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25 February 2009, Volume 31 Issue 1
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  • Articles
    Karyotypes of Fifteen Populations of Four Species in Maianthemum (Liliaceae) from Southwestern China
    TANG Zi-Hui , , GAO Yun-Dong, ZHOU Song-Dong , HE Xing-Jin
    2009, 31(1):  1-7.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08084
    Abstract ( 2398 )   HTML ( )   PDF (383KB) ( 1760 )   Save
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    Fifteen populations of four species of Maianthemum from southwestern China were analyzed in terms of base number , polyploidy, dysploidy , chromosome size , chromosome morphology , satellited chromosomes , structural heteromorphism, and karyotype asymmetry and karyotype evolution . The results show that 1) chromosomal number of all the species examined is 2 n = 36 , with M. tatsienensis (Population Lijiang , Yunnan) as an exceptional case of which the chromosomal number is 2 n = 72 ; 2) karyotypes show difference among populations, especially in the numbers of metacentric , submetacentric, and acrocentric chromosomes as well as satellites. The karyotypes of M. nanchuanense and M. szechuanicum are documented the first time . B- chromosome is discovered in this genus the first time, too . It is inferred that the evolutionary mechanisms in the genus Maianthemum include the frequent somatic chromosome aberration and the polyploidy at various
    levels , and that the southwestern China is one of the differentiation centers of this genus .
    The Floral Syndrome and Its Pollination in Cynanchum otophyllum (Asclepiadaceae)
    WANG Ding-Kang , , SUN Gui-Fang , ZHAI Shu-Hua , GUO Li-Hong , XIAO Feng-Hui
    2009, 31(1):  8-14.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.07329
    Abstract ( 2364 )   HTML ( )   PDF (342KB) ( 1920 )   Save
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    This paper studied on the floral syndrome of Cynanchum otophyllum, visiting insects and their foraging behavior. The results showed that the floral morphologies were complex . Two separate ovaries were united by their styles to form a gynostegium with anthers . The stigmatic surfaces were enclosed by the tightly abutting wings of adjacent anthers to produce five stigmatic chambers . C. otophyllum possessed pollinia , which permited the transfer of hundreds of pollen grains at a time . Honeybees ( Apis cerana Fabricius) were primary pollinators . The process of C. otophyllum pollination was : ( 1) removal of a pollinarium: when the groove in the corpusculum catched on mouthparts or legs of honeybees and was forcibly pulled from the flower, and (2) insertion of a pollinium: when a pollinium lodged in a stigmatic chamber . Following successful
    insertion , the pollens germinated within the stigmatic chamber and pollen tubes subsequently grew down the stylar
    canal and finally entered the ovaries . The durable covering of pollinia allowed a long residence time on pollen viability , so
    the pollen could remain a relatively high viability in the flower period . Stigma receptivity , however , decreased gradually
    over the seven-day life span of flowers .

