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25 October 2011, Volume 33 Issue 5
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  • Articles
    The Systematic Placement of the Monotypic Genus Paraisometrum (Gesneriaceae) Based on Molecular and Cytological Data
    TAN Ying-, Wang-Zhi-, Sui-Xue-Yi-, Hu-Guang-Wan-
    2011, 33(5):  465-476.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11075
    Abstract ( 2620 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3057KB) ( 2847 )   Save
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    Paraisometrum, is a monotypic genus endemic to Southwest China, with an uncertain systematic position. To resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Paraisometrum within subfamily Cyrtandroideae, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 116 taxa placed in the subfamily Cyrtandroideae and 7 outgroup species selected from other Gesneriaceae subfamilies. The independent and combined analyses were performed on three DNA datasets: the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and two chloroplast regions (trnL-F, atpB-rbcL). Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were used for tree construction. The combined three gene dataset strongly support Paraisometrum in a clade containing Oreocharis, Opithandra, Isometrum, Ancylostemon, and Briggsia rosthomii. In the MP tree this lineage is an unresolved polytomy, but BI resolves Paraisometrum as sister to B.rosthomii and the Ancylostemon clade. We did the first chromosome counts of Paraisometrum (2n=34). The diploid number 34 has also been reported for Oreocharis, Opithandra, Briggsia and Ancylostemon, which lends further support to the placement of Paraisometrum in this lineage.

    Karyotypes of Twenty-five Populations of Thirteen Species in Nomocharis and Lilium
    Wan Juan, ZHOU Song-Dong
    2011, 33(5):  477.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11017
    Abstract ( 2210 )   HTML ( )   PDF (15628KB) ( 3768 )   Save
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    Karyotypes of 11 populations of 6 species in Nomocharis and 14 populations of 7 species in Lilium were analyzed to discuss the taxonomic treatment of Nomocharis and elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between Nomocharis and Lilium. Cytological observations were carried out exclusively from root tips. For mitotic arrest, meristematic tissues were pre-treated with 1∶1 mixture of 0.1% colchicine and p-dichlorobenzene at ambient temperature (10℃-20℃) for 8-10h before fixation in Carnoy I (one part glacial acetic acid to three parts absolute ethanol) at 4℃ for 2-24h. They were macerated in 1mol·L-1 HCl at 60℃ for 5-6 minutes, stained and squashed in Carbol Fuchisn. Karyotype asymmetry was assessed by four indices (As.K%, AI, CVCL and CVCI) in which the later three were newly proposed and had be considered to have phylogenetic significance. Furthermore, we tried to clarify the relationship between Nomocharis and Lilium with the scatter diagram of CVCL against CVCI. The results and conclusions were as follows:1) Karyotypes showed differences among species and populations, especially in the number and location of secondary constrictions as well as the presence or absence of B chromosomes;2) Nomocharis and Lilium are closely related;3) Chromosome structural variation produced abundant types (five in total) of secondary constrictions, which was considered to be the main driving force of evolution in the genus Nomocharis;4) Aneuploid, triploid, B chromosomes and secondary constriction type Ⅲ emerged accompanied by the dispersal of Nomocharis to adjacent areas from its origin and differentiation center, namely, Gaoligongshan. In this paper, the triploid of N.basilissa and karyotypes of L.xanthellum were documented for the first time.

    Effects of the Position on Floral Traits and Reproductive Success of Comastoma pulmonarium (Gentianaceae)
    ZHANG Chan-, HU Li-Juan-, WANG Yun-, DUAN Yuan-Wen- , YANG Yong-Ping-
    2011, 33(5):  495-502.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11001
    Abstract ( 2605 )   HTML ( )   PDF (818KB) ( 2134 )   Save
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    Variations in flower traits and reproductive success among differently positioned flowers within one plant might result from resource competition and/or architecture effect, but this argument needs to be further demonstrated in more species. We studied the flower traits and reproductive success of flowers from different positions in Comastoma pulmonarium (Genetianaceae), an alpine selfing annual herb of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Our results showed that the flower diameter, flower height, number of pollen grains and ovules from the top flower, were all much more than those from flowers positioned lower within the inflorescence. After removing the top flower buds, we found no significant changes in either flower diameter or flower height in the remained flowers compared with the same positioned flowers on control plants, indicating architectural effect on flower traits. Meanwhile, seed number, seed weight and seed germination rate in the top fruits were higher than those in other positioned fruits. Given the removal of the top flower buds, furthermore, seed number of other positioned fruits increased compared with those fruits in the same positions on control plants, suggesting resource competition and resource reallocation happened among the developing fruits when the available resources within a plant was changed. This mechanism could, to some extent, assure reproductive success of the late-developed fruits. Our results showed architectural effect on flower traits and resource competition during the development of fruits in C.pulmonarium, which was quite different from some previous reports. We speculated the short life history (annual) and the alpine environments of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (resource limitation) could be the main factors to explain this phenomenon.

