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25 April 2009, Volume 31 Issue 02
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  • Articles
    A New System of Ligustrum (Oleaceae)
    QIN Xiang-Kun
    2009, 31(02):  97-116.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08131
    Abstract ( 2726 )   HTML ( )   PDF (515KB) ( 2264 )   Save
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    Based on an extensive examination of specimens of 48 taxa in the genus Ligustrum, it was found that four types of seeds could be divided: 1) sphaercular, 2) compressed ellipsoidal, 3) compressed ovoid , and 4) crescent-shape with two channels on the back . There is a close relationship between the form of seeds and the type of fruit . Thus, a new infrageneric
    system of Ligustrum is proposed based on the morphology of seeds and endocarps . In addition , L. xingrenense is regarded as a subspecies of L. nepalense; L. longipedicellatum and L. yunguiense are treated as synonyms of L. lianum; L. longitubum and L. robustum subsp . chinense are synonyms of L. leucanthum and L. expansum respectively . L. robustum only occured in India , Burma and Sri Lanka but not in China . The records of L. robustum in China are based on misidetifications of L. expansum .

    Bayesian Inference of nrDNA ITS Sequences from Machilus (Lauraceae) and Its Systematic Significance
    CHEN Jun-Qiu , , LI Lang , , LI Jie, LI Hsi-Wen
    2009, 31(02):  117-126.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08206
    Abstract ( 4961 )   HTML ( )   PDF (207KB) ( 3053 )   Save
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    The phylogeny of the genus Machilus was analysed by means of Bayesian Inference of nrDNA ITS sequences. Our results indicated that Machilus is a monophyletic clade within the Persea group, and its persistent and spreading to reflexed tepals on fruit are an important character for its generic delimitation against the related genera Phoebe , Alseodaphne and Persea . This study rejects the former infrageneric systematic arrangement of Machilus based on the pubescence type of tepals abaxially and the size of fruit , but suggests that the type of inflorescences may be valuable for the understanding of its infrageneric evolution . However , the species relationships within Machilus are poorly resolved . Samplings of additional taxa from Machilus and more powerful markers are needed in further study .
    Phylogenetic Relationships within the Orychophragmus violaceus Complex (Brassicaceae) Endemic to China
    ZHOU Li-Rong , YU Yan , SONG Rong-Xiu , HE Xin-Jin, JIANG Yan , LI Xu-Feng, YANG Yi
    2009, 31(02):  127-137.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08189
    Abstract ( 3171 )   HTML ( )   PDF (322KB) ( 1741 )   Save
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    A first insight into the phylogenetic analysis of the Orychophragmus violaceus complex was constructed from complete sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS􊄯5. 8S) and chloroplast gene matK . The ITS results strongly supported the division of the O. violaceus complex into two major groups : one is composed of O. hupehensis, O. taibaiensis, the other consists of O. violaceus and O. diffusus . The matK phylogenetic trees showed O. diffusus and O. violaceus were the basal members of the complex . From previous karyotype study and the present results , we
    considerated that the groups of O. hupehensis and O. taibaiensis should not be allocated in O. violaceus . And two possible ancestral cytotypes were also confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis .Moreover, the biogeographic analysis implied a presumed center of recent differentiation in the region from upper to mid Changkiang River to Qin Mountain .