    Microstructure Observations of Pollenless Abortion in Thermoand Photoperiod-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Line N28S in Rice ( Oryza sativa)
    PENG Hai-Feng , WAN Bang-Hui , ZHANG Gui-Quan , LU Yan-Peng
    2009, 31(1):  15-20.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08074
    Abstract ( 2685 )   HTML ( )   PDF (540KB) ( 2297 )   Save
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    Using paraffin section method and fluorescence microscopy , anther microstructure changes of pollenless abortion were observed in thermo- and photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line N28S in rice. The results showed that the microsporocytes of N28S had a reduced cytoplasm. Some microsporocytes didn′t undergo meiosis, the other microsporocytes arrested meiotic division at the leptotene stage of meiosis or underwent abnormal cytokinesis . All abnormal microsporocytes and meiotic products became vacuolate and eventually degenerated, leaving empty anther locules . Moreover, the absence or premature degradation of callose wall around the microsporocytes and the abnormal degradation of tapetum in the microspore
    development stage were also been observed . It is suggested that the abnormal behaviour of callose and tapetum may be a consequence of a deviation in microsporocyte development, and the pollenless abortion of N28S is possibly attributed to microsporocytes with reduced cytoplasm .
    Chrysophyllum and Endiandra, Two Genera New to Yunnan, China
    YU Zhi-Yong , CHEN Wen-Hong , SHUI Yu-Min
    2009, 31(1):  21-23.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08132
    Abstract ( 2695 )   HTML ( )   PDF (132KB) ( 1768 )   Save
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    Chrysophyllum lanceolatum var. stellatocarpon (Sapotaceae ) and Endiandra dolichocarpa (Lauraceae ) representing two genera new to Yunnan are reported.
    Six New Synonyms of Cyclosorus (Thelypteridaceae) from China
    LI Zhong-Yang , , HE Zhao-Rong , DING Bing-Yang
    2009, 31(1):  24-28.  doi:10 .3724􊄯SP. J. 1143.2009.08034
    Abstract ( 2481 )   HTML ( )   PDF (550KB) ( 1656 )   Save
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    Cyclosorus luoqingensis is reduced to the synonym of C. dehuaensis, C. nanlingensis and C. paucipinnus are reduced to the synonyms of C. fraxinifolius, C. oblanceolatus is reduced to the synonym of C. nanpingensis, C. yandongensis and C. xunwuensis are reduced to the synonyms of C. parasiticus.
    First Recognition of the Genus Crypsinus (Polypodiaceae) in China
    SHAO Wen , LU Shu-Gang
    2009, 31(1):  29-31.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08124
    Abstract ( 2502 )   HTML ( )   PDF (79KB) ( 1966 )   Save
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    The genus Crypsinus (Polypodiaceae ) is reported for the first time in China . The differences among Crypsinus, Phymatopteris and Selliguea are presented, and the sole species Crypsinus trilobus is described and illustrated .
    New Records of Orchids from Hainan, China (Ⅱ)
    SONG Xi-Qiang , , MENG Qian-Wan , Luo Yi-Bo
    2009, 31(1):  32-34.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08155
    Abstract ( 2676 )   HTML ( )   PDF (63KB) ( 1951 )   Save
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    Three species, Malleola insectifera, Odontochilus saprophyticus and Panisea albiflora, are newly recorded in China .
    Genetic Diversity of Dendrobium fimbriatum (Orchidaceae), an Endangered Species, Detected by Inter-simple Sequence Repeat ( ISSR)
    MA Jia-Mei , , YIN Shou-Hua
    2009, 31(1):  35-41.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08076
    Abstract ( 2528 )   HTML ( )   PDF (122KB) ( 2021 )   Save
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    The genetic variability of five populations from xishuangbanna were investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat ( ISSR) . A total of 117 unambiguous and repetitious bands were obtained from 114 individuals of sampled populations using twelve primers selected . The results showed that Dendrobium fimbriatum exhibited a relatively low genetic diversity at population level. At species level, the value of the average percentage of polymorphic bands ( PPB) was 89.74%, expected heterozygosity ( H) was 0. 3227, Shannon′s Information index ( Hsp ) was 0.4779; while at population level, the value of the average percentage of polymorphic bands ( PPB) was 23.93%, expected heterozygosity ( H) was 0 . 0871, Shannon′s Information index (Ho) was 0.1290 . Most of genetic variation partitioned among populations (74 . 79%). The coefficient of gene differentiation among populations ( Gst ) was 0.7443 showed that genetic diafferentiation among population based on Nei′s genetic distance had a high degree . Pairwise genetic identity ( I ) among populations ranged from 0.5882 to 0.8331. No significant correlation was found between geographical and genetic distance. Based on the findings in present study, we proposed that conservation management of Dendrobium fimbriatum shoud include protection of nature
    habitats occupied by all five wild populations and preservation of germplasm in botanical gardens from multiple seed sources to accelerate the gene flow .
    Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Seed Germination of Endangered Hopea mollissima (Dipterocarpaceae)
    WEN Bin , HE Hui-Ying , WANG Ru-Ling , TAN Yun-Hong , LAN Qin-Ying
    2009, 31(1):  42-48.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08104
    Abstract ( 2680 )   HTML ( )   PDF (115KB) ( 1736 )   Save
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    Seed longevity of Hopea mollissima under ambient conditions and the effects of seed maturity, temperature , illumination and soil moisture content on seed germination were studied in this paper , which indicated that the optimum temperature for seed germination was 25℃ though 20 - 30℃ is suitable; Periodic illumination and full darkness made no significant
    difference to germination , but seeds germinated best at temperature range of 25 - 30℃ under periodic illumination, or at temperature range of 20 - 25℃ under full darkness; The suitable soil moisture content was 20%- 60% while the optimum one was 50%- 60%; During open storage under ambient conditions, seed germination percentage halved after 10 days and decreased to nil after 16 days . It appears that this species depended on its native habitat strongly . Deforestation and fragmentation are the key causes which endanger Hopea mollissima severely . Owning to recalcitrant properties of its seeds, the protection of this species relies on in-situ conservation supplemented with ex-situ conservation of living plants .
    Gradient Variations in Landscape Pattern from Northwest to Southeast in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province

    HUANG You-You , , LIU Shou-Jiang , HU Jin-Yao , QIAO Bo , ,
    CUI Shi-Fa , , XU Xiao ,

