Based on an extensive examination of specimens of 48 taxa in the genus Ligustrum, it was found that four types of seeds could be divided: 1) sphaercular, 2) compressed ellipsoidal, 3) compressed ovoid , and 4) crescent-shape with two channels on the back . There is a close relationship between the form of seeds and the type of fruit . Thus, a new infrageneric
system of Ligustrum is proposed based on the morphology of seeds and endocarps . In addition , L. xingrenense is regarded as a subspecies of L. nepalense; L. longipedicellatum and L. yunguiense are treated as synonyms of L. lianum; L. longitubum and L. robustum subsp . chinense are synonyms of L. leucanthum and L. expansum respectively . L. robustum only occured in India , Burma and Sri Lanka but not in China . The records of L. robustum in China are based on misidetifications of L. expansum .