    The Gametophyte Development and Endangerment Mechanism of
    Neocheiropteris palmatopedate (Polypodiaceae, Fern)
    DENG Ya-Ni , , CHENG Xiao, JIAO Yu , CHEN Gui-Ju
    2009, 31(02):  138-144.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08150
    Abstract ( 2724 )   HTML ( )   PDF (868KB) ( 1731 )   Save
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    The spores of Neocheiropteris palmatopedate were cultured in improved Knop′s medium, in-situ humus soil and red soil respectively . Spore germination and gametophyte development were observed under optical microscope and dissecting microscope, and the impact of four culture methods on the gametophyte development and sexual reproduction was compared. On these experiments, its cause of endangerment was analyzed . The results showed that the mature spores are yellowbrown , monolete, and bean-shaped in equatorial view and elliptical in polar view. The pattern of spore germination is of the Vittaria-type and the gametophyte development of the Drynaria-type. The adult prothalli are cordate. Trichomes occurred in prothallus stage. The long period of sexual reproduction and the low rate at which gametophytes develop into sporophytes are the main reason for the endangerment of Neocheiropteris palmatopedata in sporophyte generation. Moreover, the extremely slow development of gametophyte and time interval between the appearance of antheridia and archegonia resulting from the inherent physiochemical property of red soil make it impossible to fertilize and generate sporophyte. Therefore, the disappearance of humus soil under woods and the appearance of red soil caused by primary vegetation destruction aggravate the endangerment situation of Neocheiropteris palmatopedata.
    A Taxonomic Note of Fritillaria wabuensis ( Liliaceae)
    LIU Zhen-Dong , WANG Shu, CHEN Sing-Chi
    2009, 31(02):  145-146.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09056
    Abstract ( 2740 )   HTML ( )   PDF (181KB) ( 1679 )   Save
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    F. wabuensis is reduced here to a variery of F. unibracteata ( F. unibracteata var . wabuensis) based on vegetative and floral morphology .
    cDNA Library Construction and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) Analyses of an Alpine Plant Species Gentiana officinalis (Gentianaceae)
    YIN Hong-Ju , WANG Liu-Yang , GAO Qian , GAO Da-Hai, ZHANG Dong-Yuan, LIU Jian-Quan
    2009, 31(02):  146-152.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08181
    Abstract ( 2528 )   HTML ( )   PDF (252KB) ( 1500 )   Save
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    Gentiana officinalis, an alpine plant , one of the widely used Tibetan traditional medicines . In this study, total RNA was extracted from the whole plant of flowering individuals of this species , and a cDNA expression library was constructed using CreatorTM SMARTTM cDNA Library Construction Kit . The results showed that the titer of the cDNA expression library was 1. 2×107 pfu􊄯ml and the efficiency of recombination was 95 . 9% . The average length of insert fragments in the library was longer than 500 bp . A total of 181 valid ESTs were obtained from random sequencing of 343 clones. Further
    bioinformatic analyses suggested they represented 144 unique clonal sequences in which 55 sequences showed high homology to previously identified genes in Gentianaceae or other plants, 35 sequences matched to other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs) , and 54 sequences showed no well matches to available sequences in DNA databases . No protein matched to the latter two sorts of ESTs ( 89) . Fifty-five ESTs with matched proteins were involved in a series of diverse functions: protein expression (35% ) , photosynthesis (22% ), metabolism ( 18%), defense (11%), membrane transport (5%), cell division (5% ) , chromosome metabolism ( 2% ) and signaling components (2%). At last , RT-PCR primers
    were designed according to the effective ESTs to amplified the cDNAs of G. officinalis, which further verified the accuracy of the ESTs . This cDNA library provided a critical basis for further analyses of functional genes and gene expression in this alpine species. In addition, these ESTs could be used to design functional nuclear primers for studying population genetics of this species and closely related species .
    Reproductive Performance in Two Populations of Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae) under Different Habitats
    FAN Deng-Mei , , YANG Yong-Ping
    2009, 31(02):  153-157.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08177
    Abstract ( 3157 )   HTML ( )   PDF (101KB) ( 1805 )   Save
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    In this study , we present an investigation of the reproductive performance of two populations of Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae) in the Hengduan Mountains of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Two populations were deliberately selected at the same elevation but with different habitats , alpine scree and alpine meadow, respectively . Our results show that the plant height and the bulbil number from the population in alpine scree are significantly lower than those in alpine meadow, but total number of bulbils and flowers, flower number and flower proportion of each inflorescence are obviously higher
    than those in alpine meadow, indicating that more resources are probably allocated to reproduction organs and flowers under harsh environments like alpine scree, and P. viviparum sets priorities of reproduction over vegetative growth , and sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction . Furthermore , we also find a significantly negative relationship between flower number and bulbil number , suggesting the trade-off between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in this species .
