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25 June 2008, Volume 30 Issue 03
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  • Articles
    Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Polyketides
    ZHU Xiang-Cheng, , HUFFMAN Justin, GERBER Ryan, LOU Li-Li, XIE Yun-Xuan, LIN Ting , , JORGENSON Joel, MARESCH Andrew, VOGELER Chad ,
    WANG Qiao-Mei, SHEN Yue-Mao, DU Liang-Cheng		
    2008, 30(03):  249-278.  doi:10.3724􊄯SP.J.1143.2008.08053
    Abstract ( 2192 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1783KB) ( 4872 )   Save
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    Polyketides are one of the largest groups of natural products produced by bacteria , fungi , and plants . Many of these metabolites have highly complex chemical structures and very important biological activities, including antibiotic, anticancer, immunosuppressant , and anti- cholesterol activities . In the past two decades, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the molecular mechanisms for polyketide biosynthesis . These efforts have led to the development of various rational approaches toward engineered biosynthesis of new polyketides .More recently, the research efforts have shifted to the elucidation of the three-dimentional structure of the complex enzyme machineries for polyketide biosynthesis and to the exploitation
    of new sources for polyketide production , such as filamentous fungi and marine microorganisms . This review summarizes our general understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms and the progress in engineered biosynthesis of polyketides .
    Advances in Understanding Seed Dormancy at the Whole-seed Level: An Ecological , Biogeographical and Phylogenetic Perspective
    BASKIN Carol C , , BASKIN Jerry M
    2008, 30(03):  279-294.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.08017
    Abstract ( 2415 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1294KB) ( 7609 )   Save
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    Following a brief account of the early foundations of seed germination ecology sensu lato , some historical and recent developments pertaining to the ecology, biogeography and phylogeny of seed dormancy are discussed .

    Fundamental Features of Guangxi Flora of China

    WEI Yi-Gang
    2008, 30(03):  295-307.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07158
    Abstract ( 2830 )   HTML ( )   PDF (426KB) ( 2233 )   Save
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    Guangxi flora is influenced by the Tonkin Gulf region under the Paleotropic Kingdom and Yunnan , Guizhou, Guangxi region under the Holarctic Floristic Kingdom . The province harbors 8 565 species in 1 819 genera and 285 families of vascular plants. This paper floristically focuses on seed plant families and genera in Guangxi. The flora basically consists of tropical to subtropical elements with transitional characteristics between temperate and tropical floras, as indicated by the presence of the endemics .
    Distribution Patterns of Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) Species from Eastern Asia and Their Biogeographical Implications
    ZHU Hua
    2008, 30(03):  308-314.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07217
    Abstract ( 2433 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3664KB) ( 2191 )   Save
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    Distribution patterns of Lasianthus species (Rubiaceae ) from East Asia were studied , based on a revision work on the genus and database of collections. Three distribution types of species were recognized as tropical Asian, East Asian and Endemic to China. The type of tropical Asian distribution was further divided into three subtypes as India (Himalayas) to Malesia, India (Himalayas) to Southern China and mainland SE Asia , and Southern China to mainland SE Asia. The species of tropical Asia distribution contribute to 72.7% of the total species, by which the tropical Asian affinity of the flora of southern China is supported . Distributions of some Lasianthus species are well corresponded to the floristic regionalization of Sino-Himalayas and Sino-Japan of East Asian flora, while some distribution patterns indicate a biogeographical connection between Himalayas and Taiwan and a migration pass between Taiwan island and mainland Japan through Ryukyu Islands. The floristic affinities among Chinese continent , Hainan and Taiwan are also supported by Lasianthus species in the study.
