Plant Diversity ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (03): 265-271.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2023.01.009

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Global patterns of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of flowering plants:Biodiversity hotspots and coldspots

Hong Qiana, Jian Zhangb,c, Meichen Jiangb   

  1. a. Research and Collections Center, Illinois State Museum, 1011 East Ash Street, Springfield, IL 62703, USA;
    b. Center for Global Change and Complex Ecosystems, Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;
    c. Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Received:2022-12-30 Revised:2023-01-24 Published:2023-07-06
  • Contact: Hong Qian,
  • Supported by:
    We thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This research was partly supported by the Shanghai Municipal Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 20ZR1418100) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 32030068) to J.Z.

Abstract: Species diversity of angiosperms (flowering plants) varies greatly among regions. Geographic patterns of variation in species diversity are shaped by the interplay of ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, using a comprehensive data set for regional angiosperm floras across the world, we show geographic patterns of taxonomic (species) diversity, phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic dispersion, and phylogenetic deviation (i.e., phylogenetic diversity after accounting for taxonomic diversity) across the world. Phylogenetic diversity is strongly and positively correlated with taxonomic diversity; as a result, geographic patterns of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity across the world are highly similar. Areas with high taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity are located in tropical regions whereas areas with low taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity are located in temperate regions, particularly in Eurasia and North America, and in northern Africa. Similarly, phylogenetic dispersion is, in general, higher in tropical regions and lower in temperate regions. However, the geographic pattern of phylogenetic deviation differs substantially from those of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic dispersion. As a result, hotspots and coldspots of angiosperm diversity identified based on taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic dispersion are incongruent with those identified based on phylogenetic deviations. Each of these metrics may be considered when selecting areas to be protected for their biodiversity.

Key words: Angiosperm, Biodiversity hotspot, Phylogenetic diversity, Phylogenetic structure, Species richness