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25 April 2008, Volume 30 Issue 02
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  • Articles
    A Comparative Floristic Study on the Seed Plants of the East Side and the West Side of the Northern Gaoligong Mts . in Northwestern Yunnan, China
    LI Rong , JI Yun-Heng, DAO Zhi-Ling , LI Heng
    2008, 30(02):  129-138. 
    Abstract ( 2212 )   HTML ( )   PDF (935KB) ( 2146 )   Save
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    The differences in rainfall and temperature between the east and west sides of the northern GaoligongMts. leads to distinct differences in the plant diversity and floristic characteristics between the two sides . Recorded taxa on the east side include 1 475 native species and 192 varieties (or subspecies) belonging to 580 genera in 152 families and for the west side include 1 804 native species and 186 varieties ( or subspecies) belonging to 659 genera in 162 families . Based on the statistics and analysis of families, genera, and species, a comparative floristic study on the seed plants for the east side and the west side of the northern Gaoligong Mts. was carried out. The results are as follows: 1) The present flora on the east and west sides of the northern Gaoligong Mts . have the same floristic origins, but the relative contribution from these different sources has changed through time . The result is that the floristic similarity of families, genera, and species between the east side and the west side has decreased through time; 2) The floristic characteristic of seed plants for the west side has become more greatly influenced by tropical floristic elements than has that of the east side, and the influence by the temperate floristic elements has become less influenced on the west side but greater on the east side; 3) The flora of the west side is more closely linked with that of the eastern Himalayans than is the flora of the east side, and the flora of the east side is more closely linked with the other floras farther to the east. Owing to the obstruct of the Gaoligong Mts. ridge itself, it is seemingly difficult for the species interchange between the two sides of the northern Gaoligong Mts. ; 4) The ecological-geographical environment has made it more conducive to species conservation and the speciation on the west side than on the east side, so the west side is not only a refuge for some ancient floristic elements but also as a cradle of some new species.
    The Flora of Seed Plants in Northern Zhaotong, Yunnan Province
    DING Li , , DU Fan, WANG Juan , SHI Cui-Yu , SU Wen-Ping
    2008, 30(02):  139-145. 
    Abstract ( 3349 )   HTML ( )   PDF (805KB) ( 2934 )   Save
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    Northern Zhaotong is located at the intersection of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces, where floristic study was rarely dealt with. Based on over 4 500 specimens collected from this area in 2006 , the floristic characteristics at the levels of family, genus and species were analyzed for the first time. The results showed that: 1) There were totally 1 864 species of seed plants belonging to 640 genera and 159 families, indicating that the flora is rich in species and diverse in geographical elements. 2) The flora showed an obvious temperate feature. There were 127 genera of North Temperate elements, 99 genera of pantropic elements, 93 genera of East Asian elements and 54 genera of Tropical Asian elements. These four distribution types, which stood for 60.94% of the total number of genera, are the main components of the flora. 3) The flora was more similar to that of Fanjingshan Mountain, belonging to the Central China Region , than to that of Xiaobaicaoling (located at central Yunnan Plateau), and belongs to the Central China Region of Sino-Japan Forest Subkingdom. 4 ) There are 10 families endemic to East Asia, 1 family endemic to China, 27 genera endemic to China, 1 063 species endemic to China (accounted for 57% of the total species). The abundant endemic elements indicated that the flora is ancient and unique. It is suggested that the flora, with a deep tropical Asian historical background, is a part of the Central China flora.
    A Newly Recorded Species of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) to China and a
    Newly Recorded Species of Nervilia (Orchidaceae) to Mainland China
    HU Guang-Wan, , CHEN Zhe, , LONG Chun-Lin
    2008, 30(02):  146-146. 
    Abstract ( 2640 )   HTML ( )   PDF (825KB) ( 2001 )   Save
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    Utricularia furcellata of Lentibulariaceae is firstly reported in China. Its lower lip of corolla 4-lobed and its spur longer than the lower lip. Nervilia nipponica is firstly reported inMainland China, its leaf 5-7-angular and its inflorescence uni-flowered.
    Phallogaster saccatus (Basidiomycetes, Fungi), First Record from East Asia
    YANG Zhu-Liang , GE Zai-Wei,
    2008, 30(02):  147-150. 
