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25 October 2009, Volume 31 Issue 05
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  • Articles
    Modern Geographical Distribution of Tsuga and Its Climatic Conditions in the Asian Monsoon Region
    YANG Qing-Song , , XING Yao-Wu , , ZHOU Zhe-Kun
    2009, 31(05):  389-398.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09178
    Abstract ( 2450 )   HTML ( )   PDF (361KB) ( 2088 )   Save
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    In Asia, Tsuga is mainly distributed in the Asian Monsoon region , and intermittently distributed in Mainland China, Taiwan Central Ranges and Japanese Archipelago ( except Hokkaido) . InMainland China, it is discontinuously distributed in the southwestern mountains ( the Hengduan Mountains and a part of the Eastern Himalayas), the central mountains
    ( the Qinling Mountains and the Daba Mountains) and the southeastern mountains ( the East China mountains). In its modern geographical distribution, Tsuga growth requires following climatic conditions : annual precipitation (AP) range of 720 - 2 103mm, growing season precipitation (GP) range of 635 - 1 489 mm, annual mean temperature (AMT) range of 5 . 8 - 18 .2℃ , winter mean temperature (WMT) range of - 2 . 7 - 11 .5℃ , mean temperature for the coldest month (MTC) range of - 3 . 7 - 10 . 9℃ , mean temperature for the warmest month (MTW) range of 13 .0 - 28 . 2℃ , and the annual range of monthly mean temperature (ART) range of 9 . 7 - 25 . 4℃ . In the AsianMonsoon region , AP in Korean Peninsula and its adjacent northeast China mountainous region , and the Shangdong mountainous region is more than 700 mm and generally meet the moisture requirements of Tsuga growth. But ART of these two Tsuga-free regions are apparently higher than that of Tsuga regions, and WMT and MTC are lower than those for Tsuga regions . It indicates that temperature conditions, particularly WMT, MTC and ART are constraints for the growth of Tsuga in these Asian Monsoon region . In conclusion, moisture conditions can generally meet Tsuga living requirements in these monsoon mountainous regions, but winter temperature ( including WMT and MTC) and ART become limited factors of Tsuga in these regions .
    Karyotypes of Four Genera in Liliaceae ( s . str .) from Hengduan Mountains of Southwestern China
    GAO Yun-Dong, ZHOU Song-Dong, HE Xing-Jin
    2009, 31(05):  399-405.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.08179
    Abstract ( 2606 )   HTML ( )   PDF (639KB) ( 1763 )   Save
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    Chromosome numbers andmorphology of 4 genera of Liliaceae ( s. str .) from HengduanMountains of southwestern China were studied. Almost all populations in Lilium were diploid, with 2 n = 24 , except that populations of L. tigrinum were found triploid, with 2n = 36. All taxa in Fritillaria investigated were diploid , with 2n = 24 and the secondary constrictions were obvious and abundant. Diploid and triploid exist in different populations of Notholirion bulbuliferum, with 2n = 24 and 2n = 36, and there was one population contained both ploidy types. For Lloydia , only one taxon Lloydia tibetica
    was studied, with 2n = 23. All taxa studied were collected in Hengduan Mountains, and the differences among these genera were obvious, which would contribute to the future taxonomic study . The karyotypes of L. matangense and Lloydia tibetica were documented for the first time.
    Notes on the Application of Evolutionary Concept to Plant Textual Research
    TANG Yan-Cheng, WANG Jin-Xiu
    2009, 31(05):  406-407.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09151
    Abstract ( 2472 )   HTML ( )   PDF (42KB) ( 1665 )   Save
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    The application of evolutionary concept to plant textual research is briefly discussed in this paper .We argue that the species aggregate ( or species complex) concept should better be adopted when identifying some plants documented in ancient Chinese literature .