    The Process of the Research on Plant Rapid Alkalization Factor in Solanaceae
    LI Yan-Yan , , NIE Chuan-Peng
    2009, 31(02):  158-16.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08171
    Abstract ( 2296 )   HTML ( )   PDF (185KB) ( 2019 )   Save
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    The change of the intra- and extra-cellular pH played important roles in plant growth and development and response to environmental stresses . Rapid alkalinization factors ( RALF) were polypeptide signals in the plant , belonging to a large gene family . The activity of RALF could induce extra-cellular pH increasing rapidly .Many studies on RALFs were in Solanum, including the structure and maturation , the gene expression , receptors and functions and so on. Combining our recent findings on the rdationship between RALF and fertility in plants, the present paper introduced the process of the research
    on the RALF in Solanum and provided references for the further studies in this orea .
    Effect of Low NaCl Level on Photosynthesis of Zea mays Seedlings
    WANG Bao-Zeng
    2009, 31(02):  163-165.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08174
    Abstract ( 2357 )   HTML ( )   PDF (76KB) ( 1914 )   Save
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    Seedlings of Zea mays cultured with Hoagland nutrient solutions were treated with different low levels of NaCl ( 0 , 5 , 10 , 20 , 30 mmol􊄯L) . After 30 days treatment , several physiological paramaters were determined , including the content of chlorophyll , the Chla/Chlb ratio, the activity of PEPCase and the photosynthetic rate (Pn) . The results showed that the content of chlorophyll , the Chla/Chlb ratio, the photosynthetic rate and the activity of PEPCase increased under low NaCl level (5 , 10 mmol/L) . It could be concluded that the rise in photosynthesis of Zea mays seedlings under low NaCl level might be related to those changes in the physiological parameters above .
    Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donor Sodium Nitroprusside on Stomatal Movement in Leaves of Mangrove Plant Aegiceras corniculatum
    XIAO Qiang , , LIN Xiao-Mei , WU Fei-Hua , CHEN Juan , ZHENG Hai-Lei
    2009, 31(02):  166-172.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08196
    Abstract ( 2304 )   HTML ( )   PDF (161KB) ( 1802 )   Save
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    The aim of the present paper was to find out a simple and easy- to-go method to observe the stomatal movement of a mangrove plant Aegiceras corniculatum . The new method was used to study the following areas, inculing the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the leaf stomatal movement under different concentrations and different treated time , the
    effect of Ca2+ in the regulation of stomatal movement induced by exogenous NO, the interactional effect between NO and H2O2 in the regulationb of stomatal movement. The results suggested that the oxhide pastern print was the best way to observe stomatal movement of A. corniculatum compared with the blender method and the nail enamel print method. The stomatal
    closure induced by NO was associated with Ca2+ in dose dependent manner. It was also proved that a rapid stomatal closure could be co- induced by NO and H2O2 in A. corniculatum guard cells .
    Seeds Germination of Cynanchum otophyllum (Asclepiadaceae) Endemic to China
    WANG Ding-Kang , , SUN Gui-Fang , ZHAI Shu-Hua , CEN Xiao-Jiang
    2009, 31(02):  173-177.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.07330
    Abstract ( 3241 )   HTML ( )   PDF (116KB) ( 1556 )   Save
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    Intact seeds of Cynanchum otophyllum were innately dormant at maturity in November. Seeds planted in a nonheated greenhouse in November germinated the following spring and most of the germination occurred between 28 March -4 April , when the mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures were 19.0 and 9.9℃, respectively. Stratification was effective in overcoming dormancy , and nondormant seeds germinated in both light and darkness . About one week of stratification was effective in overcoming dormancy in some of the seeds; seeds stratified in light for 1 week and then incubated in darkness at 25/15℃ germinated to 75. 4%. Seeds stratified in light or darkness for 2 and 3 weeks and then incubated in light or darkness germinated to 66.4% or more at thermoperiods of 30/20 and 25/15℃ but germinated to 20.1% or less at 20/10℃ . Seeds stratified for 6 weeks also germinated to high percentages (65.3% or more ) at 20/10℃.