    Abstract ( 2514 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1055KB) ( 1833 )   Save
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    Phallogaster saccatus is reported, described and illustrated from East Asia for the first time. It is characterized by its sac-like, single-layered peridium with irregularly shaped thin depressed areas which becomes perforated, the columella that deliquesces and entirely disappears by maturity, the olivaceous spore mass (adhering to the inner surface of the otherwise hollow basidioma) that breaks irregularly when mature, the absence of a volva and the bacilliform to cylindric, smooth basidiospores with a nearly truncate base and a short sterigmal appendage. The genus Phallogaster is currently viewed as monotypic.
    A Special Long-Lived Cell: the Culm Fiber of Phyllostachys edulis (Gramineae)

    GAN Xiao-Hong , DING Yu-Long

    2008, 30(02):  151-158. 
    Abstract ( 2482 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1680KB) ( 1880 )   Save
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    With several microscopic and cytochemical methods, the ultrastructure modification and ultracytochemical localization about some enzymes like H+ -ATPase , Ca2+ -ATPase and acid phosphatase (APase ) of fiber in Phyllostachys edulis culms during secondary wall formation were studied. Early, intact double karyotheca remained in fiber nucleus, while nuclear chromatin agglutinated. A lot of organelles such as mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticula and Golgi bodies were observed in fiber cell. Then, double karyotheca disappeared , and the organelles disintegrated. Multivesicular bodies appeared in fiber cytoplasm. With the further development of fiber, fiber wall underwent continual thickening with aging, and polylaminate structure gradually appeared. While the agglutinated nucleus, transfer vesicles, plasma membrane and plasmodesmata still presented. During the secondary wall formation of fiber, H+ -ATPase , Ca2+ -ATPase and APase also sustainablely remained in plasma membrane, plasma membrane invagination, plasmodesmata, transfer vesicles and agglutinated nucleus. The results demonstrated that (1) the fiber cell of P. edulis culm is a special long-lived cell, which differs from that of woody dicotyledons, and (2) the sustainable persistence of ATPase and APase in fiber protoplast is closely correlated
    to the continual thickening of secondary wall with ageing .
    A Statistical and Comparative Analysis of Genetic Detected by Different Molecular Markers
    ZHANG De-Quan , , YANG Yong-Ping
    2008, 30(02):  159-167. 
    Abstract ( 2939 )   HTML ( )   PDF (864KB) ( 3502 )   Save
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    This paper presented a statistical and comparative analysis of common parameters of plant genetic diversity by using relevant data of 314 wild plant species from 235 published articles. The results indicated that the parameters of genetic diversity revealed by RAPD and AFLP are comparable, but all parameters of genetic variation detected by ISSR, allozyme and SSR are incomparable , which are not comparative with those by RAPD and AFLP. The genetic differentiation value Gst based on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is obviously lower than the value Φst based on AMOVA analysis, which showed that these two parameters are incomparable as well. Furthermore, the statistical and comparative results of genetic diversity of 179 plant species by RAPD and AFLP indicated that at population level: 1) the genetic diversity of gymnosperm is higher than those of both dicotyledon and monocotyledon of angiosperm, but lower genetic differentiation; 2) the genetic diversity of tree is higher than those of shrub and herb, but lower genetic differentiation; 3) the clonal plant has higher genetic diversity than those reproduce sexnally, and 4) the cross-breeding plant has higher genetic diversity than self- breeding plant; 5 ) the widespread plant species has higher genetic diversity than the rare, endangered or endemic species.
    Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis(Lembophyllaceae) in Fanjing Mountain
    LI Zhao-Yang, LI Jing , TIAN Xiang-Rong, JIANG Ye-Fang, CHEN Jun
    2008, 30(02):  168-172. 
    Abstract ( 2745 )   HTML ( )   PDF (896KB) ( 1955 )   Save
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    Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis is the only Dolichomitriopsis species in China, and is the member of Lembophyllaceae. Ten random primer pairs were selected to amplified 153 individuals from 14 D. diversiformis populations from both northern and southern slops of Fanjing Mountains by using RAPD methods, and 196 sites were derived . Results suggested that (1) D. diversiformis from FanjingMount kept a high level genetic diversity, and the genetic diversity is relative low at the population level ; (2) genetic diversity have no relationship with altitude, but populations on southern slope have a little higher diversity than that on the northern slope; (3) 63.29% genetic diversity exist among populations, and only 36.71% within population. These results suggested that small habitat was the major impact factors of D. diversiformis genetic diversity, genetic drift and habit adaption should be the prominent reason of population differentiation .
