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25 December 2007, Volume 29 Issue 06
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  • Articles
    Cerasus campanulata var. wuyiensis, a New Variety of Rosaceae in Wuyi Mountain
    WANG Xian-Rong , YI Xian-Gui , XIE Chun-Ping
    2007, 29(06):  1-615. 
    Abstract ( 2495 )   HTML ( )   PDF (606KB) ( 1948 )   Save
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    Cerasus campanulata var. wuyiensis, a new variety of Cerasus campanulata (Rosaceae) in Wuyi Montain is described and illustrated. The new variety is related to C. campanulata, but differs in the young branches, petioles and pedicels spreading hairs, both pedicels and peduncles longer, and the sepals reverse-coiled conspicuously.
    A Floristic Study on the Seed Plants of the Northern Gaoligong Mountains in Western Yunnan, China
    LI Rong , DAO Zhi-Ling, JI Yun-Heng , LI Heng
    2007, 29(06):  1-615. 
    Abstract ( 2844 )   HTML ( )   PDF (774KB) ( 2871 )   Save
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    The northern Gaoligong Mountains is rich in species and it is one of the richest areas of plant diversity in the world. So far, 2 514 native species and 302 varieties (or subspecies ) belonging to 778 genera in 172 families were recorded. Based on the statistics and analysis of families, genera, and species, a floristic study on the seed plants of the northern Gaoligong Mountains was carried out. The results are as follows: 1) The main floristic feature is temperate, but it is greatly influenced by tropical elements. The floristic relationships are complex, and many kinds of distribution types are represented here; 2 ) During the long geological history, the process of fusion and development among Gondwanaland and Laurasia floras is a key to the origin of modern flora of the northern GaoligongMountains. In addition, some elements that came from Indo-Malaysia and North Temperate ( especial Eastern Asia ) differentiated into variously rich endemic taxa in the region.
    Based on the tropical Asian flora , all of the endemic taxa and the two elements mentioned above together changed into the framework of the present flora during geological time; 3) The horizontal and vertical vicariance of the flora is evident in the northern Gaoligong Mountains. The disjunct distribution is also evident, the main disjunct type is a distribution pattern
    from northwest to southeast Yunnan or only distribution in the southwest of the line that along from northwest to southeast Yunnan; 4) The endemism within the flora is rich and the endemic elements differentiated strongly in the region. The palaeoendemic and neoendemic elements can co-exist in the region, but the neoendemic elements are dominant. These data show that northern GaoligongMountains not only is a refuge for some ancient floristic elements but also is a differentiation center for some new floristic elements.
    Lepiota jacobi (Agaricaceae) , a Species New to East Asia
    LIANG Jun-Feng,
    2007, 29(06):  617-618. 
    Abstract ( 2263 )   HTML ( )   PDF (672KB) ( 1714 )   Save
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    Lepiota jacobi Vellinga & Knudsen, a species new to East Asia, is reported and illustrated. It is characterized by its small spores, the absence of cystidium, and the more or less acute spines on pileus made up of inflated cells in short chains.
    Genetic Diversity of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) Collected from Southern Yunnan, Detected by Inter-simple Sequence Repeat ( ISSR)
    XIANG Zhen-Yong , , , SONG Song-Quan , WANG Gui-Juan ,
    CHEN Mao-Sheng , YANG Cheng-Yuan , LONG Chun-Lin
    2007, 29(06):  619-624. 
    Abstract ( 2250 )   HTML ( )   PDF (738KB) ( 2183 )   Save
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    The genetic diversity of 158 individuals from eight semi-wild populations from Yunnan Province was estimated using ISSR method (8 primers). The results revealed an extraordinarily high level of genetic diversity ( at species level,
    percentage of polymorphic loci PPB = 91.04% , effective number of alleles Ne = 1.5244 , Nei′s (1973 ) gene diversity He= 0.3070, and Shannon′s information index Ho = 0 . 4618 ; at population level, PPB = 55. 04% , Ne = 1.3826, Nei′s (1973) gene diversity He = 0.2171, and Shannon′s information index Ho = 0.3178). The level of genetic differentiation between populations is lower than that among populations . The low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on Nei′s genetic diversity analysis (29.44%), and AMOVA (36.50%). There is no associations between geographical distance and genetic identity.We suggest that Jatropha curcas of Yunnan Province might not be introduced from the same place.

    Micromorphological Features of Seed Surface of Fourteen Species in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) in Relation to Their Taxonomic Significance
    CHEN Wei , LIU Ke-Ming, CAI Xiu-Zhen , CONG Yi-Yan
    2007, 29(06):  625-631. 