    The Influences of Shooting Duration and Climatic Factors on Plant Height Growth
    SONG Fu-Qiang , , , ZHANG Yi-Ping, HU Jian-Xiang , XU Zai-Fu , XIAO Lai-Yun
    2009, 31(02):  178-182.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08233
    Abstract ( 2249 )   HTML ( )   PDF (107KB) ( 1618 )   Save
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    The increased plant productivity during the past decades is hypothesized that warmer temperature promoted plant growth through extending the length of growing season . However, there are no experimental results supporting it. In the present study we examined the relationship among plant height growth , shooting duration and climatic variables for 11 tropical
    tree species. Our data showed that the longer shooting duration of tropical plants did not always promote plant height growth, and the climatic variables had stronger correlation with plant height growth than with shooting duration. In addition, the pathway analysis has been used to examine the contribution of shooting duration to the effect of climatic factors on plant height growth . The percentage of contribution of shooting duration was always less than 30% .We concluded that the increased growth period has limited influence on plant productivity for tropical trees .

    A New ent-Kauranoid Diterpenoid from Hicriopteris glauca (Gleicheniaceae)

    ZHANG Peng-Tao , , HE Juan , XU Gang , TU Lin , GUO Na ,
    ZHAO Yu , PENG Li-Yan , ZHAO Qin-Shi
    2009, 31(02):  183-186.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09020
    Abstract ( 2708 )   HTML ( )   PDF (98KB) ( 1489 )   Save
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    A new ent-kauranoid diterpenoid , ent-2-β-hydroxyl-16-ene-kauran-19-oic acid (1) , was isolated form the acetone extract of Hicriopteris glauca together with 9 known compounds . Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive
    NMR and MS analysis .
    A New Grifolin Derivative from the Mushroom Albatrellus yasuda (Polyporaceae)
    ZHANG Ling , , DONG Ze-Jun , LIU Ji-Kai
    2009, 31(02):  187-189. 
    Abstract ( 2119 )   HTML ( )   PDF (62KB) ( 1750 )   Save
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    A new grifolin derivative, named grifolene (1) , together with grifolin (2) , neogrifolin (3) and grifolic acid (4) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Albatrellus yasuda . The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensivespectroscopic analysis .
    New Cytotoxic Thymol Derivatives from Inula helianthus-aquatica (Compositae)
    HUANG Huo-Qiang , , TAN Ning-Hua, ZENG Guang-Zhi , JI Chang-Jiu , , HAN Hong-Jin , XU Jun-Ju , , ZHANG Yu-Mei
    2009, 31(02):  190-192.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08199
    Abstract ( 2332 )   HTML ( )   PDF (76KB) ( 1579 )   Save
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    A new thymol derivative, 8-hydroxy-9 , 10-dioxyisopropylidene- thymol (1 ) , together with three known thymol derivatives 10-hydroxy-8, 9-dioxyisopropylidene-thymol (2 ) , 8-hydroxy-9 , 10-diisobutyryloxy- thymol ( 3 ) and 8 , 10-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryloxy- thymol (4) , was isolated from 95% EtOH extract of the flowers of Inula helianthus-aquatica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis . These compounds showed cytotoxicities on six cancer cell lines (K562 , HT-29 , SGC-7901, DU145, MDA-MB-231 , U251) , and compound 2 is the strongest one with IC50s of 4 .20 - 33. 12μmol􊄯L . This is the first time that the cytotoxic thymol derivatives were isolated from this titled plant .