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25 December 2009, Volume 31 Issue S16
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  • Articles
    Progress Toward Truffle Cultivation in the Central USA
    Bruhn J.N., Pruett G.E. , Mihail J .D.
    2009, 31(S16):  1-3. 
    Abstract ( 1867 )   HTML ( )   PDF (624KB) ( 2739 )   Save
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    We have found that mycorrhiza formation by some strains of T. aestivum is suppressed by the use of high-Ca pelletized lime to raise the pH of greenhouse potting medium, as compared with the use of natural crushed dolomitic limestone. We have also found that seedlings grown under a novel process (RPM􊑒 ) for producing very large root systems in bark-based media failed to become as well colonized by T. aestivum as did seedlings grown under a more typical system in a peat-based medium in book planters .We have followed ectomycorrhiza community development on both RPM􊑒 and more typically produced seedlings for two years in the field . Competing ectomycorrhizal species dominated RPM seedlings two years after outplanting , whereas T. aestivum remained dominant on more typically produced seedlings .Mycorrhizae of four Tuber spp . have been detected in this plantation ( i. e ., T. whetstonense, T. maculatum, T. rufum , and T. lyonii ) . These are the first records of T. whetstonense , T. maculatum, and T. rufum occurrence in MO .Mycorrhizae and ascocarps of T. lyonii had been found in nearby plantings of Corylus seedlings in 2005 , and again in 2007 . A third seedling production process (Missouri Gravel Bed) shows promise in a pilot study with T. aestivum and warrants further study .
    Selection of T. melanosporum vs . T. aestivum as the target truffle species for a specific location is complicated by the uncertainty of future climatic conditions. Different mulching practices modify soil temperature and moisture, and may provide clues to the environmental tolerances of T. aestivum and T. melanosporum . We are comparing the effects on soil temperature and soil moisture of water-permeable weed barrier fabric vs. a thin layer of calcareous gravel , as compared to no soil surface treatment .
    Achievements and Challenges of Rrsearch on Truffles in China
    WANG Yun , , LIU Pei-Gui
    2009, 31(S16):  1-3. 
    Abstract ( 1726 )   HTML ( )   PDF (195KB) ( 2589 )   Save
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    Research on truffles has made a good progress in China since the last two decades . Before 1989 only 8 Tuber species were recorded . Since then , 25 species in Tuber and 1 in Paradoxa have been identified in China , of which are more than 50% new to science . More than 50 desert truffle species have also been recorded . These results suggest that China has a rich truffle flora and might be one of centres of truffle diversification and distribution . Chinese black truffles, the T. indicum complex , T. aestivum and T. pseudoexcavatum have been collected for consumption and trade locally for many years . But they were not scientifically described in China until recently .While Chinese black truffles they were virtually unknown internationally until the early 1990s when exports to international markets commenced . This has aroused great
    concern and interest in the study of Chinese black truffles . Research results indicated that T. indicum is the predominate truffle species exported to the international markets and a small amount of T. pseudoexcavatum mixed with them. Genetic and morphological variations of Chinese black truffle species are huge . T. indicum , T. sinense and T. himalayense are too closely related to each other that they are indistinguishable morphologically . The three species might be better called“the T. indicum complex”. Harvesting and trading in Chinese black truffles is a multi-million dollar industry that has created
    considerable income for small rural communities and farmers . Unfortunately , natural forests and plantations in which truffles grow naturally have been damaged so much that created a big concern about their resources in danger . Protection of the precious resources is urgent ! The first truffle plantation was established in Taiwan in 1989 and produced truffles in 1996. Other truffle plantations have been established in Hunan , Guizhou , Sichuan and Yunnan Province recently . It is said the first group of truffle ascocarps were produced at the Guizhou plantation in 2008 , but the other plantations have not produced truffles yet . The production of truffle-infected trees and establishment of truffle plantations are underway and have considerable
    potential in China .
