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25 February 2008, Volume 30 Issue 01
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  • Articles
    Cladistic Analysis of the Genus Salix (Salicaceae)
    CHEN Jia-Hui , , SUN Hang , YANG Yong-Ping
    2008, 30(01):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 3037 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1895KB) ( 2272 )   Save
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    The genus Salix comprises about 500 species , many of which grow in temperate zone of the North Hemisphere. Their variability in morphology , life form and habitats has led to many arguments and different suggestions in terms of taxonomical treatments at both species and genus levels . To understand morphological variation and phylogenetics of Salix, 29 Salix species and Chosenia arbutifolia , including most representative species in the genus Salix , and their 61 morphological characters were used for cladistic analysis . Populus plants were selected as outgroups. In this study , we got 21 equally most parsimonious cladograms of Salix and a strict consensus tree, which shows Chosenia is sister group of Salix and those two taxa form a strongly supported monophyletic clade . The results indicate that the division of Chosenia and Toisusu from Salix as independent genera and any other division on the generic level are not supported, which accords with the evidences from both palynology and molecular systematics. Three subgenera, Subgen. Salix, Subgen. Chamaetia and Subgen. Vetrix form two monophyletic clades respectively. Based on our findings, we proposed to divide Salix into three subgenera, namely Chosenia, Salix, Vetrix. Considered there exist the lower Consistency Index, Retention Index and bootstrap value in the phylogenetic tree, more research for better understanding the infrageneric system of Salix should be fully necessary .
    Notes on the Plants of Gleicheniaceae from China
    JIN Xiao-Feng , DING Bing-Yang
    2008, 30(01):  9-12. 
    Abstract ( 2556 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1582KB) ( 2367 )   Save
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    In the preparation of the revision of Gleicheniaceae from China , a new form, namely Dicranopteris ampla f . irregularis was described . Diplopterygium rufopilosum was reduced to the synonymy of D. rufum . Diplopterygium criticum, Diplopterygium simulans, Hicriopteris reflexa , Diplopterygium glaucoides, Hicriopteris omeiensis and Diplopterygium yunnanense were reduced to the synonymies of Diplopterygium giganteum . A key to the plants of the genus Diplopterygium in China was proposed as well .
    Kengyilia longiaristata———A New Species of the Family Gramineae from Qinghai , China
    WU Yu-Hu
    2008, 30(01):  13-14. 
    Abstract ( 2215 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1579KB) ( 1827 )   Save
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    Kengyilia longiaristata , a new species of Gramineae from Qinghai Province , is described .
    Typification of the Name Chelonopsis albiflora (Labiatae)
    XIANG Chun-Lei , , PENG Hua
    2008, 30(01):  15-16. 
    Abstract ( 2531 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1523KB) ( 1712 )   Save
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    Typification elements within the protologue of Chelonopsis albiflora are fully discussed. The absence of cited original material has led to our choice of a suitable neotype in order to preserve current usage of the name .
    Two Wood-inhabiting Fungi (Basidiomycetes) New to China
    XIONG Hong-Xia , , DAI Yu-Cheng
    2008, 30(01):  17-18. 
    Abstract ( 2479 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1672KB) ( 1848 )   Save
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    Two wood-inhabiting fungi, Hypochniciellum cremeoisabellinum and Mucronella bresadolae, were collected from Changbaishan Nature Reserve , Jilin Province . Both of them are first time reported in China .Meanwhile , the genus of Hypochniciellum and Mucronella are new to Chinese fungi flora . The illustrated descriptions of the two species are given according to the Chinese materials .
    Comparative Anatomy on Leaves of the Annonaceae
    SUN Tong-Xing , WU Hong , LI Ping-Tao
    2008, 30(01):  19-37. 
