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25 September 2014, Volume 36 Issue 05
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  • Articles
    Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Phlomoides (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae) from China
    XIANG Chun-Lei, DONG Hong-Jin, HU Guo-Xiong, ZHOU Jing, PENG Hua
    2014, 36(05):  551-560.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413228
    Abstract ( 927 )   HTML ( )   PDF (910KB) ( 1681 )   Save
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    Recent phylogenetic studies have investigated the tribe Phlomideae and, in particular, the degree of “inclusiveness” of the genus Phlomoides. As a result, Eremostachys, Lamiophlomis, Notochaete and all Chinese Phlomis, excepted for cultivated Pfruticosa, were transferred to the latest redefined Phlomoides. The newly circumscribed Phlomoides is easily distinguished from Phlomis by its herbaceous habit and several other traits. Although the necessary new combinations for the Chinese species have been made elsewhere, unfortunately, eleven names were omitted by previous researchers. Therefore, this paper proposes 11 new nomenclatural combinations in Phlomoides, and provides a checklist and a key to all Chinese Phlomoides.

    Cytology of Thirteen Taxa in the Genus Isodon (Lamiaceae: Nepetoideae) from China
    XIANG Chun-Lei, CHEN Ya-Ping, Tsuneo FUNAMOTO, PENG Hua
    2014, 36(05):  561-568.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413237
    Abstract ( 985 )   HTML ( )   PDF (14465KB) ( 2197 )   Save
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    This paper reports the chromosome numbers of 11 species and two varieties of Isodon from 16 populations in China. For all taxa except Ilophanthoides var. graciliflorus, chromosome numbers are reported here for the first time. All taxa are counted as diploid (2n=24): Ialbopilosus, Icoetsa, Iflabelliformis, Iforrestii, Igesneroides, Ilophanthoides var. graciliflorus, Ioreophilus var. elongatus, Iparvifolius, Ipleiophyllus, Ipolystachys, Iracemosus, Iscoparius, and Iweisiensis. Thus, x=12 is inferred as the basic chromosome number of Isodon. In addition, the chromosome number 2n=48, which is newly recorded for the genus, is also reported in one population of Icoetsa, indicating the species to be diploid and tetraploid.

    Pollen Morphology of the Chinese Endemic Clematoclethra (Actinidiaceae) and Its Taxonomic Implications
    YANG Chen-Xuan, CHEN Li, WANG Juan, YANG Yu-Ming, LI Lu
    2014, 36(05):  569-577.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414015
    Abstract ( 1084 )   HTML ( )   PDF (7143KB) ( 1851 )   Save
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    The genus Clematoclethra (Franch.) Maxim. (Actinidiaceae) is endemic in the temperate and subtropical regions in central and western China. Species delimitation in the genus has been highly controversial. It has been treated as including 20 species and four varieties or only one species (Cscandens) with four subspecies. In this paper, pollen grains of 15 individuals from 14 populations representing the genus Clematoclethra were examined under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The pollen is smallsized, usually spheroidal in shape, sometimes subprolate and prolate, with the aperture 3colporoidate, and falls into three types in respect of exine sculpture, namely, rugulate, granulate, and finely verrucate. The types of pollen are somewhat correlated with the types of indumentum of plants, indicating that pollen morphology is helpful for the classification of Clematoclethra.

    A Newly Recorded Lichen Genus Xylographa (Fr.) Fr. from China
    Abdulla ABBAS, Reyim MAMUT, Adilijiang ABUDOULA, Gulbahar ABABAKRI
    2014, 36(05):  578-580.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413236
    Abstract ( 1010 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1339KB) ( 1368 )   Save
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    Floristic study on lichens from Khanas natural reserve and Bayinbulak grassland was carried out. Lichen genus Xylographa (Fr.) Fr. was found as new recorded genus to China, one species, Xylographa parallela (Ach.) Fr. was found in this genus. The description of the genus and species including its anatomy, chemistry, and ecology with photographs is presented in this paper.

    A New Species of Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from Yunnan Province, China
    ZENG Yi, XIA Nian-He, LIN Ru-Shun
    2014, 36(05):  581-583.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414003
    Abstract ( 869 )   HTML ( )   PDF (24249KB) ( 1896 )   Save
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    A new species of Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro, Gigantochloa callosa NH. Xia, Y. Zeng & RS. Lin was described and illustrated. It is differed from Gparvifolia (Brandis ex Gamble) TQ. Nguyen by its smaller size; culm sheath proper covered with both dark brown and silvery appressed hairs abaxially; ligules 2-3mm tall, entire; leafligules 2-3mm tall, entire; one side of the apex of leaf sheath developed into a 2-3mm long, thin, scalelike callus.