    Abstract ( 2610 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1343KB) ( 2008 )   Save
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    Micromorphological features of seed surface of 14 species in Impatiens L. were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the characters of the epidermal ornamentation of seed coat and the granules on the cell surface, the micromorphological features of seed surfaces in Impatiens could be divided into 4 types, namely, laevigate, granulate, reticulate and protrusive. The latter two types could be further divided into subdivisions according to the shape of the epidermal ornamentation of the seed coat . The areolate subtype in I. lemeei and the reticulate- colliculate subtype in I. stenosepala were observed for the fist time. The results showed that there were predominant differences among the 14 species, and therefore could be used as reliable diagnostic characters to identify species. The micromorphological features of seed surface were closely correlated with the gross morphology characters, suggesting their important systematic significances.
    Phylogenetic Relationship between Arabidopsis and Thellungiella (Cruciferae) : Evidence from Leaf Epidermal Features and Chloroplast Sequence Analysis
    SUN Zhi-Ying , , ZHANG Xue-Jie , LI Fa-Zeng
    2007, 29(06):  632-638. 
    Abstract ( 2742 )   HTML ( )   PDF (961KB) ( 2910 )   Save
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    Systematics relationship of Arabidopsis, Thellungiella and related genera(Brassicaceae ) from China were studied using leaf epidermal features and sequence analysis of the chloroplast DNA ( cpDNA) trnL intron and trnL-F spacer. The results of this study indicate that Thellungiella is far away from Arabidopsis and should be put in Sisymbrieae. Within Sisymbrieae, it is closely related to Eutrema. However, Arabidopsis should be in Arabideae rather than Sisymbrieae.
    Preliminary Study on Differentiation of Floral Organs of Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae)
    WANG Yong-Zhou, GU Song, REN Yan-Ping, XU Ke, JIANG Sha
    2007, 29(06):  639-647. 
    Abstract ( 2239 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1264KB) ( 1982 )   Save
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    The investigation of the differentiation and development of inflorescences and flowers in Ailanthus altissima (Mill .) Swingle (Simaroubaceae ) using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggests: 1) Flower bud differentiation of A. altissima occurs in early April on a panicle bearing many flowers; 2) The sequence of floral development proceeds from calyx primordia to corolla primordia to stamen primordia and finally to carpel primordia . Five sepal primordia are initiated spirally and asynchronously . Five petal primordia form nearly simultaneously and growmore slowly than the stamen primordia . The ten stamens are alternately arranged in two whorls; the two whorls develop simultaneously. The 5-carpellate gynoecium grows quickly . 3) In hermaphrodites, the five carpels adhere to each other to form the style and stigma; in staminate flowers, in late developmental stages, the five carpels are sterile and fertile stamens differentiate into anthers and filaments . In this paper , we focus on the morphological transition from bisexual to unisexual flower development in A. altissima . We observed that the primordia of staminate flowers are initiated in nearly the same way as in
    hermaphrodite flowers ( although the time of initiation of each organ is different) . The stamen and carpel primordia initiatesimultaneously in both hermaphrodite and staminate flowers. The formation of reproductive structures is due to the differentiation in the course of development of the floral primordia that form the anthers and filaments and􊄯or styles , stigmas, and ovaries . The formation of staminate flowers is due to suppression of the development of the gynoecium in A. altissima . The mechanism of transition from bisexual to unisexual flowers will only be clarified by further study .
    Early Floral Development of Endangered Euryodendron excelsum (Ternstroemioideae: Theaceae)
    ZHANG Rui-Ju , , MA Hai-Ying , WANG Yue-Hua
    2007, 29(06):  648-654. 
    Abstract ( 2805 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1323KB) ( 1909 )   Save
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    The floral development of a critically endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum from Ternstroemioideae (Theaceae) has been observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the first time . The flower of E. excelsum is bisexual and teleianthous . Five sepal primordia are initiated 2􊄯5 spirally and arranged in one whorl when mature , and so are petals. Sepals and petals are initiated in the same order either clockwise or counterclockwise in the same flower . The androecial part is a ring primordium in the beginning . The first five stamen primordia are initiated on this ring primordium at antisepalous positions and then other stamen primordia appear on two sides of each of the first five primordia . Finally a total of 25 stamen primordia are initiated from the ring primordium and arranged in one whorl but could be grouped into 5 fascicles. Three sequentially initiated carpels compose an ovary which has an axile- central placenta with three locules and a truncate
    and indehiscent stigma . The floral development of E. excelsum is distinctly different from plants in Theoideae .
