Plant Diversity ›› 2011, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 565-570.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11040

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Breeding System of Protogynous Mandragora caulescens(Solanaceae)

 万金鹏1、2 , 朱兴福1 , 李庆军1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
    Mengla 666303, China; 2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-03-08 Online:2011-10-25 Published:2011-04-21
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We studied the breeding system of Mandragora caulescens that distributed in the northwest of Yunnan province. Our results showed that this species bloomed from lateMay to earlyJune. Flowers were protogynous and lasted (9.9±2.8)d. Three types of visitors were observed. The Queen of Bombus festivces was an effective pollinator, but its visiting frequency was rather low. Although flies and ants visited flowers with high frequency, flies rarely pollinated flowers and ants were totally nectar thieves. Pollination experiments suggested the species was partly selfcompatible, but protogyny made autonomous selfing become impossible. Fruit set and seed production with supplemental outcrossing pollen was significantly enhanced compared with natural flowers, suggesting pollen limitation in this species. Most species of Solanaceae were strictly selfincompatible, but M.caulescens was partly selfcompatible which was similar with three studied Hyoscyameae members. Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae formed a monophyletic group independently as a result of two independent dispersal events from the New World into Eurasia. We considered the two tribes independently lost SI systems, and this transition related to harsh environment of alpine region. It is worth conducting further study to clarify whether the evolutionary transition is common in alpine region.

Key words:  Pollination limitation, Self-compatibility, Dichogamy, Alpine region

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