    A Preliminary Study on Geographical Variations in Floral Traits of Halenia elliptica (Gentianaceae) Based on Herbaria
    WANG Lin-Lin-, ZHAO Ming-Fu-, WANG Yun-, DUAN Yuan-Wen-, YANG Yong-Ping-
    2011, 33(5):  503.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11044
    Abstract ( 1768 )   HTML ( )   PDF (620KB) ( 1952 )   Save
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    Studies on the intraspecific variations of flower traits among different populations, which might result from the selective pressures of different pollinator faunas, could enhance our understanding on the evolution of flower diversity. The first study process is to detect how flower traits of a plant species change in its whole distribution area, which could be observed and measured from herbarium’s specimens. By means of observing and measuring most specimens from several herbaria (PE, KUN, QTPMB, WUK) in China, we presented the patterns of geographical variations in floral traits of Halenia elliptica, which has been identified as two varieties (H.elliptica var. elliptica and H.elliptica var. grandiflora) in light of the differences of flower diameter. We used data of the flower height and spur length to analyze the relationship between flower size and altitude, latitude and longitude using stepwise linear regression. We found that the spur length of H.elliptica var. grandiflora was in the range of H.elliptica var. elliptica, and there was no obvious gap to support the previous taxonomic treatment splitting into two varieties. There was a significant positive relationship between flower height and spur length, and 99% of our data were fallen into the 99% individual prediction interval, suggesting that both flower height and spur length might have experienced the same selective pressure. However, 1% of our data were not fallen into the prediction interval, and this might indicate that the flower height and spur length might have been driven by different selective pressures in comparison with most of the population of H.elliptica. After stepwise linear regression analysis, we found the geometric flower size of this species was negatively correlated with latitude and altitude, but positively correlated with longitude. Furthermore, according to the regression coefficients of each factors, the flower size was affected more by latitude (-2.735) than by altitude (-0.516) and longitude (0.669), which indicates that the geographical variations of flower traits of H.elliptica might change along a latitudinal gradient. Our results suggested that the flower traits of H.elliptica might have been driven by different selective pressures, but the direct evidence from field observations and experiments are absolutely necessary. Furthermore, this study provides a case study to better use herbarium specimens as prerequisites for field researches of floral diversity.

    Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne—What does e-publication mean for you?
    Sandra Knapp, John McNeill, Nicholas J. Turland
    2011, 33(5):  509-517.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11134
    Abstract ( 1694 )   HTML ( )   PDF (654KB) ( 2496 )   Save
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    Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.
    To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

    Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Physiological Character of Bahia Grass (Paspalum notatum, Poaceae)
    XIAO Jia-Xin-, REN Qun-, Wu Xue-Jun-, CHEN Ying-Ying-, ZHANG Shao-Ling-
    2011, 33(5):  521-528.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11007
    Abstract ( 2098 )   HTML ( )   PDF (878KB) ( 2038 )   Save
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    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae, on growth, osmotic adjustment and antioxidant enzymes of bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) were studied in potted plants under water stress conditions. AM colonization significantly enhanced the plant height, root and shoot fresh weight, Phosphorus (P), potasium (K), manganese (Mn) contents in shoots, P, calcium (Ca), Mn contents in roots, whereas obviously decreased zinc (Zn) content in shoots, iron (Fe), boron (B), copper (Cu) contents in roots. During water stress, the relative water and chlorophyll contents were relatively stable and signifciantly higher in AM than in non-AM plants, AM inoculation notabley decreased the shoot relative conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, markedly increased shoot peroxidase (POD) activity and proline content, while AM infection did not affect the dismutase (SOD) activity of shoots. Our results suggested that AM colonization improved the protective enzyme activity (such as POD) and osmotic adjustment originating from proline P, K, Ca, resulting in the enhancement of drought tolerance.

