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25 April 2012, Volume 34 Issue 2
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  • Articles
    Phylogeny and Character Evolution in Allium Subgenus Amerallium (Amaryllidaceae)
    LI Qin-Qin, ZHOU Song-Dong, HE Xing-Jin, WEI Xian-Qin
    2012, 34(2):  109-119.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.10259
    Abstract ( 2483 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2045KB) ( 2275 )   Save
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    Bayesian and parsimony analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were used to infer the phylogeny of Allium subgenus Amerallium. Phylogenetic analyses corroborate that Amerallium is monophyletic and the results indicate that Amerallium composed of three isolated geographical groups: North American Ameralliums, the Mediterranean region Ameralliums, and eastern Asian Ameralliums. Reconstruction of character evolution suggests bulbs as a primitive or ancestral state, and rhizomes and thick fleshy roots as derived states which have evolved and developed several times independently within the groups of Amerallium, and the basic chromosome number x=7 is the primitive state and other basic chromosomes numbers (x=8, 9, 10, 11) are derived from x=7. Within North American Ameralliums, dysploidy is a rather rare evolutionary event and polyploidy seems to be a relatively frequent evolutionary event. Within the Mediterranean region and eastern Asian Ameralliums, both dysploidy and polyploidy are two primary driving forces in their chromosome evolution.

    Karyotypes of 25 Populations of 15 Species in Allium Section Rhiziridium from China
    ZHOU Chun-Jing, ZHOU Song-Dong, HUANG De-Qing, HE Xin-Jin
    2012, 34(2):  120-136.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11182
    Abstract ( 2493 )   HTML ( )   PDF (7203KB) ( 2025 )   Save
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    Karyotypes of 25 populations of 15 species in Allium section Rhiziridium from China were analyzed to discuss the evolutionary mechanisms of Allium section Rhiziridium and cytogeography of some species. Root tips for the study of mitotic chromosomes were obtained from potted plants and pretreated with paradichlorobenzene at room temperature for 9 hours. After 12-24 hours fixation in 1∶3 aceticalcohol, the root tips were macerated in 1mol·L-1 HC1 for 9 minutes at 60℃ and then stained and squashed in carbol fuchsin. Karyotype asymmetry was assessed by As.K%. Results showed that taxa investigated were diploid or tetraploid. Furthermore, the karyotype types were 1A, 2A or 2B according to Stebbins’ karyotype classification. Karyotypes of A.tekesicola, A.tianschanicum, A.beesianum and A.spirale were reported for the first time. Combined with previous karyotype studies, we suggested that: (1) The basic chromosome number of Allium section Rhiziridium from China is x=8. (2) The karyotype types evolutionary trend of Allium section Rhiziridium from China is 1A→2A→2B→2C . (3) Satellite chromosomes of Allium section Rhiziridium from China are varied in numbers and shapes. (4) Polyploidy and chromosome structural rearrangement are two important evolution patterns in Allium section Rhiziridium from China. (5) A.cyaneum andtans have exploited new niches through polyploidy and asexual reproduction.

    Four New Species and One Variety of Elatostema (Urticaceae) from China
    WANG Wen Tsai
    2012, 34(2):  137-144.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11165
    Abstract ( 2965 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1517KB) ( 1995 )   Save
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    One variety, Elatostema bijiangense var. weixiense, belonging to sect. Weddellia ser. Crenata, one species, E.cucullatonaviculare, belonging to sect. Elatostema ser. Cuspidata, two species, E.luoi and E.heterogrammicum, belonging to sect. Elatostema ser. nanchuanensia, and one species, E.fugongense, belonging to sect. Elatostema ser. Albopilosa, are described as new from China.

    New Species of Meconopsis (Papaveraceae) from Laojun Shan and Yao Shan, Northern Yunnan, China
    YOSHIDA Toshio, SUN Hang, BOUFFORD David E
    2012, 34(2):  145-149.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11188
    Abstract ( 1302 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3541KB) ( 2552 )   Save
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    Two new species, Meconopsis muscicola and M.yaoshanensis (Papaveraceae), are described and characterized. Differences separating them from similar species are discussed and photos showing their diagnostic features are provided.

    One New Series with Its Only New Species of Elatostema (Urticaceae) from Southeast Yunnan, China
    WU Zeng-Yuan-, LI De-Zhu-, WANG Hong-, Wang-Wen-Cai-
    2012, 34(2):  151-154.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11161
    Abstract ( 2452 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1424KB) ( 1862 )   Save
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    One new series of sect. Weddelia in the genus Elatostema, named ser. Neriifolia, and with its only new species E.neriifolia from SE Yunnan are described and illustrated here. In addition, the morphological differences between these new taxa and their allies are disscussed and their conservation status is also assessed.

