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25 August 2012, Volume 34 Issue 4
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  • Articles
    Analysis on the Geographical Distribution Characteristics of Angiopteridaceae and Its Causes in Yungui Plateau and Hengduan Mountains, China
    WANG Chong-Yun-, YANG Bin-, HE Zhao-Rong
    2012, 34(4):  317-325.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11152
    Abstract ( 2172 )   HTML ( )   PDF (945KB) ( 2093 )   Save
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    According to the specimens of the Angiopteridaceae reserved in PYU, PE, KUN, and IBSC, and other published data, a GIS database of Angiopteridaceae had been established to analyse the diversity and endemism of species in Yunnan Province, China. Furthermore, the characteristics of geographical distribution of the Angiopteridaceae in Yungui Plateau and Hengduan Mountains were illustrated. The results were as follows: i. Angiopteridaceae had diverse species and were widely distributed in Yunnan, from alt. 100m to alt. 2400m; ii. Southeastern Yunnan was the center of species diversity and endemic distribution, and species diversity declines from southeast towards west and northwest in Yunnan; iii. Comparing 2 genera of Angiopteridaceae in Yunnan, Archangiopteris was relatively lower in species diversity but its endemic level was higher than Angiopteris. Next, the causes driving the distribution pattern of 5 widespread species and 1 species that growing only in valley habitat, as well as the distribution pattern of 5 endemic species were analysed. As an elementary conclusion was made, the distribution pattern of the widedistributed species was formed before the Quaternary glaciation, and the pattern of valley species was formed after the Tertiary. Meanwhile, the speciation of endemic species was mainly due to natural hybridization and edge effect.

    Pollen Morphology of Tibetia (Fabaceae) from the Hengduan Mountains, with Emphasis on the Taxonomical Status of Tibetia liangshanensis
    XIE Yan-Ping-, SUN Hang-, NIE Ze-Long
    2012, 34(4):  326.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.12006
    Abstract ( 2486 )   HTML ( )   PDF (18142KB) ( 2283 )   Save
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    To clarify the pollen morphology and the taxonomical status of Tibetia liangshanensis in Tibetia, a small genus endemic in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China, we reexamined the pollen morphology of all species of Tibetia (except for a plausible species, T.forrestii) using SEM in this study. The pollen data for T.liangshanensis was corrected and the others (T.himalaica, T.yunnanensis, T.tongolensis and T.yadongensis) were confirmed. The shapes of Tibetia’s pollen grains are spheroidal or subprolate with perforate surfaces. Two types of pollen grains were found (i.e., 3-colporate and 4-colporate), corresponding to two sections recognized in this genus. The results showed that the pollen grain of T.liangshanensis is 4colporate. However, it was reported as 3colporate pollens and treated as a synonym of T.forrestii. Morphologically, the two species are very distinct with T.liangshanensis in having leaflets 13-17, stipules free and corolla purple, while T.forrestii with leaflets 7-9, stipules connate at base and corolla yellow. The epidermal characters of the two species are also distinguished under SEM. Therefore, we suggested that T.liangshanensis should regain its taxonomical status at the species level.

    The Floristic Analysis of Seed Plants in Hangzhou West Lake Area from Zhejiang Province
    JIN Ming-Long-, WU Ji-Hang-, JIN Xiao-Feng-, DING Bing-Yang
    2012, 34(4):  333.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.12002
    Abstract ( 2253 )   HTML ( )   PDF (540KB) ( 2251 )   Save
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    The flora of wild seed plants in Hangzhou West Lake area, Zhejiang Province is analyzed in this paper. There are 1111 species of seed plants which belong to 572 genera of 143 families in this area. At family level, the proportion of the pantropic type is larger than others and reaches 48.9%, while the tropic types are more than the temperate ones (64∶28). At genus level, the temperate types is more than the tropic ones (268∶220). At species level, the temperate types is far more than the tropic ones (502∶234). It is obviously that the flora in this area is characterized by the northern area of subtropics feature. On the other hand, 546 genera, which include only 1 species or 2-5 species, occupy 879 species. At species level, the East Asia type (33.7%) is almost equivalent to the endemic to China type (32.2%). Most of the East Asia species are belonged to SinoJapan type. Based on the subarea of China, the endemic species to China can be divided into 9 subtypes, and the subtype of East ChinaCentral ChinaSouth China holds the biggest proportion (46.0%). We conclude that the seed plants in the West Lake area are colorful, geographical components are multiform and the characteristic is on the eastern area of East China.