    The Cultivation of Lactarius Volemus in China
    LIU Pei-Gui, YU Fu-Qiang , , WANG Xiang-Hua , , ZHENG Huan-Di , ,
    CHEN Juan , , CHEN Ji-Yue , , TIAN Xiao-Fei , , XIE Xue-Dan , ,
    SHI Xiao-Fei , , DENG Xiao-Juan ,
    2009, 31(S16):  1-3. 
    Abstract ( 1340 )   HTML ( )   PDF (106KB) ( 2575 )   Save
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    A Preliminary Report on the Larger Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms from Daqing Mountains of Inner Mongolia, China
    DA Sa Ru-La , BAI Shu-Lan, SHAO Dong-Hua, HAN Sheng-Li
    2009, 31(S16):  10-14. 
    Abstract ( 2189 )   HTML ( )   PDF (607KB) ( 4920 )   Save
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    Daqingshan Mountains; Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms; Resources
    Fungous Kingdom: Yunnan of China and Her Ectomycorrhizal Macrofungal Species Diversity
    LIU Pei-Gui, WANG Xiang-Hua , YU Fu-Qiang , CHEN Juan , , TIAN Xiao-Fei , DENG Xiao-Juan , , XIE Xue-Dan , , SHI Xiao-Fei ,
    2009, 31(S16):  15-20. 
    Abstract ( 2018 )   HTML ( )   PDF (270KB) ( 2313 )   Save
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    Yunnan is an area with complicated geography , physiognomy, vertical variable climate condition, luxuriant plant species and diversified forest vegetation; these environmental and biologic factors provide abundant and wide variety of favourable habitats and symbiotic hosts for the growth and reproduction of the ectomycorrhizal fungi . 853 macrofungal species of 172 genera were identified , among of them, 557 species of 51 genera were ectomycorrhizal fungi, and 98 endemic species were confirmed . However many new species and some doubtful specimens in sciences are still existed . 207 species of 64 genera from markets, 168 species of 48 genera are ectomycorrhizal macrofungi and occupy 81.2% in total taxa; more than 120 species are commonly consumed by the local people . The ectomycorrhizal fungal species recorded in Yunnan are more than 60% in total species of China , some genera up tomore than 80% , and endemic taxa to China occupy more than 50% . Thereinto many macrofungi are famous and delicious ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in the world. In northwestern Yunnan, Matsutake-group, Leccinum extremiorientale, Rozites emodensis, Lyophyllum decastes, Albatrellus yunnanensus and L. shimeji are the district representative members. In middle and northeastern Yunnan , Tuber indicum , T. psedohimalayensis, Thelephora ganbajun , Th . vialis, Th . japonica , Boletus brunneissimus, B . bicolor, Cantharellus cibarius,
    Hygrophorus russula are common species ; In southern Yunnan , Boletus sino-aurantiacus, B. brevitubus , B. ornatipes, B. rubriflavus, Cantharellus cinnabarinus, C. minor, Cortinarius tenuipes, Craterellus cornucopiodes, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Ramaria spp ., Lactarius piperatus, L. volemus , Russula griseocarnosa , Scleroderma citrinum , Suillus placidus are main representative elements . These symbiotic fungi show similar or coincident distributed patters with their host. Yunnan is indubitable one of the richest areas of species diversity of the ectomycorrhizal fungi in the world .
    The Cultivation of Truffles in Italy
    Bencivenga Mattia, Di Massimo Gabriella , Donnini Domizia, Baciarelli Falini Leonardo
    2009, 31(S16):  21-28. 
    Abstract ( 1660 )   HTML ( )   PDF (45KB) ( 1684 )   Save
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    In order to provide a general picture of Italian truffle-growing . We done two parts work . ( 1) The evolution which the cultivation of truffles has undergone in Italy right from its beginning; (2) The current situation including the unitary
    productions recorded in the cultivated truffle-grounds .