    A New Variety of Spergularia (Caryophyllaceae) from Zhejiang, China
    CUI Da-Lian-, MA Yu-Xin-, HAN Hong-
    2012, 34(2):  155-156.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11127
    Abstract ( 1500 )   HTML ( )   PDF (515KB) ( 2079 )   Save
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    Spergularia marina var. cleistogama, a new variety of Caryophyllaceae from Zhejiang Province, China is described and illustrated. It is similar to S.marina var. marina, but differs by having triangularovate stipules, unequally width of sepals, and 0-4 petals, a few of which may change into stamens. It is also characterized by its cleistogamous flowers, pistils with 0.2-0.3mm long gynophores, 5-7 stamens, capsules wrapped with persistent calyxes, and ovate, flat seeds.

    A Newly Recorded Genus of Ericaceae and Clematis peii sp.nov. (Ranunculaceae) from China*
    XIE Lei-, PENG Peng-**, YANG Wen-Jing-, LI Liang-Qian-
    2012, 34(2):  157-163.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11156
    Abstract ( 2644 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4079KB) ( 1890 )   Save
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    Andromeda is recorded for the first time in northeastern China near the border between China and DPR Korea. This monotypic genus is widely distributed in Northern America, Europe, and Northern Asia but has not been reported in China before. The genus and species, A.polifolia, is described, and the pictures of the plant and its habitats are presented. Also in this paper, a new species, Clematis peii from Xishuangbanna, southern Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. The new species belongs to sect. Clematis and is closely related to C.chingii, but differs in its ternate leaves with nearly entire leaf margin and long anthers (nearly 3mm long) with protruding connectives. Other close allies with ternate leaves were also compared in this study.

    Genetic and Mapping Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Male Sterile Mutant filament no elongation
    ZHAO Juan, CHEN Yan, HUI Sheng-Ming, TU Wei-Yi, CHEN Chen, GAO Ju-Fang
    2012, 34(2):  164-170.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11129
    Abstract ( 1802 )   HTML ( )   PDF (6074KB) ( 2112 )   Save
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    To identify new genes important for anther development, we screened for malesterile mutants among a population of Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col) mutagenized by TDNA insertion (provided by ARBC). A male sterile mutant line with normal vegetative and flora development but no seed yield was isolated from Salk_118481 line. TDNA insertion site identification showed that there were no TDNA sequences in the genome of the mutants. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene named filament no elongation because the filament of the mutant remains very short at the 13-14 stage of anther development. The fne gene was mapped to a region of 97kb between the molecular makers MBD2 and MMG4 on chromosome 5 using mapbased cloning technique. No genes involved filament elongation were reported in this region, so we believe that FNE gene could be a new gene controlling filament elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Interaction between Endophytic Fungi and Seedlings of Two Species of Paphiopedilum during Symbiotic Culture
    SHU Xin-Min-, HU Hong-
    2012, 34(2):  171-178.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11144
    Abstract ( 2070 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2051KB) ( 1946 )   Save
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    Two fungi PM1 and PA1 were isolated from P.micranthum and P.armeniacum, respectively, the former belonged to Epulorhiza while the latter belonged to Tulasnella calospora. In this study, seedlings of P.armeniacum and P.micranthum were inoculated with PM1 on DE medium, the biomass and the content of Ca, Mn of both P.armeniacum and P.micranthum seedlings were higher than those in the control seedlings, which indicated that PM1 could improve the growth of those species. Seedlings of P.armeniacum and P.micranthum were inoculated with PA1 on DE medium, the biomass in both species was no difference with those in the control ones. But PA1 enhanced the dry weight of P.armeniacum according to the rate of dry weight increase. The impact of PM1 on P.micranthum was higher than on P.armeniacum, while PA1 impacted conversely, which demonstrated that fungi had stronger improving effect only on its own host plants instead of any other orchids. P.armeniacum seedlings were inoculated with PM1 and PA1 on Harvais medium. The growth of seedlings was inhibited by fungi. The results indicated that nutrient level of medium played an important role in affecting the symbiotic relationship between P.armeniacum seedings and endophytic fungi. Poornutrient medium was beneficial to the symbiotic relationship and nutrientrich medium was not conducive to the symbiosis.

    Species Diversity and Altitudinal Gradient Patterns of Evergreen Broadleaved Forest in MeihuashanNational Natural Reserve, Fujian Province
    KONG Xiang-Hai-, LI Zhen-Ji-
    2012, 34(2):  179-186.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11136
    Abstract ( 2689 )   HTML ( )   PDF (635KB) ( 2119 )   Save
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    In China, evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs) is one of the most important vegetation types which was widly distributed in subtropical area, and it plays a very important role in the global biological diversity and natural environment conservation also. In order to reveal species diversity and altitudinal gradient patterns of evergreen broadleaved forest in Meihuashan National Natural Reserve, Fujian Province. Five altitude transects were set up at a vertical interval of 200m between 375m and 1300m above sea level in the EBLFs distribution areas, and twentyfour quadrats(14400m2) had been surveyed. Species richness(S), species richness index (dGl), Simpson index (D), ShannonWiener index (H′), Pielou evenness index (J) had been used for analysis of species diversity and altitudinal gradient pattern of EBLFs. The average value of S,  dGl, H′,J and D were 64.42, 10.75, 5.75, 3.50, 0.58 respectively. The difference of community species diversity index(S, dGl, D, H′, and J) was extremely significant between transects, and the altitudinal gradient patterns of species diversity presented the unimodal variable trend, with a peak in the midaltitude(700m-900m). The species richness and ShannonWiener index of different layer were ranked as shrub layer (include young tree and the plants between layers)>arbor layer>herb layer. The species richness of tree and shrub layer, and ShannonWiener index of tree layer were significantly different between at transects, and trends of altitude gradient was similar to community. The ShannonWiener index of shrub layer and herb layer, and the species richness of herb layer did not change significantly along elevation gradient. Therefore, plant species diversity distribution pattern presented a unimodal variable trend along an elevation gradient, and supported “middomain model” in EBLFs of Meihuashan National Nature Reserve.