    Abstract ( 2547 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3768KB) ( 2245 )   Save
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    The leaf form and structure of 93 species and 2 varieties of Annonaceae were comparatively studied with the help of scanning electron microscope, epidermal maceration and paraffin section method . The results showed that the anatomical feathers of the family revealed a remarkable consistency . The leaf surface of Annonaceae are covered with induments, most epidermal cells contained one crystal, the stomatal apparatus are paracytic with 2 to 6 subsidiary cells and distribute on abaxial epidermis, the arrested stomata are found in every species, and the mesophyll tissues contained oil cells. However, the pattern of trichomes, the shape of epidermal cells and the type of crytals in epidermal cells and the structures of mesophyll tissue varies obviously with species and genera.
    Leaf Epidermal Microfeatures of Salix (Salicaceae) under Scanning Electronic Microscope and Its Taxonomical Significance
    CHEN Jia-Hui , , SUN Hang , YANG Yong-Ping
    2008, 30(01):  38-46. 
    Abstract ( 2965 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1841KB) ( 2004 )   Save
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    This paper presents the leaf epidermal microfeatures of 29 Salix species examined under scanning electronic microscope. Our results shown that the wax layer of Salix can be further divided into 6 types, crust ( present in S . cardiophylla, S. exigua, S . matsudana, S. clathrata , S. flabellaris, S. sinica , and S. gordejevii), layers with raised granules( present in S. paralesia, S. babylonica, S. myrtillaceae, and S. lindleyana ), smooth film ( present in S . tetrasperma, S. pentandra, S. maccalliana, S. polaris, S. polyadenia, S. turczaninowii, and S. berberifolia ), granules ( present in S . brachista, S. rotundifolia), conicoids (present in S. magnifica, S. flabellaris, S. oreophilla, S. souliei, S. arctica, S. sinica, S. variegate, S. cheilophila, and S. gordejevii), and scale- like conicoids ( present in S. triandra, S. alatavica, and S. hastata). Among them, the subtype of cale- like conicoids and coicoids were found only in both subgenus Chamaetia and subgenus Salix , two relatively advance subgenera in the genus Salix , so we speculate that conicoide is probably an advanced microfeature. We also found the inner margin of outer stomatal ledge was mostly smooth and seldom sinuous, and the later was observed only in the alpine and arctic Salix species. The morphology and keratinized of outer stomatal ledge together with wax morphology were relatively constant and quite useful for distinguishing species with similar phenotypes, but little valuable in the discrimination at section or subgenus level.

    Seed Morphology of Calligonum Sect. Eucalligonum (Polygonaceae) in Xinjiang and Its Taxonomic Significance
    FENG Ying, PAN Bo-Rong, SHEN Guan-Mian
    2008, 30(01):  47-50. 
    Abstract ( 2434 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1075KB) ( 1898 )   Save
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    Species of Calligonum are xerophytes growing extensively in sand deserts and Gobi Deserts in China . Xinjiang is an area where the most species ( as many as 19 species) of Calligonum grow in China, and these species occupy 82.6% of the total species in China, in which 5 species are endemic to Xinjiang. In this study, the seed morphology of 11 species of Calligonum sect.Eucalligonum growing in Xinjiang is observed using a stereomicroscope, and a key to the species is provided. The results show that the species can be divided into three groups in terms of their seeds morphology: (1) species with one row of bristles along each rib of achene; (2) species with two rows of bristles along each rib of achene ; and (3) species with three rows of bristles along each rib of achene are significantly different , and these properties can be regarded as the taxonomic bases among the species of the sect. Eucalligonum.
    Comparative Morphology of Leaf Epidermis of the Tribe Mutisieae (Compositae) in East Asia and Its Related Groups
    LIN Na-Na , , WANG Hong, LI De-Zhu
    2008, 30(01):  51-63. 
    Abstract ( 2571 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3660KB) ( 1972 )   Save
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    Leaf epidermis of 31 species belonging to 12 genera of the tribe Mutisieae from both East Asia and South America was investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that the stomatal apparatus was mainly staurocytic and anomocytic, and presented in abaxial epiderimis of all studied species and in the adaxial epidermis of some species. The leaf epidermal cells were usually polygonal or irregular bearing with the anticlinal walls straight or arched, sinuolate, sinuous to sinuate. The major shapes of stomatal apparatus were elliptical or nearly rounded, the inner margin of the outer stomatal rim ranged from nearly-smooth to sinuolate, the outer stomatal rim of Macroclinidium was two pairs and quite different from other species. The leaf surface is mostly smooth and no waxy or corneous types; however there are some species with the surface covered with ridges of wax or waxy types. The result showed that the characters of leaf epidermis were little difference among species but can serve as a criterion for distinguishing among genera, in particular among generic groups and subtribs.