    Successful Mycorrhizal Synthesis of Tuber indicum with Two Indigenous Hosts and Their Recognition
    GENG Li-Ying , WANG Xiang-Hua , YU Fu-Qiang , DENG Xiao-Juan , ,
    SHI Xiao-Fei , , XIE Xue-Dan , , LIU Pei-Gui
    2009, 31(S16):  29-36. 
    Abstract ( 2078 )   HTML ( )   PDF (521KB) ( 3141 )   Save
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    Tuber indicum is one of the most renowned commercialized fungi in China. Mycorrhizal investigations, however, have been carried out mainly with exotic trees . Up to now there is no detailed description of morphology of the mycorrhizae formed with the indigenous hosts of T. indicum . Containerized seedlings of two indigenous hosts of the fungus in southwestern China, Pinus armandii and Castanea mollissima were inoculated with aqueous spore suspension of T. indicum in two kinds of substrates .Mycorrhizae began to form4 months after inoculation and were harvested at 9 months. The contributing fungus of the mycorrhizae was confirmed to be T. indicum by morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analyses. The morphology of emanating hyphae and epidermoid-like mantle appearance was similar to the mycorrhizae obtained with some European trees. The high morphological variation and the similarity to that of T. melanosporum makes it difficult to distinguish the mycorrhizae of the two species bymorphology alone . The synthesis and their recognition of mycorrhizae of T. indicum with its indigenous hosts will be of great significance for planned cultivation of the Asian black truffles .
    Towards Producing Périgord Black Truffles ( Tuber melanosporum) in Southern British Columbia, Canada
    Berch S.M. , Gamiet S., Haddow W. , Wyne Q. , Lestock-Kay D.
    2009, 31(S16):  37-38. 
    Abstract ( 1683 )   HTML ( )   PDF (74KB) ( 1829 )   Save
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    Cultivating European truffles in southern British Columbia , Canada is being investigated . Research sites are located on 3 private orchards, and 1 site at the Vancouver campus of the University of British Columbia (UBC) . Sites on the private orchards have been limed and planted using hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana) and English oaks ( Quercus robur) as hosts and Tuber melanosporum and T. aestivum as their fungal partner . These trees have been in the field for 1 - 3 growing season. The site at UBC is currently being limed in preparation for a spring 2009 planting . All sites were acidic and
    required large amounts of lime to adjust the soil pH . This project reports on the current status on this project .
    North American Truffles in the Tuberaceae: Molecular and Morphological Perspectives
    Bonito Gregory, Trappe James M. * , Vilgalys Rytas
    2009, 31(S16):  39-51. 
    Abstract ( 1838 )   HTML ( )   PDF (148KB) ( 2090 )   Save
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    The truffle genus Tuber ( Ascomycota , Pezizales, Tuberaceae) produces underground mushrooms widely sought as edible fungi . Tuber species are distributed throughout Northern hemisphere forests and form obligate ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with trees within the Pinaceae , Fagaceae, Betulaceae, and Juglandaceae . Of the approximately 100 species of
    Tuber worldwide, half are suspected to be endemic to North America . In this study we use multiple genetic loci to assess patterns of phylogenetic diversity within Tuber in order to infer species boundaries and to define morphological and phylogeographic species groupings . Seven major clades were resolved ( Aestivum, Melanosporum, Rufum, Canaliculatum , Gibbosum,
    Puberulum, and Maculatum) . Two morphologically distinctive species T. asa & T. excavatum were unresolved. The three most specious clades of Tuber ( Rufum , Puberulum, Maculatum) are distributed across Europe , Asia , and
    North America and are comprised mainly of non- commercial species .
    Social and Biotechnological Studies of Wild Edible Mushrooms in Mexico , with Emphasis in the Izta-Popo and Zoquiapan National Parks
    Perez-Moreno J ., Martinez-Reyes M. , Lorenzana Fernandez A. ,
    Carrasco Hernandez V. , Mendez-Neri M.