    Coexistence of Delayed Autonomous Selfpollination and Deceptive Pollination in Arthropodium cirratum (Asparagaceae)
    ZHOU Wei-, LI De-Zhu-, WANG Hong-
    2012, 34(2):  187-191.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11169
    Abstract ( 1476 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1138KB) ( 2247 )   Save
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    Delayed autonomous pollination and deceptive pollination are assumed to be relatively common in flowering plants, but no species have been reported to use both of these cunning reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined whether delayed selfing and mimicry were used concurrently in Arthropodium cirratum. Flowers of A.cirratum were manipulated to assess whether their stamen appendages and corolla closing movements were functional in deceptive pollination and delayed selfing, respectively. Our results indicated that anther or pollen imitation of the yellow stamen appendages contributed to 93 per cent of successful mimetic attraction, and this mimicry was an important driver of crosspollination of the species. In addition, we observed closure of the perianth relocated the stamens over the stigma at the end of anthesis, which significantly increased the average seed number per fruit of intact flowers over flowers emasculated before closure (20.62 versus 11.79). Our findings confirmed the coexistence of delayed autonomous selfpollination and deceptive pollination in A.cirratum. Our results also suggested that delayed selfing could add fitness benefits for this mimetic attraction species.

    Altitudinal Gradients of Lichen Species Richness in Tibet, China
    HUANG Man-Rong-, GUO Wei-
    2012, 34(2):  192-198.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11159
    Abstract ( 1794 )   HTML ( )   PDF (710KB) ( 1915 )   Save
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    Altitudinal gradients of lichen species richness in Tibet, China were investigated based on taxonomic and floral literatures. Two hundred and sixtyseven lichen taxa were classified into six groups based on their growthforms or substrates. The species richness of all groups varied according to altitudinal gradient in a unimodal way. The ma
    ximum species richness of most lichen groups were detected between 3400-3900m, corresponding to the upper part of montane boreal coniferous forest, and the extreme height of the occurrence of theses lichen groups in Tibet is hig
    her than that in Nepal. This was probably due to the complex ecosystems in this vegetation zone. The species richness of crustose lichens reached its peak at 5100-5400m, which may be attributed to the disappearance of trees and ample sunlight. However, comparisons showed that the species diversity in Tibet was much lower than that in Nepal. This suggests poor understandings of lichen diversity in the area, and further investigations are need.

    Diversity and Community Quantitative Characteristics ofFloor Lichen in Yaoluoping National NatureReserve of Anhui, China
    WANG Yu-Liang-, A De-Li-Jiang-·A-Bu-Dou-La-, AI Ni-Wa-Er-·Tu-Mi-Er-
    2012, 34(2):  199-207.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11122
    Abstract ( 1743 )   HTML ( )   PDF (707KB) ( 1735 )   Save
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     Twentynine quadrats belonging to various habitats were sampled in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, lichen species in each quadrat were identified and the lichen coverage of each quadrat was measured, combined with several environmental indices, with the purpose of understanding the lichen distributing pattern and community quantitative characteristics. Factor analysis was used to appraise relationships among ecological factors, cluster analysis and Spearman rank correlation coefficient test were employed for ordination and Fisher’s exact test was applied to evaluate interspecific correlation. Factor analysis showed that the number of species decreased as the altitude increased, and there was significant positive correlation between dominant species quantity and coverage (P=0.034), very significant positive correlation between humidity and habitat type (P=0.001). Based on cluster analysis data, twentynine quadrats were divided into 5 types of association. Fisher’s exact test indicates 10 species pairs were very significant positive association and four species pairs significant positive, but no species pair was negative significant association. Fisher’s exact test demonstrated that the competition between the species was low.

    A New Phenylpropanediol from Sarcandra glabra (Chloranthaceae)
    DUAN Ying-Hui-, LI Chang-, DAI Yi-, TAO Xin-Sheng-
    2012, 34(2):  208-210.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11162
    Abstract ( 1349 )   HTML ( )   PDF (484KB) ( 1931 )   Save
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     A new phenylpropanediol, (2S)-3, 3-di-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1, 2-diol (1), along with a known compound, shizukanolide E (2) were isolated from the water extract of the whole plants of Sarcandra glabra. The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR, MS, and ORD spectral analysis.