    Rediscovery of Camellia tonkinensis (Theaceae) after More Than 100 Years
    YANG Shi-Xiong, Nguyen Hieu, ZHAO Dong-Wei, SHUI Yu-Min
    2014, 36(05):  585-589.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413224
    Abstract ( 1045 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4611KB) ( 1420 )   Save
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    Camellia tonkinensis is recollected after more than 100 years with extending distribution in northern Vietnam. CJ. Pitard described this species in 1910 based on the collections of B. Balansa in 1887 from Mt. Bavi. Added description of flower and location of new collection are provided.

    Typification of Sixteen Plant Names Described by Franchet in 1891
    YU Wen-Bin, WANG Hong, LI De-Zhu
    2014, 36(05):  590-594.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414007
    Abstract ( 889 )   HTML ( )   PDF (817KB) ( 1153 )   Save
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    In this study, original materials of 16 names, Cyananthus petiolatus, Gentiana crassuloides, Gentiana rosularis, Primula vialii, Salvia brevilabra, Salvia tatsienensis, Salvia tricuspis, Saussurea caudata, Saussurea scabrida, Saussurea souliei, Saussurea tatsienensis,Saxifraga longistyla, Senecio plantaginifolius, Senecio setchuenensis, Senecio souliei, Tanacetum myrianthum, described by Franchet in 1891 were examined. After tracing potential original material, the lectotype of 16 names was designated or further designated in this study.

    Changes of Membrane Stability in PotassiumStressed Plants
    WANG Dan-Dan, ZHENG Guo-Wei, LI Wei-Qi
    2014, 36(05):  595-602.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413106
    Abstract ( 991 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1110KB) ( 1048 )   Save
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    The maintenance of membrane function is critical to the ability of plants to resist environmental stresses; specifically, the stability and appropriate fluidity of membranes are crucial to their normal function. We previously demonstrated that plants adapt to longterm potassium (K+) deficiency by accumulation of membrane lipids in leaves and maintenance of the lipid composition in roots. In this study, which involved Arabidopsis thaliana and its K+deficiencytolerant relative Crucihimalaya himalaica, we first calculated the doublebond index (DBI) as an indicator of membrane fluidity. After exposure to longterm K+deficiency stress, the DBI of the total lipids in leaves of Athaliana and Chimalaica showed no significant changes, whereas the DBI of the total lipids in the roots of these species showed slight increases. Changes in lysophospholipids (lysoPLs) levels, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol/monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG/MGDG) and phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine (PC/PE) ratios, all of which strongly reflect membrane stability, were also studied in K+stressed Athaliana and Chimalaica. After longterm K+ deficiency, total lysoPLs levels increased in Athaliana and Chimalaica leaves, but showed no significant changes in roots. DGDG/MGDG and PC/PE ratios were higher in Chimalaica leaves and roots than in those of Athaliana. These results indicate that Chimalaica exhibits superior membrane stability compared with Athaliana. This may explain its superior growth and tolerance under K+deficient conditions.

    Photosynthetic Characteristics of Three Epiphytic Lichens under Different Water Conditions
    CHEN Ke, LIU Wen-Yao, LI Su, SONG Liang
    2014, 36(05):  603-610.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413231
    Abstract ( 1000 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1108KB) ( 1331 )   Save
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    Epiphytic lichen is one of the important structural components of montane moist evergreen broadleaved forest ecosystem in Ailao Mts. The photosynthesis light response curves of three dominant epiphytic lichens Sticta nylanderiana, Lobaria retigera and Cetrelia olivetorum, were determined in the region under different water conditions. The results showed that the three epiphytic lichens had high light compensation points (LCP) and light saturation points (LSP). The epiphytic lichens were able to adapt to strong light conditions. The maximum net photosynthetic rates (Pmax) of three epiphytic lichens were low, with the range of 17~50nmol·g-1·s-1, under water stress (water content of 5%~10%). With the increasing water content, the Pmax, respiration rate (Rday), the LSP of three lichens increased while the LCP decreased. These epiphytic lichens have the characteristics of “sun plants”, and they are able to adapt to the strongilluminated shrubs and branches. The initial chlorophyll fluorescence (F0) and maximum photochemical efficiency parameter (Fv/Fm) were deceased with water content decreasing, indicating the photosynthetic reaction center of lichens had a strong sensitivity to water condition. The photosynthetic reaction center would recover into an active physiological state with the improvement of the water condition.

