Plant Diversity ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (06): 452-461.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2021.08.002

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Phylogenetic incongruence in Cymbidium orchids

Guo-Qiang Zhanga,c, Gui-Zhen Chenb,c, Li-Jun Chenc, Jun-Wen Zhaib, Jie Huangb,c, Xin-Yi Wuc, Ming-He Lib, Dong-Hui Pengb, Wen-Hui Raoc, Zhong-Jian Liub, Si-Ren Lana,b   

  1. a Forestry College of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China;
    b Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration for Orchid Conservation and Utilization at College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China;
    c Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Orchid Conservation and Utilization, The National Orchid Conservation Center of China and the Orchid Conservation and Research Center of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518114, China
  • Received:2020-10-10 Revised:2021-08-11 Online:2021-12-25 Published:2022-01-11
  • Contact: Zhong-Jian Liu, Si-Ren Lan
  • Supported by:
    This research was funded by The National Key Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2018YFD1000401 and 2018YFD1000400), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 2017A030312004), and the Science and Technology Plan Project of Shenzhen (No. JCYJ20170817151501595). The authors thank Xu-Hui Chen and Wei-Rong Liu for their support in data collection and the morphological identification of some samples and Fu-Ye Wen for the daily management of samples.

Abstract: Cymbidium, which includes approximately 80 species, is one of the most ornamental and cultivated orchid genera. However, a lack of markers and sparse sampling have posed great challenges to resolving the phylogenetic relationships within the genus. In the present study, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships by utilizing one nuclear DNA (nrITS) and seven plastid genes (rbcL, trnS, trnG, matK, trnL, psbA, and atpI) from 70 species (varieties) in Cymbidium. We also examined the occurrence of phylogenetic conflict between nuclear (nrITS) and plastid loci and investigated how phylogenetic conflict bears on taxonomic classification within the genus. We found that phylogenetic conflict and low support values may be explained by hybridization and a lack of informative characteristics. Our results do not support previous classification of the subgenera and sections within Cymbidium. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicate that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus Cymbidium. Overall, our study indicates that Cymbidium has undergone a complex evolution.

Key words: Cymbidium, Phylogenetic conflict, nrITS, cpDNA, Reticulate evolution