    Allelic Variation of Psy Gene in Chinese Wheat Micro-Core Collections
    CAI Hua , , MA Chuan-Xi, SI Hong-Qi , QIAO Yu-Qiang
    2009, 31(05):  408-414.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09134
    Abstract ( 2284 )   HTML ( )   PDF (256KB) ( 1721 )   Save
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    Primer Psy02 was designed according to conservative areas of Psy gene sequence of Ttiticum, and partial sequence of Psy gene of wheat was cloned . The results showed that , two different PCR products were amplified with 196 bp and 233 bp, both of which covered whole sequence of the second exon of wheat Psy gene, and the 37 bp difference between two bands was an insertion sequence of the second exon of Psy gene, which display different YPC in wheat . Verification test showed , that among 248 wheat micro core collections, 153 samples amplified 196 bp band while the rest samples
    amplified 233 bp band which accounted for 61.7% and 38.3% respectively. The YPC average value of 153 samples was 7.314mg kg-1 which belong to high YPC rang and that of 95 smaples was 5.207mg kg-1 which belong to low YPC rang. Variance analysis showed that the YPC difference reached 1% significant level , which proved the 37 bp insertion sequence was one of the reasons of different YPC in cultivars , in a word , the YPC of wheat was significantly affected by the Psy gene and, primer Psy02 was an important molecular marker to identifying YPC .
    The Conservative Function of Chloroplast Division Associated CrMinD Protein
    LEI Qi-Yi , ZHOU Jiang-Ju , ZHANG Wen-Hua
    2009, 31(05):  415-420.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09175
    Abstract ( 2533 )   HTML ( )   PDF (181KB) ( 1644 )   Save
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    The interacting of MinD and MinC and MinE proteins of Escherichia coli are required for proper placement of the division septum at midcell, The MinD protein plays a key role in the course of bacterial cell and plant chloroplast division. The over production of MinD protein can block the normal cell division and lead to a filamentation cell . In plant cells, There are clear similarities between bacterial and plastid division, but limited information exists regarding the mechanism of plastid division in higher plants . Here we constructed a expression plasmid encoding the full-length CrMinD, an
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii homologue of the bacterial MinD . In agreement with cell division studies in bacteria over expression of CrMinD in E. coli results in filamentation cell formation . The sesuggestion that CrMinD is an evolutionary conserved cell division protein .Meanwhile , the result lays a certain foundation for studying on the division mechanism of plant chloroplast.

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis MiR396 Enhances Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    YANG Feng-Xi , , YU Di-Qiu
    2009, 31(05):  421-426.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09044
    Abstract ( 2596 )   HTML ( )   PDF (234KB) ( 1831 )   Save
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    MiR396 was a single-stranded noncoding small RNA with 21 nucleotides, and the expression of MiR369 in leaves was strongly induced in water deficit condition in tobacco , which suggested a possible role of miR396 in drought stress response. Under the control of 35S promoter, MIR396 was introduced into tobaccomediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Physiological tests indicated that the elevated levels of miR396 increased drought tolerance in tobacco accompanying with lower water loss rate and higher relative water content. Further more miR396-overexpressing plants exhibited visible reductions both in stomatal density and stomatal index as well as a narrow and small leaf phenotype in comparison with wild- type plants. The present study indicated that miR396 was a positive regulator in response to drought stress in tobacco .
    Arabidopsis WRKY2 Transcription Factor may be Involved in Osmotic Stress Response
    JIANG Wen-Bo , , YU Di-Qiu
    2009, 31(05):  427-432.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09046
    Abstract ( 2523 )   HTML ( )   PDF (243KB) ( 2156 )   Save
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    The fact that Arabidopsis WRKY2 protein was nuclear-localized supported that WRKY2 functioned as a transcription factor. The expression levels of WRKY2 in leaves were the highest in all tissues. The expression profile indicated that the expression levels of WRKY2 were elevated by NaCl and mannitol treatments, while which were not induced by other treatments including KCl , LiCl , CaCl2 , NaH2 PO4 , pathogenic germs , cold , heat and ABA . These results suggested that WRKY2 might be involved in osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol .
