This study discussed the changes in quality components of Maoyecha (Camellia ptilophylla) during the processing of GABA tea under vacuum anaerobic treatment. The results showed that: (1) After anaerobic treatment, GABA content in Maoyecha was increased significantly and reached to the standard of GABA tea. The contents of free amino acids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also significantly increased, but polyphenols and water extract were reduced. At the same time, vacuum treatment could accelerate the transformation of catechins. Simple catechins content was reduced, and the contents of ECG and CG were significantly increased. The contents of EGCG, GCG and estercatechins were increased first, then following by decreasing, but the final contents had no obvious difference with the untreated Maoyecha. (2) Besides the normal protein amino acids, Theanine, the special amino acid of tea, was determinate in Maoyecha. The free amino acids with high content were Thea, Glu, Asp, with low content were Met, Cit, αABA, Tau, Gly. Cysthi and EOHNH2 were the special amino acids of GABA Maoyecha. In the vacuum anaerobic conditions, the total content of free amino acids in GABA Maoyecha was increased due to protein degradation. The contents of PSer, Thr, Ser, Asn, Pro, Gly, Cit, αABA, Val, Cysthi, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, GABA, Trp, Lys and His were raised, and the contents of Asp, Glu, αAAA were reduced. While the contents of Ala and Arg had the tendency of increasing first and then dropping down. Moreover, the content of Thea, Cys, Met and other amino acids were stable.