    2009, 31(S16):  55-61. 
    Abstract ( 2051 )   HTML ( )   PDF (174KB) ( 1542 )   Save
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    In Mexico , there is an ancestral traditional knowledge related to wild edible mushrooms . Currently , more than 200 species of wild mushrooms are consumed in the country and more than 100 are sold in traditional markets . In this paper, first , the levels of commercialization of wild edible mushrooms in Mexico are analyzed . Then , the species sold in the area of influence of the Izta-Popo and Zoquiapan National Parks, located in Central Mexico and their phenological patterns are presented . Finally , an evaluation of the effect of pine growth under greenhouse conditions and field survival as a result of inoculation with three ectomycorrhizal edible fungi is presented. In the region, more than 100 names are used to denote edible species. The highest numbers of fungal species were recorded in July and August . Ground pileus have been used as a successful source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum . Until now, the best results have been obtained with species of Hebeloma,
    Laccaria and Suillus under greenhouse conditions . Evident increases in survival of plants inoculated with a mixture of these species have been recorded under field conditions compared with non- inoculated plants .
    Thinning an Old-growth Forest Increased Diversity and Productivity of Mushrooms
    Egli Simon, Ayer FranZois
    2009, 31(S16):  62-68. 
    Abstract ( 1833 )   HTML ( )   PDF (172KB) ( 2332 )   Save
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    A current long- term study on fungal reserve in western Switzerland started in 1977 aims at determining the effects of various factors on the diversity and productivity of wild forest mushrooms. Here the effect of an increment thinning of an old-growth forest is described . Fruit bodies of all the epigeous macro-fungal species were identified and counted at weekly intervals between 1997 and 2006 in 5 experimental plots . In one of the plots an increment thinning was performed in early spring 1987 in order to lighten the dense old-growth forest and to favour the understory . The thinning induced a significant increase of fungal species richness , as well as of fruit body numbers, especially of the ectomycorrhizal species. Comparing the period before ( 1977 - 1986) with the period after the thinning (1987 - 2006) , seven times more species and 23 times more fruit bodies were counted on average per year . The mycorrhizal species produced muchmore, up to 9 times more species and 32 times more fruit bodies on average after the thinning. Obligatory beech-specific mycorrhizal fungi clearly increased their dominance after the thinning , their species number increasing from 36% to 54% and the fruit body number from 19% to 70% . These changes are discussed in relation to the possible growth reactions of the remaining host trees after the artificial intervention .
    Wild Finnish Truffles
    Shamekh S. , , Donnini D. , Zambonelli A. , Leisola M.
    2009, 31(S16):  69-71. 
    Abstract ( 2061 )   HTML ( )   PDF (781KB) ( 4750 )   Save
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    Truffle ascocarps were collected from a natural forest located in Lahti, Finland (100 km north to Helsinki ) by the help of a trained truffle dog called Siro in Autuman 2006 . By morphological identification , the truffles were identified as Tuber maculatum and Tuber scruposum . The truffle ascocarps were found in soil with relatively high pH value in coniferous forest. Our studies showed that both tuber species prefer the mixed forest with host- trees such as spruce and pine. Samples of the truffle fruit bodies are conserved in the collection of biological materials in the Juva Truffle Center. Further investigation concerning truffle species (DNA) and soil properties will be performed in the coming seasons.
    The Truffle and Its Cultivation in France
    Sourzat Pierre
    2009, 31(S16):  72-80. 