    2009, 31(1):  49-56.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08116
    Abstract ( 2354 )   HTML ( )   PDF (294KB) ( 1828 )   Save
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    To explore gradient variations of landscape pattern in Tangjiahe nature reserve , the belt transect (width of 2 km and length of 22 km) was set from northwest to southeast on the remote sensing vegetation image by employing GIS technology. Our results indicate that: (1) as a well-developed vegetation type , the woodland distributes widely in the nature reserve
    and occupies approximately 91 .65% of the total study area . In detail, the evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest is considered as background of landscape in the reserve because of biggest distribution area . In contrast, sub-alpine shrub meadow and farmland have lower heterogeneity degree because of small area and simple patch edge . (2) With space change from northwest to southeast , the landscape indices vary in three different ways at the landscape scale : increasing, decreasing and no consistent trend . In general , value of some indices, such as edge density, mean proximity index, landscape shape index and mean patch fractal dimension , maintains a increasing trend along the belt transect, but the value of mean patch size index and mean nearest neighbor distance index decrease obviously . The other indices such as Shannon′s diversity index, Shannon′s evenness index, largest patch index and interspersion juxtaposition index keep a steady fluctuate . ( 3) On the other hand, secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest , evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, coniferous and broad- leaved mixed forest and coniferous forest are dominant classes at the patch scale , and have obvious peaks in variation of landscape indices value along belt transect in the reserve .
    Potential Distributions of Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae) in China as Predicted by GARP
    YU Yan , CHEN Li-Li , HE Xing-Jin
    2009, 31(1):  57-62.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08135
    Abstract ( 2786 )   HTML ( )   PDF (182KB) ( 2390 )   Save
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    Solidago canadensis L . is a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae , native to North American . It is one of the most harmful alien species in mainland China . This research applied Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP)
    ecological niche modeling to predict the species′potential range in China on the basis of occurrence points . The results indicated that: Environmental factors such as Slope, aspect, annual precipitation, wet days, flow accumulation, flow direction, maximum temperature and frost days greatly influenced the size of S . canadensis′s potential range , while parameters
    such as minimum temperature and mean annual temperature had little impact . Areas that we predict to have potential for invasion were still larger than those areas that had been invaded . Therefore , S. canadensis is predicted to continue to expand in China . Northeast and south- central China was most liable to be invaded; hence urgent measures should be taken there to prevent this species from further spreading .
    Biomass Allocation and Biomass Estimation Models of Rauvolfia vomitoria and Rauvolfia verticillata (Apocynaceae)
    LIU Gui-Zhou, CAI Chuan-Tao, LUO Yuan , DAO Xiang-Sheng
    2009, 31(1):  63-66.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08157
    Abstract ( 2497 )   HTML ( )   PDF (71KB) ( 1733 )   Save
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    A field experiment was conducted to research biomass allocation and estimation models of Rauvolfia vomitoria and Rauvolfia verticillata , in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province . Biomass measurement was conducted with harvest method, and estimation models were set up by following equations: linear , logarithmic, binomial, and power models . The results
    showed that the biomass between these two species is obvious, R. vomitoria is higher than R. verticillata , and stems have the highest proportion to the whole plant , roots come next, and leaves lowest . The estimation coefficients (R2 ) were high and the models had certain applicability.
    Dissociation of Photosystem II Light-harvesting Complex (LHC II ) from the Reaction Center Complex Induced by Saturating White Irradiation Differs from the Transition from State1 to State 2 Induced by Weak Red Irradiation
    CHEN Yue , , XU Da-Quan
    2009, 31(1):  67-74.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08127
    Abstract ( 3110 )   HTML ( )   PDF (306KB) ( 1615 )   Save
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    The effects of different irradiance pre-treatments on leaf photosynthesis and low temperature ( 77K) chlorophyll
    fluorescence (LTCF) parameters F685 , F735 , and F685􊄯F735 were observed in Arabidopsis, wheat , and soybean leaves
    . The curve of photosynthetic responsing to irradiance transition from saturating to limiting one in Arabidopsis wild- type
    leaves was the V pattern , while the curve in Arabidopsis mutant lacking chloroplast protein kinase STN7 was the L pattern .
    Saturating white irradiation (SWI ) could induce the significantly decreased F685􊄯F735 without a significantly increased
    F735 , while weak red irradiation (WRI) could lead to the significantly declined F685􊄯F735 with a significantly increased
    F735 . The results showed that the attachment of dissociated LHC II to PS I in Arabidopsis wild-type leaves , indicating that
    WRI can cause the transition from state 1 to sate 2 , while SWI can only induce LHC II dissociation from PSII reaction cen-ter complex . Moreover the results of LTCF analysis demonstrated that SWI could induce the LHC II dissociation in soybean
    but not wheat leaves , while WRI could cause the state transition in wheat but not soybean leaves . Hence the LHC II dissociation
    caused by SWI in Arabidopsis wild-type and soybean leaves was not a typical phenomenon of the state transition .