    Chromosome Numbers of Eight Species in the Genus Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae)
    JI Hui , , GUAN Kai-Yun , LU Yuan-Xue
    2008, 30(03):  321-324.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07174
    Abstract ( 2726 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1028KB) ( 2082 )   Save
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    染色体数目; 苦苣苔科; 石蝴蝶属

    The Effect of Seasonal Drought to Plant Hydraulics and Photosynthesis of Three Dominant Evergreen Tree Species in Seasonal Tropical Rainforest of
    Xishuangbanna Limestone Area

    WANG Ai-Ying , , JIANG Yan-Juan , , HAO Guang-You , , CAO Kun-Fang
    2008, 30(03):  325-332.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07239
    Abstract ( 2681 )   HTML ( )   PDF (732KB) ( 2387 )   Save
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    To investigate the adaptive mechanisms of evergreen species to seasonal drought, we studied seasonal changes of plant hydraulics , photosynthesis and leaf osmotic related traits in three dominant evergreen species ( Celtis wightii, Cleistanthus sumatranus and Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticillata) of a limestone mountain area of Xishuangbanna, SW China . Compared to the wet season, the predawn leaf water potential in the dry season is significantly lower in all the three species , indicating a relatively strong soil drought stress. During the dry season, sapwood specific hydraulic conductivity ( Ks ) was significantly lower compared to that of the wet season in Cleistanthus sumatranus and Lasiococca comberi var . pseudoverticillata , but there was no significant change in Celtis wightii . There was no significant change in leaf area specific hydraulic conductivity ( Kl ) between the two seasons in all the three species, which may caused by the adjustment in hydraulic architecture through partial loss of leaves during the dry season . In the dry season , maximum carbon assimilate rate ( Amax ) was significantly lower than that of the wet season in all the three species . There were strong correlations between Amax and both of the two hydraulic traits ( i. e . Ks and Kl ), especially during the wet season, indicating a relatively strong independence of photosynthesis to water transport in stems . Leaf turgor loss point osmotic potential and saturation osmotic potential during the dry season were both significantly lower in all the three species, indicating a strong osmotic adjustment in adaptive to seasonal drought. Compared to the two coccurring deciduous species, the ability to tolerate drought-induced cavitation in stem xylems were substantially higher in the three evergreen species. These results indicated that the adaptation of these three evergreen species to seasonal drought mainly involves an adjustment in hydraulic architecture and a strong osmotic regulation in leaves .
    Peptide Hormones in Plants
    JIANG Xi-Bing , , YU Di-Qiu
    2008, 30(03):  333-339.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07315
    Abstract ( 2552 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1062KB) ( 3616 )   Save
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    There are at least nine members in the plant peptides, whose protein sequences have been published . Basing on the cell-to-cell interaction′s pattern of“ligand-receptor”, four peptides have been accepted as peptide hormones, including Systemin , Phytosulfokine, SCR􊄯SP11 and CLV3 , which are involved in wounding respond , cell proliferation , percipience between pollen and stigma in self- incompatibility , and balancing division and differentiation in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) , respectively . Here, we outline recent understanding of these four plant peptide hormones, meanwhile make a prospection according to our research′s advance .
    Identification of a Pseudogene of Calmodulin Gene in Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae)
    ZHANG Zhi-Li , , SU Huo-Sheng , LI Wei-Guo
    2008, 30(03):  340-344.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07203
    Abstract ( 2420 )   HTML ( )   PDF (911KB) ( 1711 )   Save
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    Employing a pair of primers designed from cDNA of a HbCaM gene, two 1371 bp and 447 bp-length fragments were isolated from genome DNA in Hevea brasiliensis. Sequence analysis showed that the longer fragment was the HbCaM gene with 2 exons ( including the 77 bp and 373 bp-length fragments) and an 869 bp-length intron, and the shorter fragment had 98% identity with cDNA sequence of HbCaM gene. Compared to cDNA of the HbCaM gene, 6 mutated nucleotides were identified in the 447 bp-length fragment, in which T mutated from C at 406 bp site led to the occurrence of stop codon TAG in advance . The 447 bp- length fragment was hereby suggested to be a pseudogene of the HbCaM gene in H. brasiliensis, named HbCaMP1, which was the first pseudogene in identified H. brasiliensis geonome and the first homological pseudogene of CaM genes isolated in plant .