    Preliminary Investigation of Extrafloral Nectaried Plants the Tropical Rainforests in Xishuangbanna, China
    LIU Jing-Xin, , CHEN Jin
    2008, 30(02):  173-182. 
    Abstract ( 2519 )   HTML ( )   PDF (940KB) ( 2301 )   Save
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    In order to understand the distribution pattern of the extrafloral nectaried plants in the tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan , China, we investigated seven forest communities ( three primary forests and four secondary forests at different ages) in Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve . Fifty-two species belonging to 36 genera and 23 families accounting for 12.3% of 424 angiosperm species in the seven communities were found to bear extrafloral nectaries ( EFNs ). Among which, eight genera and 37 species were the first time to be recorded as plants to bear EFNs. The study indicated, (1)The EFN species mainly occurred in subclasses Dilleniidae, Rosidae and Asteridae of the Magnoliopsida , and the most common EFNs were flattened glands situated on leaf blades ; (2) The proportions of EFN species within the seven communities ranged from 9.5% ( Vatica guangxiensis forest ) to 18 .5% ( Macaranga denticulata forest ), and the EFN species appeared to be more abundant in the secondary forests than those in the primary forests; (3) EFN species were disproportionally distributed among different growth forms, with the abundance being: tree > shrub > liana > herb , and no epiphytic and parasitic plants were found to bear EFNs.
    Effects of Light Treatment on the Germination of Pometia tomentosa (Sapindaceae) Seeds
    YAN Xing-Fu , , CAO Min
    2008, 30(02):  183-189. 
    Abstract ( 3080 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1034KB) ( 2076 )   Save
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    The present paper examined the effects of light treatments on the seed germination of Pometia tomentosa—a canopy tree species in seasonal rain forest of Xishuangbanna. The results showed that the final germination percentage of P. tomentosa seed was high under both consecutive illumination and 14 h/10 h light-darkness cycle of all light intensities, and no significant difference was observed among treatments. Illumination reduced the coefficient of germination rate, but increased germination index and vigor index. The germination percentage increased with decreasing light intensity in shade house and the highest germination percentage (78.9% ) was achieved at 0.6% of natural sunlight (NS), and the lowest germination percentage (27.8%) was achieved at 100% of NS. The germination percentage at 100% of NS was significantly lower than those of shading treatments, although there were no significant differences among shading treatments. The coefficient of germination rate in shading treatment decreased with reducing light intensity, while germination index and vigor index exhibited a converse tendency. It is suggested that the germination of P . tomentosa seed in shading treatment can be affected by seed desiccation resulting from evaporation of soil water under high light intensity and by the death of“germinated seeds”which could not grow to match the criterion of germination. This implies that both avoiding the death of seed desiccation resulted from high temperature under high light intensity and improving the quality of seed germination and seedling survival by providing suitable light for them are emphasized in the protection of germplasm resources of P. tomentosa.

    Study on Structural Traits of Seed of Myricaria laxiflora (Tamaricaceae)
    TAO Yong , CHEN Fang , WAN Kai-Yuan , LI Jian-Qiang, MENG Ai-Ping , CHEN Shu-Sen
    2008, 30(02):  190-194. 
    Abstract ( 2844 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1330KB) ( 2002 )   Save
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    The anatomy structure traits suitable for long-distance hydrochory , of the seed of Myricaria laxiflora , an endemic riverain shrub , distributed along the Yangtze River from Chongqing to Yichang, were investigated . Results suggest that a mature seed, without endosperm, involves an erect embryo, and one layer of seed coat cells, outside of which is covered with a thick layer of lipid integument . The cells of hypocotyl and cotyledon array like longitudinal lines, and between the lines, an obvious linear gap can be seen. Sometimes, pits may appear in hypocotyl areas. In radicle areas, there are palisade cells and a lucuna which located above micropyle and formed via knockdown parenchyma cells . The central vascular strand goes through major part of embryo, and in the areas to where the central vascular strand can not extend, there exists a regional conducting system. The structural traits of seed facilitate species spreading but contrarily confine its efficacy. The results can provide biological foundations for ecological researches related to its population construction .