    Studies on the Formation of Microspores and Development of Male Gametophyte in Acer yanjuechi (Aceraceae)
    XU Xiao-Lian-, JIN He-Xian-, CHEN Xiang-Bo
    2012, 34(4):  339.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11175
    Abstract ( 2066 )   HTML ( )   PDF (21997KB) ( 2207 )   Save
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     Acer yanjuechi is on the extremely endangered situation. This paper studied the formation of microspores and development of male gametophyte in Acer yanjuechi by using paraffin method to find the cause. The results are as follows: there are two kinds of flowers in Acer yanjuechi, bisexual flower and male flower. The stamens of male flowers could dehisce, but bisexual ones could not. Four pollen sacs make up one anther. The anther wall is of ground form. The endothercium develops fibular thickenings, and the tapetum is of the glandular type. The cytokinesis of the microspore mother cells in meiosis is of the simultaneous type. The microspore tetrads is of tetrahedral, and pollen grains are twocelled when mature. In the whole development of anthers, pollen abortions appear constantly and make pollens shriveled and embolic. The reasons are following: the callose dissolve ahead of time, nucleus microspore adhere to each other, anthers become vacuolating, and so on, which maybe one of the causes of being in danger of Acer yanjuechi. Pollen viability was detected initially, ranging from 36.98% to 60.54%, and the average is 45.97%. This article laid the foundation of anatomical data about Acer yanjuechi in the formation of microspores and development of male gametophyte.

    Nomenclatural Notes on Alien Invasive Vascular Plants in China (2)
    SHOU Hai-Yiang, YAN Xiao-Ling, MA Jin-Shuang
    2012, 34(4):  347.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.12016
    Abstract ( 3039 )   HTML ( )   PDF (661KB) ( 2217 )   Save
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     Some literatures recorded on the invasive plants in China are confused. Authors from the different regions in different time treated same species with different scientific names, or different species with same Chinese name, especially in the local reports. All those made it much worse in the study of alien invasive plants in China. This work reports twenty confused species, includes their scientific and Chinese names, synonyms, their origin, distribution in China, and necessary discussions.

    A New Record of Celastrus (Celastraceae) in China and Its Implication for the Genus
    MU Xian-Yun-, TAN Yun-Hong-, ZHANG Zhi-Xiang
    2012, 34(4):  354.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11186
    Abstract ( 1903 )   HTML ( )   PDF (622KB) ( 2006 )   Save
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    A new record of Celastrus species in China, C.monospermoides is identified when performing a field investigation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province in 2011 for the taxonomic revision of the genus. Though morphologically similar to C.monospermus, it can be distinguished by narrow elliptic leaves with acuminate apex (vs. elliptic, broadly elliptic or obovateelliptic leaves), fruits without conspicuous gynophores, and relatively smaller seeds (shorter than 12mm vs. longer than 15mm in length). However, it is not clustered in the same clade with C.monospermus, but closely neighbor to C.hindsii in the molecular phylogenetic analysis. For it was recorded endemic to tropical area in Asia such as Indonesia, Malaya, and Philippines, there must be more populations distributed between these area and Yunnan Province in China. This distribute pattern provide new clues in understanding the origin and divergence of the genus Celastrus.

    Soil Respiration under Three Landuse Categories of Mountainous Region in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan
    WU Jun-Jie-, XU Jian-Chu-, LI Yun-Ju
    2012, 34(4):  357.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11177
    Abstract ( 2516 )   HTML ( )   PDF (888KB) ( 1978 )   Save
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    In order to study the difference of the soil respiration under different landuses in Xishuangbanna, field observations were conducted on the soil respiration rate from November 2010 to May 2011 under forest tea plantations, terrace tea plantations and secondary forests. Daily variations of soil respiration and its influence factors were analyzed. The results showed that there are different dailychange patterns of soil respiration rate and soil moisture under different landuses, with statistically insignificance of soil respiration rate (P<0.05). The daily maximum soil respiration rate is almost at 14∶00-16∶00. The soil respiration rate and soil moisture vary most during the dry rainy transition season. The average soil respiration rate: forest tea plantations (2.62μmol·m-2s-1)