    Cloning and Analyses of a Dual Specific Serine􊄯Thronine Protein Kinase Gene with High Conservative and Constitutive Expression in Oryza (OsSTK)
    YANG Ming-Zhi , HUANG Xing-Qi , ZHANG Han-Bo , CHEN Shan-Na ,
    YANG Hong-Yu , CHENG Zai-Quan
    2009, 31(05):  433-438.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09096
    Abstract ( 12484 )   HTML ( )   PDF (201KB) ( 1801 )   Save
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    A cytoplasmic serine􊄯thronine protein kinase gene (OsSTK), had been cloned from Oryza genus. It was found high conservative and constitutive expression in Oryza. OsSTK gene had two exons, separated by 114 bp short intron. The open reading frame of OsSTK gene that predicted encoded a 419 amino acids protein . The amino acid sequence of OsSTK had low identities ( less than 53% ) with any other known protein kinase . The phylogenetic tree based on the partial DNA sequences of OsSTK from different species and types of wild rice and cultivated rice, was close to the taxation system of
    rice . Interestingly , OsSTK had a serine, including basic amino acids and charged amino acids abundant polypeptide with a “GDGDGDGDG”sequence at N- terminal that had not been found in any other genes. OsSTK may play dual specificity that phosphorylates both serine􊄯thronine and tyrosone, because the amino acids module of VIb , VIII and XI catalytic domain have both the serine􊄯thronine and tyrosine kinase characters .
    Sex-specific Heterogeneity in Stomatal Distribution and Gas Exchange of Male and Female Populus cathayana Leaves
    WANG Bi-Xia , , LIAO Yong-Mei , HUANG You-You , , JIANG Xue-Mei , , XU Xiao ,
    2009, 31(05):  439-446.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09069
    Abstract ( 2714 )   HTML ( )   PDF (171KB) ( 1906 )   Save
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    In this experiment , we investigated sex-related heterogeneity in stomatal distribution and gas exchange on leaves of male and female trees of Populus cathayana using grids measurement and 2-D contour maps . There were significant differences in stomatal length (SL), stomatal width (SW) and stomatal ratio (SR) between leaves of female and male and the significant variations were P= 0.000, P= 0.000 and P= 0.002, respectively. Compared with leaves of male trees, SL and SW in leaves of female trees increased 51 . 86% and 67 . 06% , respectively , while SR in which decreased 11 .46% .
    Moreover , the patterns for stomatal density (SD) as“middle zones > apical zones > basal zones”and for SL as“apical zones > middle zones > basal zones”were found in both male and female leaves. The patterns for SW were observed as“middle zones > apical zones > basal zones”in female leaf and“apical zones > middle zones > basal zones”in male leaf . It was also detected that the patterns for SR in female leaf as“basal zones > apical zones > middle zones”was opposite to that in male leaf . Significant difference was found in distribution pattern of net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) between female and male leaves . Pn of female leaf was lower in base regions (2 . 00 - 3. 00μmol m- 2 s - 1 ) while higher in front regions (8.00
    - 9 . 00μmol m- 2 s - 1 ), and increased gradually from basal to apical zones . However , Pn of male leaf didn′t show certein pattern. The transpiration (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) showed significant lower value in basal zones on male leaf comparing with famale leaf . Furthermore, CO2 concentration (Ci ) showed pattern as“basal zones > middle zones > apical zones, which was opposite to stomatal limiting value (Ls) , were observed on female leaf . Only Ls was found increased gradually from apical to basal zones although Ci and Ls varied obviously in each zones . To summarize , our result showed
    that there were significant differences in heterogeneity of stomatal distribution and gas exchange on male and female Populus cathayana leaves.
    Different Physiological Responses of Male and Female Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) Seedlings to Salt Stress
    JIANG Xue-Mei , HU Jin-Yao , QI Wen-Hua , CHEN Guang-Deng , XU Xiao
    2009, 31(05):  447-453.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09049
    Abstract ( 2438 )   HTML ( )   PDF (181KB) ( 1898 )   Save
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    In the present study, male and female Ginkgo biloba seedlings were used to examine changes in gas exchange, the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) , free proline (Pro) content , peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity under the condition of adding 40 mmol L - 1 NaCl solution into the soil monitoring the soil under the salt-stress . The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate , stomatal conductance and transpiration rate in salt-stressed female G. biloba seedlings decreased 45.87% , 25.00%, 16.47% respectively, while the stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate in salt-stressed male seedlings increased 10.00%, 8. 10%, 22.95%, respectively comparing with control; Significantly, lower levels of the WUE were observed in both salt treated female and male seedlings which decreased ( P= 0.020), 30.47% and 46.38% respectively. Saltstressed male seedlings were found higher level of free Pro content while no significant change were found in the same treated female seedlings. The SOD activities in both treated seedlings decreased 22.96% and 23.18%respectively without significant variations . Furthermore , the activities of POD in salt treated female seedlings decreased significantly , while that of the male showed no significant change at all . It was indicated that under 40 mmol L-1 NaCl salt stress treatment female seedlings maintained higher photosynthetic rate to accumulate energy, lower transpiration rate and higher intrinsic water use efficiency to reduce disperse of water content, and higher antioxidant enzyme activities to relieve oxidative stress which may resulted in female seedlings received less negative effect than male seedlings under salt stress condition.