    Abstract ( 2161 )   HTML ( )   PDF (247KB) ( 2754 )   Save
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    Truffle production in France reached its peak at the turn of the 19th to 20th century, benefiting from the overpopulation of the countryside and the destruction of European vineyards by Phylloxera around 1870 - 1880 . The two World Wars with their sociological and ecological consequences marked the start of the decline in production which motivated in turn the efforts to revive it at the start of the seventies . Ecological factors , including soil, climate and the quality of the environment made it possible to determine criteria for the cultivation of-principally- Tuber melanosporum in calcareous regions with a Mediterranean climate . Truffle cultivation has evolved since its invention at the beginning of the 19th century; initially very empirical, it went through a phase of development based on a model of arboriculture of mycorrhized plants; finally returning to more ecologically-based concepts at the end of the 20th century . The choice of the most appropriate method of
    truffle cultivation is mainly a function of the pressure due to contamination by other species of Tuber present in the environment. The prospects of extending truffle cultivation in France depend at the same time on scientific research , experiments on cultivation techniques , plantations with grants from local authorities , technical support and training of truffle-growers. The latter are aware that they hold in their hands an historical , sociological , gastronomic and economic heritage to enhance, faced with the initiatives launched in other European countries and the entire world .
    The Microbial Communities and Fruiting of Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms
    Zambonelli Alessandra, Iotti Mirco , Barbieri Elena , Amicucci Antonella ,
    Stocchi Vilberto , Peintner Ursula , Hall Ian R.
    2009, 31(S16):  81-85. 
    Abstract ( 1970 )   HTML ( )   PDF (99KB) ( 2302 )   Save
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    The competition between edible ectomycorrhizal fungi ( EMF) and other ectomycorrhizal fungi have been studied in greenhouse and in the field taking into account different environmental conditions and using molecular tools as well as morphological methods . Approximately 100 ectomycorrhizal species were identified in soil fungal communities in productive areas of Boletus edulis sensu lato and in truffières of Tuber magnatum and Tuber borchii . The bacterial communities occurring in T. magnatum and T. borchii fruiting bodies during different stages of their maturation were also characterized. α- Proteobacteria, were found as major constituents of the bacterial community associated with truffle ascoma , independentely of the degree of maturation. These bacteria include members of the Sinorhizobium􊄯 Ensifer and Rhizobium􊄯Agrobacterium groups, and Bradyrhizobium spp ., which are well known for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Our studies raise two important questions about truffle biology: 1 ) can the composition of microbial soil communities infuence EMF fruiting body production ?2) can nitrogen fixing bacteria play a role in truffle nutrition ?
    Potential Problems Associated with the Cultivation and International Trade in Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms
    Hall Ian R. , Zambonelli Alessandra, Wang Yun
    2009, 31(S16):  86-89. 
    Abstract ( 2144 )   HTML ( )   PDF (215KB) ( 1819 )   Save
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    There is considerable potential for the cultivation of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in countries that are not traditional producers of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms . Those countries that are in the Southern Hemisphere may be able to take advantage of out-of-season Northern Hemisphere markets. For example , they might produce Périgord black truffles
    ( Tuber melanosporum) at the height of the Northern Hemisphere′s summer tourist season or matsutake ( Tricholoma matsutake) during the Japanese cherry blossom festival . There is also the possibility that Northern Hemisphere countries not noted for exporting ectomycorrhizal mushrooms could cultivate those species that are in short supply elsewhere. For example , China might wish to try and cultivate Caesar′s mushroom ( Amanita caesarea) and supplement dwindling supplies in Europe. However , there are risks in importing novel ectomycorrhizal fungi for research purposes and trade that go far beyond those associated with the importation of fresh saprobic mushrooms raised in factories . This paper discusses these risks
    and points to potential hazards countries are exposed to when importing fresh ectomycorrhizal mushrooms or moving them from one part of the country to another .
    Field Research and Cultivation of Truffles in New Zealand: an Update
    Guerin-Laguetie A, Hesom-Williams N, Parmenter G, Strong G, Wang Y .
    2009, 31(S16):  90-93. 