    Karyological Study on the Endangered Species Camellia azalea (Theaceae)
    WANG Shuang , , WANG Zhong-Lang, LIANG Jing , GUAN Kai-Yun
    2007, 29(06):  655-658. 
    Abstract ( 2268 )   HTML ( )   PDF (850KB) ( 1915 )   Save
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    The chromosome number and karyotype of Camellia azalea were reported here for the first time . The species showed in somatic cells the round prochromosome type of the interphase nuclei and the interstitial type of the prophase chromosomes. It was a diploid , and the karyotype could be formulated as 2n = 2x = 30 = 28m (1SAT ) + 2sm, belonging to Stebbins’1B type. The third, fourth, ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth chromosomes had secondary constriction respectively, and one satellite had been found on the fifteenth chromosome. The cytological results supported the suggestion that C. azalea was primitive species in Sect . Camellia of the genus Camellia. A clue on selecting parents was also proposed due to the chromosome numbers and the position in Sect. Camellia.
    Chloroplast Subcellular Localization of the Expressed Protein Encoded by At4g22890 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Cruciferae)
    CUI Yong-Lan , WANG Peng-Cheng , , YANG Zhong-Nan
    2007, 29(06):  659-664. 
    Abstract ( 3409 )   HTML ( )   PDF (986KB) ( 4037 )   Save
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    The information of protein subcellular localization is important to our understanding of a protein function . The protein encoded by At4g22890 was predicted to be an Arabidopsis chloroplast protein . The 5′208 bp fragment of this gene was cloned and fused with GFP to construct a binary vector pMON530-cTP-GFP for genetic transformation . On confocal laser-scanning microscopy, green fluorescent signals were localized in chloroplasts in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that the 208 bp DNA fragment encodes a peptide targeting to chloroplast . The results suggest that At4g22890 encodes a chloroplast protein .
    Improving Biocontrol Effect of Bacillus megterium (Bacillaceae) on Plant Disease through Genetic Modification with Chitinase Gene
    ZHANG Xin-Jian , HUANG Yu-Jie , YANG He-Tong , , REN Yan , CHEN Kai
    2007, 29(06):  666-670. 
    Abstract ( 2224 )   HTML ( )   PDF (965KB) ( 1937 )   Save
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    Bacillus megaterium Ap25 which can produce endoglucanase was proved as a biocontrol agent of plant disease. The aim of this study is to enhance the biocontrol effect of this strain by introduction of a chitinase gene. A 1. 8 kb DNA fragment containing chitinase gene and SD sequence was amplified with the template pMSDChi113 and was inserted into shuttle vector pHY300PLK to construct a new plasmid, pHYChi113. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into B. megterium, resulting in a new strain named Ap25-chi113. Chitin plate culture and PCR amplification confirmed that Ap25-chi113 contained a functional chitinase gene . Comparing with the wild type Ap25 in dural culture experiment , Ap25- chi113 increased its effect against the pathogenic fungi. Especially, the inhibition percentage against Coniothyrium fuckellii increased about 13%. In pot experiment , Ap25- chi113 also increased the effect on suppression of wheat sheath blight and cotton Fusarium wilt caused by Rhizotonia cerealis and Fusarium oxysporum respectively, comparing with the wild strain.
    Profiling the Changes of Lipid Molecular Species in Response to
    Wounding in Arabidopsis thaliana (Cruciferae) by ESI-MS MS
    LING Li-Zhen , , , LI Wei-Qi , , XU Zheng-Jun ,
    2007, 29(06):  671-676. 
    Abstract ( 2393 )   HTML ( )   PDF (772KB) ( 1901 )   Save
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    This paper employed a sensitive approach based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS􊄯MS) to comprehensively analyze lipid composition changes in response tomechanical wounding in Arabidopsis thaliana.The changes of 6 phospholipid classes, 2 glycolipid classes, and 3 lysophospholipid, and 120 lipid molecular species in total depicted the basic
    tendency of membrane lipids in response to wounding for 0 , 15, 30 , and 60min in Arabidopsis thaliana . The results showed that wounding can lead to increase phosphatidic acid (PA) and 3 lysophospholipid and decrease glycolipids of the major chloroplast plastidic lipids . The increasing speed and intensity of PA produced by various lipids are very different , which shows those lipids have experienced different biochemistry processes . (1) The accumulation of 34∶4 PA derived from plastidic lipid 34∶4 PG (phosphatidylglycerol) is significantly slower than that of other PA species; (2) 34∶6 PA accumulated a little and possibly derived from the 34∶6 MGDG or DGDG . However , the content of both glycolipids has apparently decreased, which indicated they are possibly involved in other reactions. No remarkable changes of lipid mole percentage were observed .