    Influence of Elevated CO2 Concentration and Nitrogen Source on Photosynthetic Traits in the Invasive Species Eupatorium adenophorum (Asteraceae)
    OUYANG-Fen, ZHENG Guo-Wei, LI Wei-Qi
    2014, 36(05):  611-621.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413243
    Abstract ( 1139 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1366KB) ( 1079 )   Save
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    Increases in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and plant invasion are two important problems that face humans worldwide. In some plants, exposure to a shortterm elevated concentration of CO2 (SE[CO2]) promotes photosynthesis, but the promotion of elevated [CO2] (E [CO2]) to photosynthesis might disappear after longterm treatment (socalled “CO2 acclimation”); this might result from the associated inhibition of nitrate assimilation. The present study investigated the physiological effects of shortterm (8 days) and longterm (40 days) exposure to E[CO2] when these were combined with different forms of inorganic N (full N; nitrate (NO3-)N) in the invasive species Eupatorium adenophorum. Exposure to E[CO2] increased the biomass of Eadenophorum, regardless of the duration of exposure to E[CO2] and the type of inorganic N that was supplied. E[CO2] could promote the photosynthesis of Eadenophorum seedlings fertilised with nondepleted Hoagland solutions (full N). For plants fertilised with NH4+depleted Hoagland solution (NO3-N), LE[CO2] treatment promoted the photosynthesis of Eadenop horum, but the promotion of photosynthesis by E[CO2] disappeared under SE[CO2] conditions. Photosynthetic pigments contents were determined to estimate potential changes in the photosynthetic capacity of Eadenophorum. For plants fertilised with nondepleted Hoagland solution, there were no significant differences in chlorophyll among the three [CO2] treatments, but the treatment of SE[CO2] increased the levels of chlorophyll in leaves. The apparent promotion of biomass accumulation and photosynthesis at LE[CO2] without a decrease in chlorophyll indicates that Eadenophorum might not acclimate to longterm exposure to E[CO2]. NH4+ depletion did not affect the capacity of LE[CO2] to promote the photosynthesis of Eadenophorum. Thus, considering some plants fertilised with NO3- acclimating to LE[CO2], Eadenophorum might be more competitive in areas where the soils are relatively poor in NH4+ as levels of atmospheric CO2 continue to rise.

    Cloning of ACC Oxidase Gene from Yali Pear and Tranformation of Its Antisense Expression Vector with Agrobacteriummediated Method
    QI Jing, DONG Zhen, ZHANG Yu-Xing
    2014, 36(05):  622-628.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413225
    Abstract ( 952 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5049KB) ( 1382 )   Save
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    In this study, a partial ACC oxidase (ACO) genelike cDNA sequence was obtained through homologybased cloning from Yali (Pyrus bretschneideri cv. ‘Yali’) plant. Primers were designed according to the highly conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and RTPCR cloning was conducted by using Yali fruit cDNA. The obtained ACOlike cDNA fragment contains 831 base pairs which encodes 276 predicted amino acid residues, and shares no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with all published ACO genes. We further inversely inser ted the ACOlike cDNA fragment into pBI121 expression vector, and transformed it into tissue cultured Yali plants by using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Finally, 4 independent transgenic lines harboring the antisense ACOlike fragment were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. Southern blotting assay revealed 3 transgenic lines containing single copy of the foreign gene, and 1 line with 2 insertion copies.

    Parasitism in Acorns of Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides and Castanopsis delavayi (Fagaceae) and Its Impact on Population Regeneration
    WANG Chong-Yun, ZHU Feng, ZHANG Zhi-Ying, HE Zhao-Rong, LI Xiao-Shuang
    2014, 36(05):  629-638.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413242
    Abstract ( 936 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4973KB) ( 1527 )   Save
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    Insect predation on oak trees played an important role in population regeneration and seed dispersal. Insect infestation on the acorns of Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides and Castanopsis delavayi were compared between the plots at different slope position in two years at Xishan Mountain, Kunming, China. We established three plots for each tree species to observe seed rain and to collect seeds from early September to late November, covering whole seed falling season. The results showed: 1) Parasitic insects in Cyglaucoides acorns were Curculio megadens Pelsue and Zhang and Curculio sp. Within Cadelavayi acorns, they were Curculio sp. and Cyllorhynchites sp. 2) Infestation rates of Cyglaucoides were not significantly changed among plots (2484%~2760%) and in two years (2547% in 2005, and 2711% in 2006). In contrast, there were significant spatial and temporal variation for Cadelavayi, 1794%~2655% among plots, and 2669% in 2005, and 1690% in 2006. 3) Weevilinfested acorns were heterogeneous in falling time. Infestation rate reduced gradually among the falling acorns, and there were two peaks of weevilinfested acorns, middle to late September and middle to late October. Retention time of larvae inside the fallen acorns of Cyglaucoides was longer than in Cadelavayi’s. 4) Seedling recruitment may be related to insect predation. However, the weevil infestation rate was not significant related to the seedlings density among plots. There were more seedlings around big trees and at sites with higher herb coverage.