    Abstract ( 1792 )   HTML ( )   PDF (137KB) ( 2419 )   Save
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    The first Périgord black truffle (PBT, Tuber melanosporum) recorded in the Southern Hemisphere was produced in New Zealand in 1993 at a plantation established in 1988 . Today, there are over 100 PBT plantations in New Zealand. Of these, ten are currently fruiting with many more expected to start in the next few years . In 2005 a research project co-funded by the New Zealand Truffle Association and the New Zealand government was launched with the aim of improving our understanding of the effects of the soil moisture and aeration on fruiting of PBT. In order to ensure that trees selected for the trial had PBT mycorrhizae on their roots , we first sampled roots from the northern side of randomly selected trees at three PBT plantations. The diagnosis of PBT mycorrhiza was performed using
    morphological (microscopy) and molecular ( specific PCR primers for the rDNA ITS) analyses . On one plantation , trees showed a very high level of PBT mycorrhization and a low level of contamination , therefore identifying 16 trees with PBT mycorrhizae from this site was an easy task. For the other 2 plantations, we randomly sampled up to 34 trees in order to find 16 trial trees at each site unequivocally mycorrhized by PBT. Our strategy to sample roots on the northern side of the trees was supported by the analyses of several trees sampled around all four aspects (North , South , East , West) , which confirmed that mycorrhizae were always present on the northern side of the tree root systems . Following tree selection, a number of treatments have been applied to test the hypothesis that soil aeration and soil moisture are important soil factors that affect mycorrhization and fruiting . Preliminary results showed that the irrigation treatment slightly reduced soil temperature
    around the roots of mycorrhized trial trees . Since 2006 the New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research (C & FR) 1 has also performed over 140 root analyses from PBT plantations situated throughout New Zealand . From this extensive root survey we have obtained valuable insights into: (1) the persistence of PBT mycorrhizae on planted trees; (2) the presence of other competing ectomycorrhizal fungi ; and (3) the presence of an unexpected truffle , Tuber brumale, which has been found in very few plantations but , to our knowledge, has not fruited yet in New Zealand. Recently, fruiting of two other valuable truffle species has been reported for the first time in New Zealand plantations:Tuber borchii in 2006 and Tuber uncinatum ( syn . T. aestivum) in 2007 .
    The Edible Truffle Choiromyces venosus and Its Use in Sweden
    Wedén Christina, Larsson Sonny , Burman Robert , Backlund Anders
    2009, 31(S16):  94-96. 
    Abstract ( 2014 )   HTML ( )   PDF (145KB) ( 2197 )   Save
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    The ascomycete truffle Choiromyces venosus is still largely unknown with respect to its biology, ecology and physiology. C. venosus has been collected and consumed as a delicacy in Sweden for at least 100 years . The species was first described by Fries in 1830 , and has been regarded synonymous with C. meandriformis , described by Vittadini 1831. In southern Europe there is a widespread belief that C. venosus is toxic to humans, but no record of C. venosus poisoning has ever been reported from northern Europe . Whether there is a taxonomic􊄯phylogenetic explanation underlying the different traditions in different parts of Europe is currently under investigation. Our studies in this field include cytotoxicity data and are under completion . This is a highly important aspect in the attempts to establish a new cash crop. Preliminary results indicate that the amounts of C. venosus extract required to achieve cell death in the cytotoxicity assay is similar to that of other commonly consumed fungi including Agaricus bisporus and Tuber aestivum .
    Truffle Cultivation-forestry: A New Strategy to Produce the Burgundy Truffle ( Tuber uncinatum Chatin)
    Wehrlen L. , Chevalier G., Besancon G. , Frochot H.
    2009, 31(S16):  97-99. 
    Abstract ( 2057 )   HTML ( )   PDF (111KB) ( 1997 )   Save
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    The ecology of the Burgundy truffle ( Tuber uncinatum) varies significantly from that of the Perigord truffle (T. melanosporum) . In particular the first one requires a specific level of shading . The time needed to obtain sufficient development of the tree canopy and shading delays the start of truffle production. To hasten this production , one needs to reconstitute as quickly as possible the forestry environment which favours Tuber uncinatum. Here are a few solutions: (1) higher plantation density for seedlings mycorrhized with T. uncinatum . (2) plantation between seedlings mycorrhized with T. uncinatum of endomycorrhizal trees . (3) plantation before that of mycorrhizal
    seedlings of tree species which could act as shelters for the first one . ( 4) plantation of mycorrhizal seedlings into clear-cut strips of various widths within established forest. These techniques have already been tried or are currently undergoing testing. The first solution suggested above has shown its efficiency for several years already . The second and fourth solutions are currently being tested . The third solution has given spectacular results.