    Medical Ethnobotany of the Run Dialect People of Li Minority in Hainan
    ZHENG Xi-Long , , CHEN Hong-Feng , LI Rong-Tao , XING Fu-Wu
    2008, 30(02):  195-210. 
    Abstract ( 3098 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1452KB) ( 2259 )   Save
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    Li Minority in Hainan has a long tradition of using medicinal plants. One branch of Li Minority———Run Dialect People, who live in mountainous areas, are highly dependent on natural resources, especially for medicine purpose. An investigation aiming to document medicinal plant uses was carried out for the first time. Key informant interviews and participatory observation were adopted to obtain information. Ten well-known herbalists from different villages were selected as Key informants . In total , 282 species in 89 families and 222 genera that have indigenous uses were collected and identified. Plant species that most frequently reported were used for rheumatoid arthritis (27.7%) , intestinal tract disease (16.0% ), gore (15. 6%) and traumatic bleeding ( 13.5%). Oral administration and external use were primary remedies. Leaves were part of plants most used ( 48.7% of the species ), followed by roots ( 18.1% ), whole plant ( 15.2%), bark ( 11.8% ), stem (4.1% ) and fruits ( 2.2%). Of these 282 species , 42 species ( 14.9% ) were not previously reported as having medicinal properties. The uses of 131 species (46.5%) were similar while 109 species (38.7% ) were different, compared with that reported in the literatures of Chinese Traditional Medicine . However , it was found that medicinal ethno-botanical knowledge had lost a lot in villages where traditional life manners and custom had changed rapidly . Therefore furtherresearch is necessary .
    Biochemical Characteristics of Rice Endophytic Diazotrophic
    Bacteria and Their Infection to Tobacco and Maiz
    WANG Yi-Qun , ZHONG Xiu-Rong
    2008, 30(02):  211-220. 
    Abstract ( 2628 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1349KB) ( 2443 )   Save
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    Some biochemical properties of rice endophytic diazotrophic bacteria N1 ( Bacillus pumilus), N2 ( Enterobacter cloacae) and N3 ( Enterococcus gallinarum) were characterized in this study. The plasmids harboring the reporter gene lacZ fused to the promoters of nifH and nifHDK, and the reporter gene gfp as well, were first transformed into rice endophytic diazotrophic bacteria respectively through triparental mating. After the conjugated bacteria were inoculated into tobacco Yunyan 85 and maize Jitian 6, the staining of β-galactosidase was carried out on the tobacco and maize roots and the observation was made under the confocal laser scanning microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the rice endophytic diazotrophic bacteria were not only present in epidermal cells, cortex cells and intercellular spaces of tobacco and maize roots, but also found in vascular tissue cells of maize stem also, indicating that the bacteria had migrated from the roots into the stem. Data showed that the the fresh weight of maize plants inoculated with rice endophytic diazotrophic bacteria N3 was 18.52% more than that of the control.
    Comparison on Three Mutant Lines with Different Floral Color in SP4 Generation Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae) Induced by Spaceflight
    YANG Jun , , LI Jin-Tao , TANG Ze-Sheng , TAN Xing , ZHANG Xiu-Li
    2008, 30(02):  221-226. 
    Abstract ( 2807 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1128KB) ( 2006 )   Save
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    Three mutant lines with pink, red and purple flowers were cultivated from the descendants of Impatiens balsamina“Yuan 3”induced by spaceflight. The number and arrangement of chromosomes in their male gametes, their pollen activities, as well as cell division during male gametogenesis were investigated. The results were analyzed comparatively with previous reports in SP1, SP2 and SP3 generations. It was found that chromosome numbers in mutant lines with pink or red flower were close to the normal, while the rate of pollens with normal chromosome number in the mutant line with purple
    flower was recorded as low as 2.88%, and the average number was 10.46. Furthermore, paraspore, malformed pollen and irregular arrangement of chromosomes in pollens were observed in the line with purple flower. Statistical analysis via TTC staining showed that the activities of pollens in the mutant line with purple flower were very low. However, the other two lines showed obvious high pollen activities. The results suggested that the lines with red or pink flower trend to be stable, but the line with purple flower was far from stableness .