    Investigation and Evaluation of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) Resource in Yunnan Province
    WANG Xi , LONG Chun-Lin
    2009, 31(05):  455-460.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09094
    Abstract ( 2352 )   HTML ( )   PDF (99KB) ( 1900 )   Save
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    The resources, distribution , relevant environmental factors and seed traits of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae ) occurring in Yunnan Province were investigated and studied in the present paper . The results showed that the average thousand-seed weight , kernel percentage , kernel oil percentage and seed oil percentage are 567.9 g , 56.671%, 61.781% and 35.133% , respectively. There are very significant differences in thousand-seed weight , kernel percentage , kernel oil percentage and seed oil percentage among populations . The populations marked as Lijiang A, Honghe D, Lijiang B, and
    Yuxi A are evaluated as the most potential ones for future development . Temperature is the most significant limitation factors on distribution of J. curcas. There is a remarkable negative correlation between altitude and mean annual temperature of the distribution areas. The dry-hot valleys in Jinshajiang River and Yuanjiang River are the most suitable areas for J. curcas
    plantation , and followed by the hot and low elevation areas in Lincang, Baoshan, Puer and Xishuangbanna prefectures. Suggestions were proposed for further studies and development in Yunnan Province .
    Post-modification Enzymes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Plant Terpenoids
    LI Jun-Ling , , LUO Xiao-Dong , ZHAO Pei-Ji , ZENG Ying
    2009, 31(05):  461-468.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09108
    Abstract ( 2539 )   HTML ( )   PDF (215KB) ( 2916 )   Save
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    Terpenoids are called“terpenome”for their structural diversities . Besides their important roles in plant growth, development and environmental responses, terpenoids have been widely used in medicine and organic chemicals . The biosynthesis of terpenoids in plants can be conceptually divided into three discrete processes: the formation of terpene precursors,
    the construction of terpene skeletons, followed by the complex post-modifications . After the skeleton construction by terpene synthases (TPS) , diverse reactions catalyzed by the responsible post-modification enzymes result in tens of thousands of terpenoids . In this paper, with our preliminary studies on the biosynthesis of Isodon diterpenes, a number of representative
    post-modification enzymes of plant terpenoids formation reported in recent years are reviewed , which include P450 monooxidases, double-bond reductases, acyltransferases and glycosyltransferases .
    Effect of Chemical Constituents from Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae)
    on Glucose Uptake in Insulin-resistant L6 Cells
    LI Shi-Fei , , HUANG Nian-Xu , HAO Xiao-Jiang , LI Ling , LI Shun-Lin
    2009, 31(05):  469-473.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09111
    Abstract ( 2463 )   HTML ( )   PDF (98KB) ( 1900 )   Save
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    Eight known compounds isolated from the roots of Syzygium cumini were evaluated for their ability to enhance the glucose consumption in insulin-resistant L6 muscle cells induced by high concentration-insulin and glucose . All of compounds significantly enhanced the glucose consumption of insulin-resistant cells in the presence and absence of insulin. The glucose consumption was increased 17.35% and 51.11% by compound 1 ( friedelin) at a concentration of 10 μg ml-1 without insulin and by compound 8 (5 , 7 , 3′, 4′, 5′-pentahydroxyflavone) at a concentration of 0 . 1μg ml - 1 with insulin, respectively .
    Scutellin A, a New Neoclerodane Diterpenoid from Scutellaria barbata (Labiatae)
    ZHU Feng , , LIU Ling-Li , DI Ying-Tong , HAO Xiao-Jiang, HE Hong-Ping
    2009, 31(05):  474-476.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09114
    Abstract ( 2616 )   HTML ( )   PDF (67KB) ( 1655 )   Save
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    A new neoclerodane diterpenoid was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Scutellaria barbata . The structure was determined as 15β-methoxy-6α-acetoxy-19-propanoyloxy-4α, 18; 11 , 16 ; 15 , 16-triepoxy-neoclerodan .