Plant Diversity ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (04): 308-316.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2021.04.001

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Pollination adaptations of group-by-group stamen movement in a meadow plant with temporal floral closure

Aysajan Abdusalama,b, Reyilamu Maimaitituerxuna, Halibinuer Hashana, Gulzar Abdukirima,b   

  1. a College of Life and Geographic Sciences, Kashi University, Kashi, Xinjiang, 844000, China;
    b Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Ecology of Pamirs Plateau in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Kashi University, Kashi, Xinjiang, 844000, China
  • Received:2020-07-27 Revised:2021-03-29 Online:2021-08-25 Published:2021-09-07
  • Contact: Aysajan Abdusalam
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the High-level Personnel Training Program of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (QN2016BS0597).

Abstract: Floral sexual organ (stamen and pistil) movements are selective adaptations that have different functions in male-female reproduction and the evolution of flowering plants. However, the significance of stamen movements in the spatial-temporal function and separation of male and female organs has not been experimentally determined in species exhibiting floral temporal closure. The current study investigated the role of slow stamen (group-by-group) movement in male-female sexual function, and the effect of stamen movement on pollen removal, male-male and male-female interference, and mating patterns of Geranium pratense, a plant with temporal floral closure. This species uses stamen group-by-group movement and therefore anther-stigma spatial-temporal separation. Spatial separation (two whorls of stamen and pistil length) was shown to be stronger than temporal separation. We found that stamen movements to the center of the flower increase pollen removal, and the most common pollinators visited more frequently and for longer durations during the male floral stage than during the female floral stage. Petal movements increased both self-pollen deposition rate and sexual interference in G. pratense. The fruit and seed set of naturally and outcrossed pollinated flowers were more prolific than those of self-pollinated flowers. Group-by-group stamen movement, dehiscence of stamens, pistil movement, and male-female spatial-temporal functional separation of G. pratense before floral temporal closure may prevent male-female and stamen-stamen interference and pollen discounting, and may increase pollen removal and cross-pollination.

Key words: Floral structure, Male-female interference, Pollen removal, Self-pollen deposition