Plant Diversity ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (01): 27-35.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2022.09.008

• Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phylogenetic diversity of eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunct plants is mainly associated with divergence time

Han-Yang Lina,c,g, Miao Sunb,c, Ya-Jun Haoa, Daijiang Lic, Matthew A. Gitzendannerc,d, Cheng-Xin Fua, Douglas E. Soltisc,d,e,f, Pamela S. Soltisc,e,f, Yun-Peng Zhaoa   

  1. a. Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany and Biodiversity, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;
    b. Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China;
    c. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA;
    d. Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA;
    e. Biodiversity Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA;
    f. Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA;
    g. School of Advanced Study, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000, China
  • Received:2022-06-24 Revised:2022-09-29 Published:2023-02-23
  • Contact: Pamela S. Soltis,;Yun-Peng Zhao,
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31461123001 to C.X.F.), the US National Science Foundation Dimensions of Biodiversity US-China Program (DEB-1442280 to P.S.S. and D.E.S.), the HZAU Talent Start-up Fund (Grant no. 11042210014 to M.S.) and the China Scholarship Council (Grant no. 201806320056 to H.Y.L.).

Abstract: The underlying causes of biodiversity disparities among geographic regions have long been a fundamental theme in ecology and evolution. However, the patterns of phylogenetic diversity (PD) and phylogenetic beta diversity (PBD) of congeners that are disjunctly distributed between eastern Asia-eastern North America (EA?ENA disjuncts) and their associated factors remain unknown. Here we investigated the standardized effect size of PD (SES-PD), PBD, and potentially associated factors in 11 natural mixed forest sites (five in EA and six in ENA) where abundant EA?ENA disjuncts occur. We found that the disjuncts in ENA possessed higher SES-PD than those in EA at the continental scale (1.96 vs ?1.12), even though the number of disjunct species in ENA is much lower than in EA (128 vs 263). SES-PD of the EA?ENA disjuncts tended to decrease with increasing latitude in 11 sites. The latitudinal diversity gradient of SES-PD was stronger in EA sites than in ENA sites. Based on the unweighted unique fraction metric (UniFrac) distance and the phylogenetic community dissimilarity, PBD showed that the two northern sites in EA were more similar to the six-site ENA group than to the remaining southern EA sites. Based on the standardized effect size of mean pairwise distances (SES-MPD), nine of eleven studied sites showed a neutral community structure (?1.96 ≤ SES-MPD ≤ 1.96). Both Pearson's r and structural equation modeling suggested that SES-PD of the EA-ENA disjuncts was mostly associated with mean divergence time. Moreover, SES-PD of the EA-ENA disjuncts was positively correlated with temperature-related climatic factors, although negatively correlated with mean diversification rate and community structure. By applying approaches from phylogenetics and community ecology, our work sheds light on historical patterns of the EA?ENA disjunction and paves the way for further research.

Key words: EA-ENA disjuncts, Climatic factors, Community assembly processes, Diversification rate, Divergence time, Phylogenetic diversity