    The Effects of Accelerated Aging on Fargesia denudata (Gramineae) Seeds and the Physiological Differences among Seeds of Different Sizes
    WANG Hai , ZHANG Su-Lan , SU Zhi-Xian, XIAO Kai-Huang , QUAN Qiu-Mei
    2007, 29(06):  677-681. 
    Abstract ( 2335 )   HTML ( )   PDF (720KB) ( 1808 )   Save
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    Seeds of Fargesia denudate were treated to accelerated aging and the following indices were measured: seed vigor, T-AOC, activities of antioxidative enzymes , contents of MDA, and conductivity , and these indices were also measured on the seeds that differ in size . The results indicated that after different degrees of accelerated aging, the contents of MDA and conductivity gradually increased , while the value of T-AOC and activities of CAT were reduced significantly. The activities of SOD went up, but the ratio of SOD􊄯MDA went down after an initial obvious rise . T-AOC and SOD􊄯MDA could reflect the level of seed aging well, and T-AOC and conductivity had significant correlations with seed vigor . The vigor of middle-sized seeds was higher than that of bigger and smaller seeds . The value of conductivity and contents of MDA went up as the bigger seeds were under determination , and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes and T-AOC went down during the same process . This indicates that the size of Fargesia denudata seeds correlates with the indices tested in this study.
    The Effects of Temperature and Osmotic Stress on the Germination of Scorzonera pusilla (Compositae) Seeds
    TIAN Mei-Hua , , TANG An-Jun , , SONG Song-Quan
    2007, 29(06):  682-686. 
    Abstract ( 2182 )   HTML ( )   PDF (755KB) ( 2045 )   Save
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    Scorzonera pusilla is one of the early-spring short- lived perennial desert plants. Non-dormant seeds of S. pusilla are very small and light , and able to absorb water very quickly . Suitable temperature for germination was between 0℃ and 15℃, and the optimum temperature was 4℃ . With the increasing temperature, the germination percentage decreased evidently
    . Especially , temperature fluctuations had not significant effect on seed germination. Final germination percentages decreased distinctly with decreasing water potential of PEG and NaCl solution. The relationship between water potential of different solutions and germination was negative. The stronger the osmotic stress was, the more the proline content of seedlings was. The effects of NaCl on germination and seedlings were much stronger than that of iso-osmotic PEG in spite of two different temperatures, and the proline content of seedlings confronting increasing water stress was increased sharply .When the concentration of NaCl increased to some extent , the salt toxicity occurred besides water stress . The results are valuable
    to elucidate the ecogeographical patterns and mechanisms for adaptation of such early-spring ephemeral plants in the desert environments
    A Community Ecology Study on Deciduous Monsoon Forest of Lower Reaches of Luozha River in Yunxian County
    LI Qing-Hui , , ZHU Hua, WANG Hong , ZHOU Shi-Shun
    2007, 29(06):  687-693. 
    Abstract ( 2221 )   HTML ( )   PDF (650KB) ( 2461 )   Save
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    Luozha River is a first branch of Lancang River in its middle section . A less known deciduous monsoon forest was recently discovered on the dry-hot banks of Luozha River. The deciduous monsoon forest is 15 - 20m tall with Lannea coromandelicaColona floribundaMallotus philippensis as the dominant tree species, and Microstegium ciliatumEupatorium odoratumAgeratum conyzoides are the dominant species in the shrub-herb layer . The species richness is higher in the shrub-herb layer than in the tree layer .Most of the trees have DBH ( diameter breast height) between 5 - 10 cm, and
    big trees with large DBH are fewer .Compared with the tropical montane rain forest and the evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Yunnan , the deciduous monsoon forest has lower species richness index than the tropical montane rain forest , but close to the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest .
    Effect upon Volatiles Release in Five Ficus (Moraceae) Species by Herbivores and Artificial Damage
    XIA Shang-Wen , , CHEN Jin
    2007, 29(06):  694-700. 