    Identification of Salvia Species by nrDNA ITS and cpDNA rpl16 Sequence Analyses
    GUO Hui-Fang , KAN Xian-Zhao , ZHANG Ren , , CHEN Hong-Shan
    2008, 30(03):  345-350.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07224
    Abstract ( 2742 )   HTML ( )   PDF (914KB) ( 1885 )   Save
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    Three DNA regions were sequenced for testing six fresh plant samples of Salvia species . These three DNA regions were nrDNA ITS ( nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer), chloroplast rpl16 ( the gene encoding ribosomal protein L16 ) , and trnL- trnF ( the cpDNA region comprising the trnL and the intergenic spacer between trnL and trnF) . The results showed that the nrDNA ITS and rpl16 genes could provide novel information for origin identification of Salvia species. Due to their higher mutation rates of these 2 gene markers, Salvia species-specific primers were designed and S. miltiorrhiza and S. yunnanensis were identified. The trnL- trnF gene expressed low mutation rate, it could not identify the species . Since the damage of DNA by the pretreatments of the dry roots of Chinese herbs, it is hard to apply the
    molecular markers to commercial samples for identification.
    Preliminary Study on Development , Germination and Desiccation Tolerance of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae)
    DENG Zhi-Jun, XIANG Zhen-Yong, , CHENG Hong-Yan, LI Yan-Jun, SONG Song-Quan,
    2008, 30(03):  355-359.  doi:10.3724.SP.J.1143.2008.07196
    Abstract ( 2892 )   HTML ( )   PDF (700KB) ( 2258 )   Save
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    The developmental changes in morphology and germinability of Jatropha curcas seeds, effects of temperature and light on seed germination , and changes in desiccation tolerance of mature seeds were studied in this paper. The results indicated that J. curcas seeds reached a physiological maturation at 58 days after anthesis, and that seed germination percentage reached a peak at physiological maturation, and then decreased. The optimal germination temperature was 25 to 30℃. J. curcas seeds were insensitive to dehydration at physiological maturation . There was not a notable effect of light on seed germination. Therefore, J. curcas seed was a non-photoblastic and orthodox seeds .
    Contribution of Mongolian O-Boo Culture and Plant Worshiping Culture to Biodiversity Conservation in Ordos Plateau
    Manliang , , ZHANG Xin-Shi , , Surguga
    2008, 30(03):  360-370.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07177
    Abstract ( 2853 )   HTML ( )   PDF (648KB) ( 2074 )   Save
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    Combining methods of ethnoecology, cultural anthropology and quadrat samplings, the study aims to evaluate and analyse the contribution of Mongolian O-Boo culture and plant worshiping culture to biodiversity conservation by means of investigation, interview to informants and second-hand information collecting in Ordos Plateau. The Mongolian O-Boo culture is conserving vegetation diversity and species diversity of grassland. Mongolian O-Boo is original and natural Nature Reserve that benefit from the protection of Mongolian nomadic culture. The names of eight Mongolian names of O-Boo reflect the characteristics of original plant community in Ordos Plateau. Mongolian plant worshiping culture in Ordos Plateau includes worshiping plants used for fete activities, worshiping odd, tall and straight arbors which have odd shape, worshiping trees nearby the temple. The Chinese Pine King ( Pinus tabulaeformis) which stands on loess hill in the east of Ordos Plateau, remnant Stiffleaf Juniper ( Juniperus rigid) community in Agui Temple and in U-xin county, Shinyleaf Yellowhorn ( Xanthoceras sorbifolia) Open Forest in Genghis Khan′s Mausoleum, Savin Juniper (Juniperus sabina) community in Mu Us sandy land are subject to conservation of Mongolian plant worshiping culture .

    Mongolian O-Boo culture and plant worshiping culture play a positive role in biodiversity conservation . Mongolian OBoo culture and plant worshiping culture are traditional ecological culture which are worthy of exhuming and studying , and the culture for reference using modern scientific method to study biodiversity conservation .