    Development of EST-SSR Markers from Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) and Their Application in Genetic Diversity Analysis among Germplasms
    YANG Chun-, LIU Ai-Zhong-
    2011, 33(5):  529-534.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11064
    Abstract ( 2534 )   HTML ( )   PDF (685KB) ( 2081 )   Save
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    Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) has created tremendous interest all over the world for the use of its seed oil as a commercial source of biodiesel. Based on 9843 ESTs available from the developing seeds of Jatropha curcas, we identified 1009 SSRs in 4640 unigenes and developed 11 polymorphic EST-SSR markers which exhibited a low level of genetic diversity among germplasms, i.e. allele number varied from 2 to 3, with a average of 2.45; Heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.0887-0.5128, with a average of 0.2736; Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) ranged from 0.0847-0.4031, with a average of 0.2313. Further, we analyzed the genetic relationships among 24 germplasms collected from different areas in southern China, northern Vietnam, and India using the 11 EST-SSR markers. The results showed that there was no a geographic pattern of genotypes across the collection areas of Jatropha curcas. The EST-SSR markers developed in current study is useful for both genetic diversity analysis and identification of genetic relationships among germplasms in Jatropha curcas.

    The Development of Nuclear Microsatellite Markers for an Endangered Plant, Sinomanglietia glauca (Magnoliaceae)
    XIONG Min-, WANG Jing-, ZHANG Zhi-Rong-, ZHANG Zhi-Yong-
    2011, 33(5):  535-539.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11004
    Abstract ( 2320 )   HTML ( )   PDF (619KB) ( 2118 )   Save
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    Sinomanglietia glauca is an endangered species found in Yichun of Jiangxi Province and Yongshun of Hunan Province. To further explore its population genetic characteristics, we developed seven microsatellite markers from S.glauca using a FIASCO (fast isolation by AFLP sequences containing repeats) method. The number of alleles (NA) ranged from two to seven in 16 samples of four wild populations. The ranges of observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities were 0.079-0.989 and 0.187-0.600, respectively. The transferability of the seven microsatellite loci was tested upon nine related species of S.glauca within Magnoliaceae. Among which, two (28.5%, Michelia macclurei) to six (85.7%, Tsoongiodendron odorum) loci were successfully amplified. These polymorphic microsatellite markers could be used to decipher the genetic structure, breeding system and population history of S.glauca as well as other relatives within Magnoliaceae.

    Seed Storage Behavior of Formanodendron doichangensis (Fagaceae), a Rare and Endangered Plant
    CHEN Hong-Ying-, SUN Wei-Bang-, LI Wei-Qi-
    2011, 33(5):  540-546.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11009
    Abstract ( 2239 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4539KB) ( 2483 )   Save
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    The seed storage behavior of Formanodendron doichangensis (Fagaceae) was still unclear due to the effect of empty seeds to the germination experiment caused by high abortion. Therefore there was lack of a best storage method for conserve this rare and endangered plant. In the present paper, the Selecta Gravity Separator and the Xray imagine systems were introduced to successfully enhance the portion of the full and healthy seeds from the high aborted seed lot, and exclude the effect of empty seeds to the germination experiment. Moreover, the desiccation tolerance and low temperature tolerance of F.doichangensis seeds were tested to identify the seed storage behavior and the best storage method for this endangered species was provided. The results showed that Selecta Gravity Separator could efficiently improved the percentage of full seeds in the seed lot from 47% (before clean) to 86% (after clean). F.doichangensis seeds kept high viability at 95% total germination similar to that of control seeds (92%), when experienced the extreme desiccation treatment (moisture content below 5%). After the storage at low temperature (-20℃) and liquid nitrogen (-196℃) for three months with low moisture content (<5%), the seed germination remained at 90% and 91% respectively. In conclusion, the mature F.doichangensis seeds were desiccation tolerant and low temperature tolerant, which exhibited orthodox seed storage behavior according to the international seed storage behavior classification, and could be kept in the seed bank storage facilities for long term conservation.

