Plant Diversity ›› 2024, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (02): 149-157.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2023.11.004

• Articles •     Next Articles

Global patterns and ecological drivers of taxonomic and phylogenetic endemism in angiosperm genera

Hong Qiana, Brent D. Mishlerb, Jian Zhangc,d, Shenhua Qiane   

  1. a. Research and Collections Center, Illinois State Museum, 1011 East Ash Street, Springfield, IL 62703, USA;
    b. University and Jepson Herbaria, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2465, USA;
    c. Center for Global Change and Complex Ecosystems, Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;
    d. Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China;
    e. Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
  • Received:2023-09-02 Revised:2023-11-24 Online:2024-03-25 Published:2024-04-07
  • Contact: Hong Qian,,

Abstract: Endemism of lineages lies at the core of understanding variation in community composition among geographic regions because it reflects how speciation, extinction, and dispersal have influenced current distributions. Here, we investigated geographic patterns and ecological drivers of taxonomic and phylogenetic endemism of angiosperm genera across the world. We identify centers of paleo-endemism and neo-endemism of angiosperm genera, and show that they are mostly located in the Southern Hemisphere in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Asia and Australia. Different categories of phylogenetic endemism centers can be differentiated using current climate conditions. Current climate, historical climate change, and geographic variables together explained ~80% of global variation in taxonomic and phylogenetic endemism, while 42-46%, 1%, and 15% were independently explained by these three types of variables, respectively. Thus our findings show that past climate change, current climate, and geography act together in shaping endemism, which are consistent with the findings of previous studies that higher temperature and topographic heterogeneity promote endemism. Our study showed that many centers of phylogenetic endemism of angiosperms, including regions in Amazonia, Venezuela, and west-central tropical Africa that have not previously been identified as biodiversity hotspots, are missed by taxon-based measures of endemism, indicating the importance of including evolutionary history in biodiversity assessment.

Key words: Angiosperm, Current climate, Endemism, Historical climate change, Topographic heterogeneity