    Abstract ( 2193 )   HTML ( )   PDF (834KB) ( 1780 )   Save
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    The volatiles release of five Ficus species that from different successional stages with same lifeform were studied in order to understand how these species perform differently in response to herbivores. For the leaves without damage , the pioneer species Ficus hispida released more volatiles than F . auriculata , F. oligodon . and F . racemosa , while the climax species F. altissima released the least amount of volatiles. After the treatment of artificial damage, all five Ficus species showed a increased amount in their volatile release , and the quantity of volatile for the five species were in the same order as they preformed in leaves without damage. When treated with woolly bear, larvae of Asota caricae Boisduval , a common lepidopter on Ficus plants , a F. hispida showed a reduced amount for volatile releases, and F. auriculata and F. oligodon showed a significant increase in the amount of more volatiles release , among which, Eucalyptol, a general insecticidal substance was produced. Asota caricae refused to feed the leaves of F. altissima, thus no data for the volatile release for F. altissima under herbivores in this study. The study indicated that Ficus species from different successional stages indeed preformed different responses to herbivore feeding and artificial damage.
    Analysis on the Impact of Cascading Hydropower Development on Biodiversity in Mengnai River Watershed
    LI Cheng-Chun , , HU Hua-Bin
    2007, 29(06):  701-707. 
    Abstract ( 2297 )   HTML ( )   PDF (651KB) ( 1865 )   Save
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    Disturbance from human-kind has been one of the major causes to the loss of biodiversity . In the watershed of Mengnai River within the Tongbiguan Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province , we applied Geographic Information System and
    Remote Sensing techniques to analyze the impact of cascading hydropower development on landscape diversity , and impact on major protected objects including Dipterocarp forest , rare and endangered plants and animals existing in the nature reserve. Results showed that the development of cascading hydropower stations would slightly increase the fragmentation of the whole landscape in the watershed of Mengnai River , alter the landscape diversity to some extent . However , the impact of cascading hydropower development on the Dipterocarp forest and the rare and endangered plants and animals should not be neglected . Especially, road construction in the area would bring a more significant effect upon forest . Forest cover would decrease by 5. 83% with a potential loss of 1 472 .09 hm2 , 69 . 1 hm2 of Dipterocarp forest would be affected to some extent . In order to mitigate the impact of the hydropower development project on biodiversity , proper measures on 5 aspects were
    recommended based on this study .
    Butyl Acetals from Medicinal Plant , Winchia calophylla (Apocynaceae)
    ZHU Wei-Ming , , LI Shun-Lin , ZHAO Qing , , HAO Xiao-Jiang
    2007, 29(06):  708-712. 
    Abstract ( 2297 )   HTML ( )   PDF (941KB) ( 1901 )   Save
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    Three new compounds, butyl winchal , butyl isowinchal and ethyl winchal along with three known compounds, butyl β-D-glucofuranoside , butylβ-D-glucopyranoside and butylα-D-glucopyranoside , were isolated from the stem barks of Winchia calophylla dealt with hydrochloric acid and aqueous ammonia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR data . They are probably artificial products .
    The Occurrence of 8-oxocaffeine and Pyrimidine Alkaloids in Pu-Er Ripe Tea
    SHE Gai-Mei , , CHEN Ke-Ke , ZHANG Ying-Jun, YANG Chong-Ren
    2007, 29(06):  713-716. 
    Abstract ( 2165 )   HTML ( )   PDF (733KB) ( 2119 )   Save
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    By means of column chromatographic techniques , 8-oxocaffeine , together with pyrimidine alkaloids ( deoxythymidine, thymine and uracil ) , flavonoidal glycoside ( engeletin) and simple phenols (1 , 2 , 4-benzenetriol , 1 , 3-benzenediol and 4-methyl-1 , 2-benzenediol ) were isolated for the first time from Pu-Er ripe tea . Since Pu-Er ripe tea is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica by the post microbial fermentation process, the formation of 8-oxocaffeine should be due to the biotransformation of caffeine . On the other hand , deoxythymidine might be derived from the combination of pyrimidine alkaloid in tea leaves with microbial secondary metabolite . Both of them were found to be the new characteristic principles of Pu-Er ripe tea .
    Synthesis of Isatin Derivatives and the Biological Activity Against the Magnaporthe grisea
    CHEN Gang , , WANG Ye , HE Hong-Ping , LI Shun-Lin ,
    ZHOU Li-Gang , HAO Xiao-Jiang ,
    2007, 29(06):  717-721. 
    Abstract ( 2117 )   HTML ( )   PDF (914KB) ( 2136 )   Save
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    A series of 3-imine􊄯methylene-indole-2-one compounds was synthesized from isatin , and their activity on inhibition of germination of Magnaporthe grisea spores was evaluated . It was found that the hydroxymethyl and aminomethyl of N, and the methylene on C3 might be the pharmacophore . The p-substitute , hydroxy , and electron withdraw group of the aryl
    methylene lead to poor activity , while the o- electron donor group leads to potent activity .