    Preliminary Comparison on Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Plants Used by Dai Xishuangbanna China and Khmer Cambodia
    XU Zai-Fu
    2008, 30(03):  371-377.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07110
    Abstract ( 2972 )   HTML ( )   PDF (558KB) ( 2342 )   Save
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    Xishuangbanna of China and Cambodia are both located in the same rive basin of Lanchang/Mekong River , the former is in the upper stream where belongs to the climate of northern tropics, and the latter is in the lower stream, where belongs to the climate of the tropics with a distance of some 1 000 km from north to south . Dai and Khmer are the major nationalities
    of each state or region , they have used some 1 000 species of medicinal plants and accumulated plenty of traditional medical knowledge in the long historical developing process . The paper compares the similarities and differences of medicinal plants used by the two nationalities and their traditional medical knowledge in accordance of existing literture and the author′s field investigations . The results show that the similar index of common use medicinal plants between the two area is quite low which is 0 . 15 .Most of them are herbal and shrubby plants; the knowledge of medicinal plants accumulated by the two nationalities on the using parts, using styles and the main diseases treated are quite different , and each has his own strong points, which have closing relationship with the ecoenvironment, historical development , their ways of agricultural practise and lifestyle, and the effect of exotic cultures .
    New Natural Inhibitors Targeting Bacterial Enolpyruvyl Transferase
    JIANG Li-Hua, TAN Ning-Hua, ZENG Guang-Zhi, HAO Xiao-Jiang , ZHANG Ying-Jun , QIU Ming-Hua
    2008, 30(03):  378-380.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07289
    Abstract ( 2292 )   HTML ( )   PDF (606KB) ( 1886 )   Save
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    Bacterial enolpyruvyl transferase (EPT) is one of the key enzymes acting in the initial stage of peptidoglycan synthesis of bacterial cell walls . Through inhibition assay, three new natural inhibitors (1 - 3) were found against EPT . Inhibitor 2 and 3 showed antifungal activities against fungus Candida glabrata, and inhibitor 3 showed cytotoxicities against several cancer cells .
    Triterpenoids from the Roots of Rubus obcordatus (Rosaceae)
    ZUO Guo-Ying , LIU Shu-Ling , XU Gui-Li , WANG Gen-Chun ,
    ZHANG Yun-Ling , ZHENG Dan
    2008, 30(03):  381-382.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07263
    Abstract ( 2553 )   HTML ( )   PDF (653KB) ( 2099 )   Save
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    From the roots of Rubus ellipticus var . obcordatus (Rosaceae) , tweleve compounds were isolated and identified by spetral analysis and compared with authentic samples as ursolic acid (1) , pomolic acid (2) , tormentic acid (3) , euscaphic acid (4 ) , sericic acid ( 5 ) , 23-hydroxytormentic acid ( 6) , kaji-ichigoside F1 ( 7 ) , rosamultin ( 8) , sericoside ( 9) , quadranoside VIII (10) , crataegioside (11) and niga-ichigoside F1 (12) .
    Studies on Fungi and Bryophytes from Yunnan in the Last one Hundred Years———Review and Prospect
    ZANG Mu , LI Xing-Jiang
    2008, 30(03):  382-386.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.08067
    Abstract ( 2160 )   HTML ( )   PDF (431KB) ( 2309 )   Save
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    A general introduction to the mycological and bryological researches in Yunnan during the last about 100 years was made . Although several contributors such as Lan Mao (1397 - 1476) and Li Shi-zhen (1518 - 1593) paid their attention to fungi and bryophytes for medical purposes in as early as the Ming Dynasty, much of scientific researches were done in the last one hundred years .Western missionaries and biological explorers, and domestic experts, such as F. L. Tai, T. N. Liou, S. T. Teng , W. F. Chiu. D. F. Yu and J. C. Chou, traveled and collected from different localities of Yunnan and its adjacent areas . Collections of fungi and bryophytes were then studied by mycologists and bryologists from both home and abroad .Many new species of fungi and bryophytes from Yunnan have been discovered and described. The bryophytes in Yunnan are now relatively well-known. However, much mycological work should be done in the future before the diversity of fungi in the region can be recognized and understood.