The development of new taxonomical theories and approaches, particularly molecular phylogenetics, has led to the expansion of traditional morphology-based taxonomy into the concept of "integrative taxonomy." Taxonomic knowledge has assumed greater significance in recent years, particularly because of growing concerns over the looming biodiversity crisis. Since its establishment in 1938, the Kunming Institute of Botany (KIB), which is located in Yunnan province in Southwest China, has focused attention on the taxonomy and conservation of the flora of China. For the forthcoming 80th anniversary of KIB, we review the achievements of researchers at KIB and their associates with respect to the taxonomy of land plants, fungi, and lichen. Major taxonomic advances are summarized for families of Calymperaceae, Cryphaeaceae, Lembophyllaceae, Neckeraceae, Polytrichaceae and Pottiaceae of mosses, Pteridaceae and Polypodiaceae of ferns, Taxaceae and Cycadaceae of gymnosperms, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gesneriaceae, Lamiaceae, Orchidaceae, Orobanchaceae, Poaceae, Theaceae and Urticaceae of angiosperms, Agaricaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Physalacriaceae Russulaceae, Suillaceae and Tuberaceae of fungi, and Ophioparmaceae and Parmeliaceae of lichens. Regarding the future development of taxonomy at KIB, we recommend that taxonomists continue to explore the biodiversity of China, integrate new theories and technologies with traditional taxonomic approaches, and engage in creative monographic work, with support from institutions, funding agencies, and the public.