Plant Diversity ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (01): 69-79.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2022.05.004

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Genetic diversity and inferred ancestry of Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) germplasms in Thailand and Vietnam

Feng-Luan Liua, Ya-Lan Daia, Thi Nga Hoangb, Vichai Puripunyavanichc, Primlarp Wasuwat Chukiatmand, Mi Qina, Yan-Rong Fue, Yu-Chu Chenf, Dai-Ke Tiana   

  1. a. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Resources, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai, 201602, PR China;
    b. Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hanoi, 100803, Vietnam;
    c. Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand;
    d. Pang U Bon Waterlily Garden, Muang Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand;
    e. Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture, Beijing, 100835, PR China;
    f. Zhejiang Humanity Landscape Co., Ltd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310013, PR China
  • Received:2022-01-11 Revised:2022-05-10 Published:2023-02-23
  • Contact: Yu-Chu Chen,;Dai-Ke Tian,
  • Supported by:
    The study was supported by Shanghai Landscaping Administration Bureau (Grant number G182412) and the grant from Zhejiang Humanity Landscape Co., Ltd., Hangzhou, China.

Abstract: Tropical lotus (Nelumbo) is an important and unique ecological type of lotus germplasm. Understanding the genetic relationship and diversity of the tropical lotus is necessary for its sustainable conservation and utilization. Using 42 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats) and 30 SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers, we assessed the genetic diversity and inferred the ancestry of representative tropical lotus from Thailand and Vietnam. In total, 164 and 41 polymorphic bands were detected in 69 accessions by 36 EST-SSR and seven SRAP makers, respectively. Higher genetic diversity was revealed in Thai lotus than in Vietnamese lotus. A Neighbor-Joining tree of five main clusters was constructed using combined EST-SSR and SRAP markers. Cluster I included 17 accessions of Thai lotus; cluster II contained three Thai accessions and 11 accessions from southern Vietnam; and cluster III was constituted by 13 accessions of seed lotus. Consistent with the results from the Neighbor-Joining tree, the genetic structure analysis showed that the genetic background of most Thai and Vietnamese lotus was pure, as artificial breeding has been rare in both countries. Furthermore, these analyses indicate that Thai and Vietnamese lotus germplasms belong to two different gene pools or populations. Most lotus accessions are genetically related to geographical distribution patterns in Thailand or Vietnam. Our findings showed that the origin or genetic relationships of some unidentified lotus sources can be evaluated by comparing morphological characteristics and the data of molecular markers. In addition, these findings provide reliable information for the targeted conservation of tropical lotus and parent selection in breeding novel cultivars of lotus.

Key words: Aquatic plant, Asian lotus, EST-SSR, Nelumbo, Southeast Asia, Tropical lotus