    Effect of Salt Stress on Seed Germination and Embryo
    Growth of Spartina alterniflora (Gramineae)
    YUAN Ze-Ning, SHI Fu-Chen
    2008, 30(02):  227-231. 
    Abstract ( 2607 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1005KB) ( 2099 )   Save
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    In this paper , the effect of NaCl concentration ( 1× 104 - 6× 104 mg/L) on the seed germination of smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora) was investigated using 1/2 Hoagland as the basic culture solution. The results indicated that the coleoptile and embryonal axis grew before the radicle and plumule in the stage of germination . Salinity level had no influence on the seed germination percentage when the salt concentration didn′t exceed 3×104 mg/L. The optimal salinity level for seed germination and embryo growth was 1×104 mg/L . The inhibit effect of salt concentration on the growth of embryo′s different part was different, and the length of radicle and plumule decreased significantly with the increase of salt concentration. However , the lesser inhibition on the embryonal axis and coleoptile was observed under the higher salt concentration, and thus the seedlings out of soil were ensured and the species was quickly adapted to the environment of inter- tidal zone .
    Structure of Cyclotide: Cycloviolacin O2
    TANG Jun, , TAN Ning-Hua, XU Wen-Yan, , JI Chang-Jiu, , PAN Xu-Lin
    2008, 30(02):  232-238. 
    Abstract ( 2429 )   HTML ( )   PDF (981KB) ( 2146 )   Save
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    Herein we briefly introduced definition, structural characteristic, history, distribution, extraction and isolation, synthesis and biosynthesis, bioactivity and biofunction of cyclotides . Then we gave cycloviolacin O2 as an example , one of six cyclotides isolated from Viola labridorica, to introduce structural determination methods for cyclotides with reductionenzyme digestion-mass spectra and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.
    Three Steroidal Glycosides from the Fresh Fruits of Solanum spirale (Solanaceae)
    TENG Xi-Feng , , ZHANG Ying-Jun, YANG Chong-Ren
    2008, 30(02):  239-242. 
    Abstract ( 2786 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1069KB) ( 1861 )   Save
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    One new steroidal glycoside, 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl - ( 25 R)-furost-3β, 22ξ, 26-triol-5- ene-3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2) -[3 - O - (3- O-acetyl ) -α-L-rhamnopyranosyl -( 1-4 ) ] -β-D-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) were isolated from the fresh fruits of the edible plant Solanum spirale Roxb., together with two known ones, 26- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl - (25 R)-furost-22ξ-methoxyl-3β, 26-diol-5- ene-3- O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl - (1-2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 26- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25 R)-furost-3β, 22ξ, 26-triol-5-ene-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl -( 1-2 )- [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl - ( 1-4 ) ]-β Dglucopyranoside (protodioscin) (3). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR. The known compounds 2-3 were isolated from the title plant for the first time.
    A New Phenyldione from Isodon henryi (Labiatae)
    ZHAO Yong , , , HUANG Sheng-Xiong , YANG Li-Bin , , LI Li-Mei ,
    XIAO Wei-Lie , PU Jian-Xin , SUN Han-Dong
    2008, 30(02):  243-245. 
    Abstract ( 2478 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1058KB) ( 1741 )   Save
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    A new phenyldione named henrydione (1) , together with eight known compounds (2 - 9) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Isodon henryi . The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR and MS means .
    HPLC Analysis of Theanine and Gallic Acid in
    the Species of Camellia sect. Thea
    SHE Gai-Mei , , , ZHANG Xiang-Lan , CHEN Ke-Ke , XU Mei ,
    ZHANG Ying-Jun, YANG Chong-Ren
    2008, 30(02):  246-248. 
    Abstract ( 2684 )   HTML ( )   PDF (849KB) ( 2323 )   Save
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    Bymeans of HPLC technique, the theanine and gallic acid in the leaves of six species and three varieties of Camellia sect. Thea were analyzed. The results showed that both of them were generally occured in these plants and the contents in C. taliensis and C. kwangsiensis are mostly close to those of C. sinensis var. assamica. Since the leaves of C. taliensis have also been historically used for preparing tea by folk peoples of Yunnan province, it could be suggest that C. taliensis might one of the original plants of tea