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Plant Diversity ›› 2009, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (03): 193-209.DOI: 10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09086

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

外生菌根菌的分子生态学: 分子标记基因、遗传个体及生态意义

李墨婵, 徐建平   

  1. 加拿大麦克马斯特大学生物系, 安大略L8S 4K1 , 加拿大
  • 收稿日期:2009-04-27 出版日期:2009-06-25 发布日期:2009-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 徐建平

Molecular Ecology of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: Molecular Markers, Genets and Ecological Importance

LI Mo-Chan , XU Jian-Ping   

  1. Department of Biology , McMaster University , Hamilton , Ontario , L8S 4K1 , Canada
  • Received:2009-04-27 Online:2009-06-25 Published:2009-06-25
  • Contact: XU Jian-Ping

摘要: 外生菌根真菌与很多植物形成互利共生关系, 在营养物质交换和碳循环等方面起着关键性的作用,是森林生态系统的重要组成部分。近期生物技术的发展使得人们对外生菌根菌的群体遗传学和分子生态学有了更加深入的认识。本文介绍了一些常用的鉴定外生菌根菌的分子标记, 并对每种分子标记的特点及其适用范围进行了讨论。文中总结了几种常用的鉴定未知外生菌根菌的方法, 指出了一些在研究外生菌根菌过程中需要克服的内在困难, 其中之一就是很多外生菌根菌不可以人工培养, 所以人们缺少对其地下部分分布规律和动态变化的了解。在寄主专一性、物种多样性和丰富度、遗传个体大小、繁殖方式等方面, 近期对外生菌根菌的分子生物学研究已经获得了很多重要的结果。作者讨论了这些研究成果对于今后开展外生菌根菌研究的重要意义以及在森林生态系统保育方面的潜在应用价值。

关键词: 核糖体RNA 基因, ITS, 菌根, 蘑菇, 繁殖方式, 生态相互作用

Abstract: Ectomycorrhizal ( EcM) fungi form mutualistic symbioses with many tree species and are regarded as key organisms involved in nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems . Recent technological advances have contributed significantly to our understanding of the population genetics and molecular ecology of EcM . In this review, we first present the commonly used molecular markers for characterizing individual EcM fungi . The properties of different types of molecular markers and their general utilities are discussed . We then summarize the common approaches for identifying unknown EcM fungi and point out the intrinsic difficulties associated with conducting EcM fungal research. One major deficiency is our lack of understanding of the below-ground distribution and dynamics of EcM fungi due to the non-cultivable nature of many EcM fungi . Recent molecular investigations of the EcM fungi have provided a variety of important data with regard to their host specificities, species diversity and abundance, genet size, and their reproductive strategies. We discuss the relevance of these findings to further functional investigations of EcM fungi and to potential implications in the conservation and management of forest ecosystems.

Key words: 核糖体RNA 基因