    The DNA Extracting and SSR Primer Screening of
    Acacia pennata (Leguminosae)
    GAO Jie , , LI Qiao-Ming
    2008, 30(01):  64-68. 
    Abstract ( 2303 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1097KB) ( 2208 )   Save
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    The total DNA of wild Acacia pennata and cultivated variety were analyzed using SSR markers . We improved CTAB DNA isolation method and PCR amplified conditions . 12 primers were screened from 82 primers existing in Acacia genus, which had high polymorphism and stability. The results provided references for genetic diversity research of Acacia pennata using SSR marker.
    Genetic Structure and Clonal Diversity of Cypripedium flavum (Orchidaceae) Populations from South-West China
    CAI Ning-Feng , , YAN Ning , HU Hong , LIU Tao
    2008, 30(01):  69-75. 
    Abstract ( 2947 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1057KB) ( 1957 )   Save
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    Six populations of Cypripedium flavum were studied on their genetic diversity, genetic structure, and clonal diversity in Zhongdian County , Yunnan Province (South-west China). Using POPGENE software, 86 polymorphic loci was obtained using two AFLP primer combinations, and the proportion of polymorphic loci was 82.69%. A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed: He = 0.2884 , Ho = 0.4312 ( at species level ) ; P = 64.59% , He = 0.2449 , Ho = 0.3606 ( at population level ). Genetic differentiation among populations was not high ( Gst = 0.154). A relatively high level of gene flow was obtained among populations. Clonal diversity of populations was high ( D = 0.9638 - 0.9960 , GN = 0.83 - 0.96), and ramets of same genotype were adjacent . C. flavum was found with high level of genetic diversity. This may be explained by gene heterozygosity increasing by seedling recruitment and maintaining by clonal reproduction .
    On the Compound Quantitative Characteristic Trait of Seed Recalcitrance
    WEN Bin
    2008, 30(01):  76-88. 
    Abstract ( 2535 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1026KB) ( 2229 )   Save
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    This paper epitomized the evolution of concept of seed recalcitrance . After reviewing the previous dissertation on quantitative characteristic trait of recalcitrant seeds, three aspects of quantitative characteristic trait of seed recalcitrant were defined , which are interspecific aspect , intraspecific aspect and individual developmental aspect. And it was supposed that seed recalcitrance was a compound characteristic, with its core composed of desiccation tolerance, low-temperature tolerance and storage tolerance at least, and its concomitants composed of seed size, 1000-seed weight, moisture content at shedding, non-dormancy, systemic taxonomy, ecological and biochemical aspects. Because these core and concomitants are all gradual, transitional and quantitative, it was inferred that seed recalcitrance was a compound quantitative trait. The viewpoint that seed recalcitrance is a compound quantitative trait is a new and further cognition, which will be a help for studying causes and resolve of seed recalcitrance on species-specific basis.
    Genetic Modifications on Industrial Characteristics of Seed Oils
    CHENG Hong-Yan , SONG Song-Quan
    2008, 30(01):  89-94. 
    Abstract ( 2317 )   HTML ( )   PDF (795KB) ( 2204 )   Save
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    Seed oils of non-traditional oil crop plants contain special fatty acids with conjugated double bond systems, acetylenic ( triple ) bonds, or have additional functional moieties, such as hydroxyl or epoxy groups, which have potential uses as industrial raw materials . The expression of the genes which are related to the biosynthesis of these special fatty acids in traditional oilseed crops could modify the seed oils to serve as renewable alternatives to traditional petrochemicals, including cosmetic, detergents , surfactants, lubricants, nylon , coatings , inks , sealants , emulsifiers , encapsulants, plastic films, wax and biodiesel . The progress on the genetic modification of seed oils which aimed to produce industrial raw materials is reviewed in the present paper.