    Establishment of Real-time TaqMan-Fluorescence Quantitative RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Quantification of mRNA Expression of RAc1 of Rice

    GAO Dong, WANG Yun-Yue, HE Xia-Hong, LI Cheng-Yun , ZHU You-Yong
    2009, 31(1):  75-81.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08142
    Abstract ( 3184 )   HTML ( )   PDF (307KB) ( 3049 )   Save
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    The cDNA was cloned as the standard for real-time quantifying mRNA of RAc1 of rice and the TaqMan fluorescence quantitative PCR assay for detecting RAc1 gene expression was established as internal control gene for detecting other gene expression of rice . Total RNA extracted from leaf of rice was reverse transcribed to cDNA . The prospective amplicon was amplified and purified , then was ligated with pMD19-T Simple vector and transformed into bacterium JM-109. Plasmid DNA extracted from positive clones were verified by PCR amplification and sequenced . The concentration of purified DNA
    template was detected by analyzing absorbance in 260 nm and then the combined plasmid was diluted to series as standard for FQ-PCR . RAc1 was amplified by real- time fluorescence quantitative PCR from the plasmid DNA . The method of RAc1 mRNA real-time PCR was well established , which detected as low as 102 copies with the linear range from 102 to 107 copies
    . The standard curves showed high correlations (r = 1.000) and PCR efficiency ( E = 98. 2%) . A series of standards for real-time PCR analysis had been constructed successfully, and real-time TaqMan-Fluorescence Quantitative RT-PCR was reliable to quantitatively evaluate mRNA of RAc1 of rice. Furthermore, RAc1 gene as the internal control gene for detecting other gene expression of rice .
    Effects of Nitrogen on Photosynthesis and Growth in Incarvillea delavayi (Bignoniaceae)
    LEI Ming , , LI Shu-Yun , ZHANG Shi-Bao , HU Hong
    2009, 31(1):  82-88.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08056
    Abstract ( 2437 )   HTML ( )   PDF (155KB) ( 1810 )   Save
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    To investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of three-year old potted-plants of I . delavayi , an alpine herb , the effects of nitrogen supply on the foliage traits, gas exchange response curves, leaf nitrogen partitioning , chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and growth parameters were examined . The results showed
    that when the nitrogen supply was 0 g􊄯kg, severe photoinhibition occurred though the leaf nitrogen allocation to light harvesting system complex decreased in I . delavayi . In addition , the leaf nitrogen content allocated to the photosynthetic components was smallest among all treatments, which resulted in the worst photosynthetic capacity and slowest relative growth
    rate of whote plant (RGR). With nitrogen supply increased, the leaf nitrogen content (N) , chlorophyll content (Chl ), leaf nitrogen content allocated to the photosynthetic components (NR 、NB and NL ) and light utility efficiency increased correspondingly, and it contributed to photosynthetic capacity enhancing . Because the leaf nitrogen content allocated to bioenergetics
    was more than to Rubisco , after offering nitrogen fertilizer , Jmax􊄯Vcmax increased , which helped I. delavayi adapt to the alpine environment , such as lower temperature and higher irradiance. With nitrogen supply increasing, the speed of growth of I . delavayi was accelerated , which was benefit to the reproduction and next-year growth .When nitrogen supply was more than 0 .2 g􊄯kg, N, Chl and the thickness of mesophyll tissue, photosynthetic rate and RGR did not increase statistically. In a word, the optimum amount of nitrogen needed by the I. delavayi was about 220 - 230 mg/kg soil.
    Phenolic Glucoside Gallates from the Leaves of Cynara scolymus (Compositae)
    LIU Rong , , JIANG Meng-Yuan , , ZHOU Zhong-Yu , , LIU Ji-Kai
    2009, 31(1):  89-92.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08173
    Abstract ( 2428 )   HTML ( )   PDF (88KB) ( 1613 )   Save
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    A new phenolic glucoside gallate , named 2-methoxy-4 -( 2 , 3-dihydroxy-propionyl )-phenyl-1- O-( 6′-O-galloyl)- β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with a known phenolic glucoside gallate (2) , were isolated from the leaves of Cynara scolymus (Artichoke ) . The structure of 1 was elucidated mainly by extensive spectral methods (MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques)

    Diphaladine A, a New Lycopodium Alkaloid from Diphasiastrum complanatum (Lycopodiaceae)

    WU Xing-De , HE Juan , XU Gang , PENG Li-Yan, SONG Liu-Dong, ZHAO Qin-Shi
    2009, 31(1):  93-96. 
    Abstract ( 2417 )   HTML ( )   PDF (95KB) ( 1866 )   Save
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    A new Lycopodium alkaloid , diphaladine A (1 ) , was isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of Diphasiastrum complanatum together with other nine known alkaloids . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. To the best of our knowledge , obscurumine A (2 ) , L20 , lycoposerramine-K, des-N-methyl-β-obscurine, des-N-methyl-α-obscurine , lycoflexion , and phlegmariurine B were all isolated from this plant for the first time .