    Distribution Patterns of Invasive Plants in Heilongjiang Province and the Impact Factors
    LU Ping-, ZHAO Na-, LI Jing-Xin
    2012, 34(4):  367.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11138
    Abstract ( 2276 )   HTML ( )   PDF (745KB) ( 2230 )   Save
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    It is significant to study the relationships between the distribution of invasive plant and the economic, social, environment conditions of the city/region for controling and preventing invasive plants under the province level. Based on literature consultation, specimens consultation and field survey, used correlation analysis to determine the effects of socialeconomic factors and ecological environmental factors on the distribution of invasive plants in Heilongjiang Province. The results showed that there were 52 invasive plant species in Heilongjiang Province, the invasive plants belonging to 19 families, most invasive plants belonging to Compositae family, less belonging to Amaranthaceae family. Hibiscus trionum and Oenothera erythrosepala were the most frequently invasive plants, most of the 52 species were annuals or twoyear herbage,most of the species originated from the North America and Europe. Most invasive plants were found in Harbin, less were found in Mudanjiang, Qiqihaer and Suihua, least were distributed in Shuangyashan, Daqing and Qitaihe. Total population and production value of the transport, storage and post were the two factors which impact the distribution pattern mostly, while for the density of the invasive plant species, the total land area, and the area of nature reserves were negatively related with the density.


    Plant Diversity and Its Elevational Gradient Patterns in Wulu Mountain, Shanxi, China
    QU Bo-, MIAO Yan-MIng-, ZHANG Qin-Di-, BI Run-Cheng
    2012, 34(4):  376.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.12022
    Abstract ( 2358 )   HTML ( )   PDF (771KB) ( 1995 )   Save
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    Samplings were gathered and examined in forests along altitudinal gradients of Wulu Mountain, China. The results indicated that the major communities in the forests can be classified as Quercus wutaishanica, Pinus tabulaeformis, Acer ginnala, Betula platyphylla, Pinus bungeana, Syringa  reticulate Acer ginnala and Betula platyphylla community. Our research suggests that the Quercus wutaishanica community appears to be a dominant community in a successional stage toward temperate deciduous broadleaved forests. The species richness in different layers of these communities can be distinguished as, herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer. Both the ShannonWiener diversity index and Simpson diversity index showed similar patterns. The species diversity indices of different layers and overall importance value of the forest communities indicate that the forests appear to be successional and subclimax communities in Wulu Mountain. Our research also suggests that there is a peak with higher species diversity index in the communities of middle elevation. We suggested that the pattern could be affected by temperature, moisture, and human disturbance. The pattern could also be influenced by the nature of successional stages and subclimax communities.

    Profiling of Membrane Lipids of Arabidopsis Roots during Catechin Treatment
    ZHENG Guo-Wei-, CHEN Jia-, LI Wei-Qi
    2012, 34(4):  383.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.12005
    Abstract ( 1893 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1035KB) ( 2000 )   Save
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    Catechin is a kind of phytotoxin and can kill plant cells in an hour. It can be developed as herbicide to kill weeds due to its strong phytotoxic activity. The main effect of this chemical is to trigger the death of the root system. To understand the response of root cell membrane lipids to catechin stress, we used the lipidomics approach to study the profiles of Arabidopsis root lipids molecules under catechin treatment. The changes of molecular species in membrane lipids, content of membrane lipids, double bond index (DBI) and acyl chain carbon number of the fatty acid were examined in Wild type (WS) and PLDδ deficient mutant (PLDδKO) during catechin treatment. The results indicated that after 90 min treatment with catechin, the lipid contents of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) decreased both in WS and PLDδKO roots, lipid contents of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PS) decreased in WS roots, but increase in PLDδKO roots, lipid contents of (phosphatidic acid) PA increased at the begin of treatment and declined to the level of control in WS roots. The ratio of the two major lipids in roots, PC and PE, declined significantly in PLDδKO plants, the acyl carbon number of PS in WS plants increased. The results suggested that PLDδKO is more sensitive than WS during catechin treatment, and suppression of PLDδ exacerbated membrane damage induced by catechin.

    Allelopathic Effects of Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on the Root Development of Four Cultivar Plants in Their Early Growth Stages
    ZHANG Qiu-Ju-, ZHANG Ai-Hua-, YANG He-, ZHANG Lian-Xue
    2012, 34(4):  391.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11172
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    Some allelochemicals, including ginsenosides secreted from the roots of ginseng and American ginseng, have been considered to play a regulatory role in population regeneration. This study was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of ginsenosides on the root development of several cultivar plants at the early growth stage. The different inhibitions in wheat, cabbage, and cucumber roots resulting from ginsenosides treatment at different concentrations were observed. The root vigor of the three receptor plants constantly decreased compared with the control when the treatment concentration increased; the root length and root fresh weight exhibited similar trends. However, ginsenoside treatment showed negligible effect on the hypocotyl adventitious roots of cucumber and mung bean. The root number, root length, root fresh weight, and root vigor showed no significant changes; however, the antioxidant enzyme activities were slightly enhanced compared with that of the control. These results indicate that the ginsenosides inhibited the root growth of all indicator plants, and these inhibitory effects were stronger on wheat and cucumber than on cabbage. However, no evidence indicates that ginsenosides inhibited the growth of hypocotyl cuttings of cucumber and mung bean.