    Mycorrhization: Tuber borchii Vittad . Competitivity with Respect to Other Species of Tuber
    Donnini D., Baciarelli Falini L. , Di Massimo G ., Benucci G . M . N ., Bencivenga M .
    2009, 31(S16):  100-102. 
    Abstract ( 1838 )   HTML ( )   PDF (151KB) ( 1610 )   Save
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    In truffle beds planted in environments not suitable for the truffle species chosen , mychorrhizal substitution usually takes place after a period of time . The present work was aimed at verifying the capacity of mycorrhization of Tuber borchii Vittad . in the presence of other Tuber species in the soil . Some young plants of Quercus pubescens Willd . were inoculated in the same conditions using two different substrates (natural and artificial substrate ) and different species of Tuber as inoculum. In fall 2004 , spring 2005 and in spring 2006 , the percentage of mycorrhization for each of the species of fungi involved was assessed in 32% of the plants in each inoculation test . The most abundant mycorrhizae of T. borchii were detected in roots of plants grown in natural soil . But T. brumale Vittad . shows remarkable percentages of mycorrhization ( up to 50%) and seems to substitute T. borchii in some cases . The results indicate that truffle beds of T. melanosporum Vittad . and
    T. aestivum Vittad . planted in soils containing propagation elements of T. borchii do not give the desired production .
    Legal Issues Surrounding the Genetic Resource Conservation and Use of Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms
    JONG Shung-Chang, LIU Zi-Qiang
    2009, 31(S16):  103-109. 
    Abstract ( 1806 )   HTML ( )   PDF (71KB) ( 2226 )   Save
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    Edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms (EEMMs) have an enormous impact on biodiversity , global climate regulation, genetic resources as well as on global economic and social development. According to current trends in the development of intellectual property ( IP) mechanisms , the use or application of EEMM genetic resources may be judged as an IP right with legal protection granted by sovereign authority . Protection of IP and proprietary rights can enhance the genetic material being used and technology being developed , prevent others from patenting the invention , recoup investments, improve
    trade, establish market position , preserve the identity, and generate revenues through forming strategic alliance, such as joint ventures , collaborative research agreements , joint research agreements, joint research and development agreements, manufacturing and distribution alliances, and cross-licensing arrangements. Various international agreements and treaties (such as CBD􊄯UNEP, TRIPS􊄯WTO, ITPGR􊄯FAO, GBIF􊄯OECD, Budapest Treaty􊄯WIPO) have brought together the complex issues of genetic resources and intellectual property. A number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives have been implemented to protect IP assets among the proposed users. All agreements are negotiated in a manner that is coherent with and mutually supportive of national and international laws, local customs, rules and regulations and implemented through collaborative
    action by governments, appropriate organizations and professional societies, field collectors and their sponsors, and curators and users of EEMMgenetic materials. Lack of IP right protection will bar trade. The United States has granted favored-trading status only to those nations that meet rigid IP right protection standards .
    General Survey on Development of Wild Edible Fungi in Yunnan Province, China
    SHEN Jie
    2009, 31(S16):  110-112. 
    Abstract ( 1368 )   HTML ( )   PDF (36KB) ( 2465 )   Save
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    Edible and Medicinal Fungi in Northeast China
    DAI Yu-Cheng, Bau Tolgor
    2009, 31(S16):  113-114. 
    Abstract ( 1255 )   HTML ( )   PDF (106KB) ( 1370 )   Save
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