    Investigation and Analysis of Impact from High Frost on Vascular Plants in the Kunming Botanical Garden
    LI Xiong, YIN Xin, XI Hou-Cheng, ZHOU Xin-Mao, YANG Yong-Ping
    2014, 36(05):  639-652.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414005
    Abstract ( 2349 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2957KB) ( 1618 )   Save
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    High frost, a common natural disaster, means heavy damage to plants with temperature dropped below 0℃. In midDecember 2013, Kunming suffered from severe frosts, resulting in largeareadamage of the plants, which brought huge losses. To provide a reference for scientifically and reasonably preventing and reducing frost freezing to garden plants, it is necessary to understand resistance of various plant catagories to extreme cold hazards. In this paper, a sample survey on 225 plant species from 90 families was performed for victimized plants in Kunming Botanical Garden. With the statistical analysis of the relationship between damage degree and plant systematics, morphology, distribution or other factors, we drew several conclusions. For example, ferns had a relatively poor frost resistance while gymnosperms mostly were strong, and angiosperms showed larger differences in frost resistance; annual herbaceous and evergreen woody had a stronger resistance than perennial herbaceous and deciduous woody respectively; native species exhibited greater resistance than introduced species. According to the results, some suggestions were given for protecting existing garden plants and constructing new landscapings. That is based on the strength of frost resistance of different plants, on one hand to give the garden plants a positive and effective protection and prevention measures against frost damage, on the other hand to select species suitable for planting combined environmental conditions with characters of plants.

    Sexspecific Responses of Flowering Phenology and Floral Morphology of Humulus scandens to Drought
    YANG Shuai, WANG Bi-Xia, XU Xiao, HUAN Hui-Hui, QIN Fang, CHEN Meng-Hua
    2014, 36(05):  653-660.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414021
    Abstract ( 871 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1361KB) ( 1277 )   Save
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    In this paper, sexspecific differences in flowering phenology and floral morphology of Humulus scandens were tested using a pot experiment under watercontrolled condition. Obvious differences between the male and female individuals were observed in response to different water regime. Drought stress induced Hscandens population to flower earlier and last longer. Compared with males, flowers of female opened earlier. Moreover, inflorescence axis length, inflorescence axis diameter and anther length in droughtstressed males were significantly reduced 2481%, 2907%, and 514% (P<0001, P=0003, P=0024), respectively. Concomitantly, pollen quantity and the pollen vitality were also decreased significantly. In contrast, the inflorescence axis length, style length and average number of flowers per inflorescence in droughtstressed females were increased 978%, 7062%, and 5704% (P=0039, P<0001, P<0001), respectively. Furthermore, the seed length, and seed width, singleseed weight, and 1000seed weight under drought stress were significantly reduced 1212%, 1259%, 4343%, and 1538%, respectively (P<0001). On the other hand, compared with contrast, the aboveground biomass decreased significantly in both male and female Hscandens individuals under drought stress (P=0002, P=0020). However, the reproductive investment of females was significantly higher than males under drought stress (P=0049). In a word, effects of drought stress on flowering phenology and floral organs are significantly different between two sexes. To alleviate the negative influences on reproductive ability caused by drought, females of Hscandens individuals may allocate more biomass to reproductive organs than males under drought stress.

