
Naughton-Treves, L., Holland, M.B., Brandon, K., 2005. The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annu. Rev. Environ.Resour. 30, 219-252.
Norris, D., 2014. Model thresholds are more important than presence location type:understanding the distribution of lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in a continuous Atlantic forest of southeast Brazil. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7, 529-547.
Pearson, R.G., Raxworthy, C.J., Nakamura, M., Peterson, T.A., 2007. Predicting species distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: a test case using cryptic geckos in Madagascar. J. Biogeogr. 34, 102-117.
Pena de Castro, J.C., Kamino, L.H.Y., Rodrigues, M., Mariano-Neto, E., de Siqueira, M.F., 2014. Assessing the conservation status of species with limited available data and disjunct distribution. Biol. Conserv. 170, 130-136.
Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P., Schapire, R.E., 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol. Modell. 190, 231-259.
Priti, H., Aravind, N.A., Uma Shaanker, R., Ravikanth, G., 2016. Modeling impacts of future climate on the distribution of Myristicaceae species in the Western Ghats, India. Ecol. Engg. 89, 14-23.
Raes, N., Roos, M.C., Slik, J.W.F., van Loon, E.E., ter Steege, H., 2009. Botanical richness and endemicity patterns of Borneo derived from species distribution models. Ecography 32, 180-192.
Ramesh, B.R., Pascal, J.P.,1996. Distribution of endemic arborescent evergreen species in the Western Ghats. In: Karunakaran, C.K. (Ed.), The Proceedings of the Symposium on Rare, Endangered and Endemic Plants of the Western Ghats, Kerala Forest Department, Special Publication No. Ⅲ, Thiruvananthapuram, pp. 20-29.
Ramesh, B.R., Seetharam, M., Guero, M., Michon, R., 2009. Assessment and Conservation of Forest Biodiversity in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. 1.General Introduction and Forest Land Cover and Land Use Changes (1977-1997).Institut Francais de Pondichery, Pondy Papers in Ecology no. 6, Head of Ecology Department, Institut Francais de Pondichery.
Ramesha, B.T., Ravikanth, G., Rao, M.N., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Uma Shaanker, R., 2007.Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?J. Genet. 86, 9-18.
Ravikanth, G., Uma Shaanker, R., Ganeshaiah, K.N., 2000. Conservation Status of forests in India: a cause for worry? J. Indian Inst. Sci. 80 (6), 591-600.
Ravikanth, G., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Uma Shaanker, R., 2001. Mapping genetic diversity of rattans in Central Western Ghats: identification of hot-spots of variability for in situ conservation. In: Uma Shaanker, R., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Bawa, K.S. (Eds.), Forest genetic Resources: Status, Threats and Conservation Strategies. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, pp. 69-83.
Ravikanth, G., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Uma Shaanker, R., 2002. Identification of hot spots of species richness and genetic variability in rattans: an approach using geographical information systems (GIS) and molecular tools. Plant Genet.Resour. Newsl. 132 (17), 21.
Ravikanth, G., Rao, M.N., Madhugiri, Ajay, N., Uma Shaanker, R., Ganeshaiah, K.N., 2010. Do endemic rattans have lower genetic variability than their co-generic and con-specific non-endemic rattans? Genes, Genomes Genomics 4, 22-27.
Renuka, C., 1992. Rattans of the Western Ghats: a Taxonomic Manual. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi.Sarma, R.R., 2012. An Assessment of the Geographical Distribution Pattern in Anurans of the Western Ghats and the Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Conservation of Anurans Using GIS. M.Tech Thesis submitted to Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra.
Schouten, M.A., Barendregt, A., Verweij, P.A., Kalkman, V.J., Kleukers, R.M.J.C., Lenders, H.J.R., Siebel, H.N., 2010. Defining hotspots of characteristic species for multiple taxonomic groupsin The Netherlands. Biodivers. Conserv.19, 2517-2536.
Sen, S., Gode, A., Srirama, R., Ravikanth, G., Aravind, N.A., 2016. Modeling the impact of climate change on wild Piper nigrum (black pepper) in western Ghats, India using ecological niche models. J. Plant Sci. 129, 1033-1040.
Senthilkumar, U., Choudhary, R.K., Sanjappa, M., Narasimhan, D., Uma Shaanker, R., Ravikanth, G., 2014. Livelihood and revenue: role of rattans among mongoloid tribes and settlers of andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Ethnobot. Res. Appl. 12, 141-15.
Senthilkumar, U., Narasimhan, D., Sanjappa, M., Uma Shaanker, R., Ravikanth, G., 2015. Species delimitation in congenerics of Genus Daemonorops from India using DNA barcodes. Commun. Plant Sci. 5 (1-2), 1-8.
Singh, B.H., Puni, L., Jain, A., Singh, R.S., Rao, P.G., 2004. Status, utility, threats and conservation options for rattan resources in Manipur. Curr. Sci. 87, 90-94.
Sreekumar, V.B., Renuka, C., Suma, T.B., Balasundaran, M., 2006. Taxonomic reconsideration of Calamus rivalis Thw. ex Trim. and C. metzianus Schlecht (Arecaceae) through morphometric and molecular analyses. Bot. Stud. 47, 443-452.
Stockwell, D.R.B., Peterson, A.T., 2002. Effects of sample size on accuracy of species distribution models. Ecol. Model. 148, 1-13.
Subramanian, K.A., Sivaramakrishnan, K.G., 2002. Conservation of Odonate fauna in Western Ghats - A biogeographic perspective. Vistas of Entomological Research for the New Millenium 11-22.
Syfert, M.M., Joppa, L., Smith, M.J., Coomes, D.A., Bachman, S.P., Brummitt, N.A., 2014. Using species distribution models to inform IUCN Red List assessments.Biol. Conserv. 177, 174-184.
Uma Shaanker, R., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Srinivasan, K., Rao, V.R., Hong, L.T., 2004.Bamboo and Rattans of the Western Ghats: Population Biology, Socioeconomics and Conservation Strategies. ATREE, Bangalore, IPGRI, Malaysia and UAS, Bangalore.
Willis, F., Moat, J., Paton, A., 2003. Defining a role for herbarium data in Red List assessments: a case study of Plectranthus from eastern and southern tropical Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 12, 1537-1552.

Corresponding author: G. Ravikanth,E-mail addresses:gravikanth@atree.org;N. A. Aravind,E-mail addresses:aravind@atree.org