    Effect of High Temperature on the Cell Membrane, Membrane Lipid, and Ascorbic Acid Metabolism in Rauwolfia( Rauvolfia vericillata, Apocynaceae)
    TIAN Xue-Jun , LONG Yun-Hui , ZHANG De-Gang , HE Ying
    2008, 30(01):  95-98. 
    Abstract ( 2309 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1221KB) ( 1867 )   Save
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    To explore the mechanism of growth retardation under high temperature in Rauwolfia ( Rauvolfia vericillata), the effects of high temperature on membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation , and antioxidant ascorbic acid were examined by measuring the electric conductivity, membrane lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA), and changes of ascorbic acid in Rauwolfia leaves. The results showed that exposure to high temperature (44℃ and 50℃) resulted in increases in electric conductivity and MDA, and decrease in levels of abscorbic acid. Heat acclimation, pretreatment at 37℃, however, maintains ascorbic acid at higher levels than that without heat acclimation , which may be helpful for Rauwolfia to resist heat stress.
    Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cut Roses under Greenhouse Condition in the Middle of Yunnan Province
    LI Shu-Fa , ZHANG Hao , TANG Kai-Xue, WANG Qi-Gang , WANG Zhong-You
    2008, 30(01):  99-104. 
    Abstract ( 2712 )   HTML ( )   PDF (844KB) ( 1999 )   Save
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    Rosa hybrida is not only a famous traditional flower in China, but also one of the most key cut-flowers, playing an important role in the flower production and trade in the world . To develop the cultivation strategy of high yield and quality for cut-flower rose in the middle of Yunnan province, the photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of three cultivars (Black Magic , Virdi and Pareo) was studied under greenhouse condition. In any season and any developmental stage, the photosynthetic rates of three cultivars showed significant depression at midday. The maximal photosynthetic rates were observed between 10: 00 - 11 : 00 in the morning. The middle leaves of rose canopy have the highest photosynthetic capacity, followed by the upper leaves and lower leaves; while the changes in chlorophyll content with leaf position exhibited the order middle leaves > lower leaves > upper leaves. The midday depression in photosynthetic rates of cut-flower rose in the middle of Yunnan province was correlated to the high temperature in the greenhouse , and while the change in photosynthetic rates with leaf position is correlated with light environment , chlorophyll content, and leaf age. The cultivation strategy for cut-flower rose in the middle of Yunnan province is discussed.
    Effects of Nitrogen Source and Fungal Elicitors on Biomass and Polysaccharide Accumulation in Suspension Cultured Protocorms of Dendrobium candidum (Orchidaceae)
    SONG Jing-Yuan, GUO Shun-Xing, XIAO Pei-Gen
    2008, 30(01):  105-109. 
    Abstract ( 2449 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1008KB) ( 2014 )   Save
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    Biotic and abiotic elicitors have dramatically promoted the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. In this paper , through the orthogonal design and the randomized complete experimental design, we have investigated effects of nitrate source and fungal elicitors on growth and polysaccharide accumulation in suspension cultured protocorms of Dendrobium candidum. It has been found that nitrate (KNO3) promoted propagation of D. candidum protocorms in suspension culture, fresh weight and dry weight of protocorms increased significantly ( P < 0.05). However, ammonium ( (NH4 )2 SO4 ) only stimulated significant increase of fresh weight of protocorms ( P <0. 05), nitrate and ammonium were not interrelated for biomass of protocorms. The results demonstrate that 67-V medium supplemented with (NH4 )2 SO4 100mg/L, KNO3 800mg/L, sucrose 30g/L and potato extract 200 g/L was best for the growth of protocorms. In addition, fourteen fungal elicitors did not significantly influence biomass of suspension cultured protocorms of D. candidum ( P > 0.05). However, compared with the content of polysaccharides in the control, the one in the protocorms of D. candidum elicited by fungi g6, g14, g5 and g4 raised 14%, 9%, 6% and 4% , respectively. Since D. candidum is a rare medicinal plant and polysaccharides are important active components in the plant, our results show good application prospect for producing protocorms of D. candidum in suspension culture.