    Changes in Reproductive Allocation after Expansion from the Glacial Refugium and Implications for the Distribution Range in the QinghaiTibet Plateau Native Herb, Gymnaconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae)
    LAN Duo, ZHANG Chan, ZHAO Ming-Fu, YANG Yong-Ping-, DUAN Yuan-Wen
    2014, 36(05):  661-667.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414008
    Abstract ( 884 )   HTML ( )   PDF (886KB) ( 1449 )   Save
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    A fundamental goal of ecology and evolution is to explain patterns of species distribution and abundance. However, the way in which stable distribution ranges are shaped by natural selection is still poorly understood, especially whether patterns of resource allocation have contributed to the range size and the formation of range boundary received little attention. For annual herb, the maximum reproductive allocation is predicted to be 50%, and thus we predicted that reproductive allocation might contribute to the formation of range boundary since plant will enhance allocations to reproduction in stressful environments. In this study, we presented our data on resource allocation between population from the glacial refegium and those from the marginal populations in Gymnaconitum gymnandrum, an alpine biennial native to the QinghaiTibet Plateau, aiming to find the contribution of resource allocation to the formation of range boundary. Our results showed that resource allocations to vegetative organs, including roots, plant height and stemleaf biomass, were significantly higher in the refugium population that in the two marginal populations, and allocations to reproductive organs, including flower number and flower biomass, were significantly lower in one marginal population (Haibei population) than in the other marginal population (Xinghai population) and the refugium population (Tongren population). However, reproductive allocation was significantly higher in the marginal populations than in the refugium population. In addition, in each of the three populations, we found a positive relationship between the plant size and flower biomass but a negative relationship between the plant size and reproductive allocation. Our results indicated a sizedependent reproductive allocation in Ggymnandrum, but we did not find a size threshold for reproduction in each of the three populations of this plant, which might be attributed to the life history of this biennial herb. We also suggested that reproductive allocation was increased during the process of range expansion and may rise to the optimal reproductive allocation in the marginal populations, which suggested the important role of sexual reproduction for plants in more stressful environments and the formation of range boundary. However, these conclusions need to be further proved in other plant species.

    Niches and Interspecific Association of Dominant Tree Populations of Taxus chinensis in Wuling Damu Mountain Nature Reserve
    TANG Bo-Yan, CAO Guo-Xing, JIANG Wan-Ping
    2014, 36(05):  668-674.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201413239
    Abstract ( 924 )   HTML ( )   PDF (949KB) ( 1481 )   Save
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    Using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the interspecific association of 13 species in different communities in Wuling Damu Mountain Nature Reserve were investigated, and the niche breadth and niche overlap of 13 species were studied. The results showed that the utilization ability of resources of Taxus chinensis community was relatively stronger, and the value of niche breadth was relatively larger. Comparing with other species, Taxus chinensis had a difference on ecological characteristics, and the value of niche overlap was relatively smaller. Besides, the independence between each population was relatively weaker, and the Taxus chinensis community had a positive correlation with other species. The species, which had a larger value of niche breadth, had a larger value of niche overlap. Moreover, the species, which had a larger value of niche overlap, showed a great significantly difference in interspecific ssociation.

    Plant Traditional Culture of Populus euphratica and Populus pruinosa of Uyghurs Folk ——A Case Study in Xinjiang Lopnur
    Mametjan tursun, Aysajan abdusalam, Tursungul tohti, Nejiwulla kasim, Merhaba tayir
    2014, 36(05):  675-682.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201414004
    Abstract ( 965 )   HTML ( )   PDF (889KB) ( 1357 )   Save
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    The study on traditional knowledge and experience of using plants by Uyghurs folk people has a potential application in socioeconomic development and resource protection. Populus euphratica Oliv and Ppruinosa Schrenk are major plants in Taklimakan desert ecosystem of Xinjiang. This study aims to ascertain the Lopnur Uyghurs traditional knowledge on two Populus species and their cultural system related to these species. We investigated the key informants for interviews on using Populus plants. The Populus plants were used for various purposes. The white alkali crystals are using for the treatment of bloating, sore throat, stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers and indigestion and also in soda, while black crystal is used for the treatment of back pain, leg pain, swelling and relieve pain. Alkali crystals are even used as shampoo after a simple processing and also as a laundry detergent. Populus plants water is applied as a treatment of neurasthenia. It is also used for antiaging, reducing blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart morbidity. Plants foliages are used as veterinary medicine such as bloating and rot of muscular and stomach of livestock. In addition, Lopnur people used the plants to build the Desert Ecological Park and controlling desertification. This article ascertained the two Populus speceis and Lopnur Uyghurs cultural system. Present study will improve the conservation of Lopnur Uyghurs folk indigenous/ traditional knowledge on Populus plants and to promote the sustainable development in the socioeconomic diversity.