    Simplification of Entry Vector by TA Approach
    YAN Xian-Lun-, WANG Chun-Tao- , KONG Xiang-Xiang-, YANG Yong-Ping-, HU Xiang-Yang
    2012, 34(4):  397.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11185
    Abstract ( 2384 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2306KB) ( 3124 )   Save
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    Gateway technology is a universal cloning approach that enables rapid cloning of DNA fragments into multiple Gatewaycompatible destination vectors using λ phage sitespecific recombination, eliminating the requirement to work with restriction enzymes and ligase. But a problem using this system for making entry clone is the expensiveness and long time to buy the enzyme. To solve this problem, we created the TA cloning entry vector that contained a Ttail in each 3’end through modification of pDONR207. The TA cloning approach can construct entry clones simply, economically and rapidly. Using Gateway T vectors prepared by this improved method, prokaryotic expression vector and eukaryotic expression vector for SOS2 gene were constructed. Through the methods of prokaryotic expression and transient gene expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts, it proved that the SOS2 gene expressed well in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

    Modification of pFGC5941 Construct and Transfer of Double Antisense Genes of NAC1 and SIP1 into Arabidopsis thaliana
    LIANG Peng-, KONG Xiang-Xiang-, WANG Chun-Tao-, ZHA Xiang-Dong-, HU Xiang-Yang
    2012, 34(4):  403.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11179
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    SIP1 encodes the protein which show interact with SOS2, the protein involving in plant responding to saline stress while NAC1 encodes the protein which involves in auxin signal and promoting the development of lateral root of Arabidopsis thaliana. In present study SIP1 and NAC1-sense and NAC1-anti were inserted into pFGC5941S constructs, making the expression vectors pFGC5941S-SIP1-NAC1-sense and pFGC5941S-SIP1-NAC1-anti, respectively. Fifteen transgenic A.thaliana harboring these two constructs (pFGC5941S-SIP1-NAC1-sense and pFGC5941S-SIP1-NAC1-anti) were then generated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The phenotypes of homozygous transformants which were grown on MS medium with 75mmol·L-1 NaCl showed that compared with wild-type A.thaliana, pFGC5941S-SIP1-NAC1-sense transgenic plants exhibited longer main root and increasing amounts of lateral roots, while no obvious differences were observed in pFGC5941S-SIP1-NAC1-anti transgenic plants. These results indicated that the development of A.thaliana lateral roots under salt stress was specifically promoted by both overexpression of SIP1 gene and NAC1 gene.

    Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil from Green Tea Produced from Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) in Yuanjiang, Southwestern China
    ZHU Li-Fang-, DONG Hong-Zhu-, YANG Shi-Xiong-, SHU Hong-Tao-, XU Min-, ZENG Shu-Fen-, YANG Chong-Ren-, ZHANG Ying-Jun
    2012, 34(4):  409.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.12008
    Abstract ( 2694 )   HTML ( )   PDF (582KB) ( 2236 )   Save
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    Camellia taliensis belonging to Camellia sect. Thea (Theaceae) is distributed from the western and southwestern areas of Yunnan Province, China to the north of Myanmar. Known as the “wild” tea plant, it has been commonly used for making tea by the local people of its growing area. It is the first investigation of the volatile constituents of the fresh tender leaves of C.taliensis and green teas produced from its tender and older leaves. The volatile constituents were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GCMS. Ninetyone compounds were identified. The results showed that the main compositions of volatile oil of the fresh tender leaves were hexadecanoic acid (30.52%), linoleic acid (19.82%), phytol (8.75%), and geraniol (2.54%), while monoterpenoids (58.51%) composing of linalool (28.43%), hotrienol (1.13%), αterpineol (11.68%), nerol (4.92%) and geraniol (12.34%) were the major volatile components of its green tea product. From the fresh leaves to the green tea products, 28 aroma components were formed. Among then, the content of (Z, Z, Z)9, 12, 15octadecatrien1ol (peak 77) was up to 1.21% (from tender leaves) and 11.2% (from older leaves), respectively. The DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging assays demonstrated a moderate activity of essential oil from the three essential oils of C.taliensis.