    Fruiting Pattern of Tricholoma matsutake and Its Relationship with Meteorological Factors in Yunnan, China
    CHEN Guang-Li-, ZHOU De-Qun-, YANG Yong-Ping-, YANG Xue-Fei-
    2011, 33(5):  547-555.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11018
    Abstract ( 2571 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1220KB) ( 2142 )   Save
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    In Chuxiong Prefecture, Baoshan City and Diqing Prefecture of Southwest China′s Yunnan Province, three study sites were selected and designated to observe and monitor the fruiting pattern of Tricholoma matsutake, and at the same time record the associated meteorological factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and soil temperature by installing wireless Vantage Pro 2 weather stations. It was found that the starting dates and peaks of fruiting varied across the study sites. In Yeri Village of Diqing Prefecture, the fruiting started earlier and showed a single condensed peak. In Haitang Village of Baoshan City and Qingcaitang village of Chuxiong Prefecture, however, the fruiting was scattered over a longer period of time and presented 3 fruiting peaks. The growth function (the pileus diameter, stipe diameter and height) of the fruiting bodies followed nonlinear regression models respectively. By analyzing the differences of the meteorological factors in three study sites and the effects of meteorological factors on matsutake fruiting and growth, it was found that high temperatures shortened the survival duration of the fruiting bodies whereas in contrast, the opposite effect was found for humidity. Furthermore, soil temperature may be the most important factor for fruiting initiation.

    Quantitative Classification and Ordination of Meadow Vegetation in Dashanbao Blacknecked Crane Nature Reserve, Yunnan
    HU Chang-Xing, PENG Ming-Chun, WANG Chong-Yun
    2011, 33(5):  556-564.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11031
    Abstract ( 2466 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1026KB) ( 2310 )   Save
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     Based on the BraunBlanquet method of Relev é synthesis, TWINSPAN quantitative classification and DCA ordination of meadow vegetation was studied in Dashanbao Blacknecked Crane Nature Reserve. Finally, samples contained 114 species which belong to 31 families and 72 genus. The most abundant families were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. One hundred and six samples were categorized into 20 groups and divided into 20 associations according to the indicator species. The result of samples and species DCA ordination inflected the consistent relationship between the associations and indicator species. The ecological explanation of ordination axis illustratted that both of the soil moisture and elevation affected the distribution of meadow vegetation in this area.

    Breeding System of Protogynous Mandragora caulescens(Solanaceae)
    WAN Jin-Peng- , ZHU Xing-Fu- , LI Qing-Jun-
    2011, 33(5):  565-570.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11040
    Abstract ( 1763 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1789KB) ( 2282 )   Save
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    We studied the breeding system of Mandragora caulescens that distributed in the northwest of Yunnan province. Our results showed that this species bloomed from lateMay to earlyJune. Flowers were protogynous and lasted (9.9±2.8)d. Three types of visitors were observed. The Queen of Bombus festivces was an effective pollinator, but its visiting frequency was rather low. Although flies and ants visited flowers with high frequency, flies rarely pollinated flowers and ants were totally nectar thieves. Pollination experiments suggested the species was partly selfcompatible, but protogyny made autonomous selfing become impossible. Fruit set and seed production with supplemental outcrossing pollen was significantly enhanced compared with natural flowers, suggesting pollen limitation in this species. Most species of Solanaceae were strictly selfincompatible, but M.caulescens was partly selfcompatible which was similar with three studied Hyoscyameae members. Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae formed a monophyletic group independently as a result of two independent dispersal events from the New World into Eurasia. We considered the two tribes independently lost SI systems, and this transition related to harsh environment of alpine region. It is worth conducting further study to clarify whether the evolutionary transition is common in alpine region.

    On the Suitable Regions for Olive (Olea europaea) Growing in China
    SHI Zong-Ming-, SUN Wei-Bang-
    2011, 33(5):  571-579.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11077
    Abstract ( 1841 )   HTML ( )   PDF (701KB) ( 2663 )   Save
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    Olive tree (Olea europaea) has been introduced into China for more than fifty years. Because of less knowledge about its unique ecological characteristics known by people in China during the early stage, its cropping has been occurred a rugged development. Based on the experience for about forty years of cultivation practice as well as the comparison and analysis about the climate between China and the Mediterranean region for olive growing, it can be concluded that the dry valleys in west China might be suitable areas for developing olive. The most potential regions for developing olive are the bailongjiang Valley in southern Gansu and the Jinshajiang (upper reach of Yangtze River)Valley in the northwestern Yunnan and the southwestern Sichuan.