    The Influencing Factors on Gastrodin Content in the Herbal Materials of Gastrodia elata (Orchidaceae)
    YUAN Shen-Hao , , WANG Dong , ZHANG Xiang-Lan , ZHANG Ying-Jun , YANG Chong-Ren
    2008, 30(01):  110-114. 
    Abstract ( 2705 )   HTML ( )   PDF (896KB) ( 2572 )   Save
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    The influencing factors on gastrodin content in the crude materials of Gastrodia elata were investigated by HPLC analysis . The results indicated that the preparing method of post harvest is a more important factor for the gastrodin content, comparing to those brought about by the growing areas and herbal varieties . Among the different processing methods, steaming produced the most impact effect on the increment of gastrodin in the herbal material . The possible mechanism of gastrodin formation during the crude process was also discussed.
    A New Fructofuranoside from Helwingia chinensis (Cornaceae)
    LAI Guo-Fang , , ZHAO Pei-Ji , NI Zhi-Wei , XU Yun-Long ,
    WANG Mei , LUO Shi-De , WANG Yi-Fen
    2008, 30(01):  115-120. 
    Abstract ( 2641 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1261KB) ( 1888 )   Save
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    A new fructofuranoside , together with ten known compounds were isolated from the EtOH extraction of the aerial part of Helwingia chinensis. Their structures were elucidated to be 2 - O- ( E)- caffeoyl-3- O -(3 , 5-dimethoxylcoumaroyl )-α-D-fructofuranose (1) , 2- O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D- allopyranose (2 ) , liquiritigenin ( 3) , 4′-hydroxy-2 , 3-dihydro-flavonone-7- O-β-D-glucoside ( 4) , daidzin ( 5) , apigenin 5- O-glucopyranoside (6), apigenin-7- O-β-D-glucoside (7) , coumaric acid 4- O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) , glucopyranosylcaffeic acid (9) , 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene (10 ) , diosgenin 3- O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1 → 2 ) -[α-L-arabinofuranosyl ( 1 → 3 ) ] -β-D-glucopyranoside ( 11 ) by intensive interpretation of spectral data.
    Triterpenoids from Saurauia napaulensis (Saurauiaceae)
    WANG Qiong , JU Peng, WANG Yi-Fen, LUO Shi-De
    2008, 30(01):  121-124. 
    Abstract ( 1966 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1118KB) ( 1748 )   Save
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    A new triterpenoid and seven known compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Saurauia napaulensis. The new structure was elucidated as 2α, 3α, 24- trihydroxy-12-ursene-23-al-28-oic acid by spectral methods .
    Quantification of Flavonoid Compounds from Strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa) and Correlation Effects with Antioxidant Activities
    ZHENG Hu-Zhe , , LEE Hye-Ryun , CUI Chun-Lan , HWANG In-Wook ,
    KWON Sun-Young , CHUNG Shin-Kyo
    2008, 30(01):  125-128. 
    Abstract ( 2265 )   HTML ( )   PDF (971KB) ( 2120 )   Save
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    The amounts of flavonoid (myricetin , quercetin and kaempferol), antioxidant contents ( total phenolic and total flavonoid) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) were analyzed in strawberry. Quantitative analysis of conjugated flavonoid contents were obtained after different hydrolysis concentration and reaction period . The highest yields of myricetin and quercetin were found with 1.0M HCl and a reaction period of 0.5 hr, however , for kaempferol was 1.0M HCl and a reaction period of 1hr , respectively. In the study, we also estimated the correlation coefficient of TPC, TFC, DPPH and FRAP. In addition , a positive correlation was observed ( r = 0.980, P < 0.05) between TPC and TFC, TPC and TFC are correlated to the DPPH activity (r = 0.913, P < 0.05 and r = 0.899 , P < 0.05 , respectively) , and to the FRAP activity ( r = 0.958, P < 0.05 and r = 0.936, P < 0.05, respectively), respectively. These results pointed out that strawberry generally possesses a high level of antioxidant activities, which could be linked to the levels of phenolic compounds in the fruit.