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25 June 2010, Volume 32 Issue 03
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  • Articles
    Micromorphological Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis under Light Microscopy and Its Taxonomic Significance in Persea (Lauraceae) from America
    GUO LiJuan, , WANG ZhiHua, , LI Jie
    2010, 32(03):  189-203.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10004
    Abstract ( 2287 )   HTML ( )   PDF (30412KB) ( 2594 )   Save
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    Leaf epidermal micromorphological characters of 54 species belonging to genus Persea (Lauraceae) from America were comparatively studied by the means of light microscopy. It was shown that the leaf epidermal cells were usually regular bearing with straight or beaded anticlinal walls.Most of these species had unicellular trichomes uniformly distributed. The stomatal apparatus which were paracytic, only randomly presented in the areoles of abaxial epidermis for all sampled species, can be assigned into three types. The results showed that similar leaf epidermal characters can be found in the species with similar morphology. Nineteen characters were selected for PCA analysis, and the sampled species was divided into two clades. The characters of leaf epidermis were little different within a species but can vary among species. However, the multiple leaf epidermal characters including the shape of epidermal cells, the shape of stomatal apparatus, stomatal ledges and some distinct characters were relatively constant and taxonomically quite useful for the identification of some species with similar phenotypes.
    Biological Characteristics of Seeds of Endangered Plant Tetracentron sinense (Tetracentraceae)
    LUO JingDe, GAN XiaoHong, JIA XiaoJuan, XIE Dan, ZHANG Lie
    2010, 32(03):  204-210.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09233
    Abstract ( 2473 )   HTML ( )   PDF (708KB) ( 1925 )   Save
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    By detecting the indicators of seeds such as the morphology and physiological characteristics within three consecutive years, the effects of different storage temperatures and time, and different media on seed germination of Tetracentron sinense were discussed, and also the endangered mechanism associated with biological characteristics of seeds was analyzed. The seeds of T.sinense were very small. No significant difference existed associated with seed morphology, 1000seed weight, water content and plumpness, except for water absorption rate among seeds from different year, and the water absorption rate of seeds from 2007 was the fastest. The TTC results showed that the percentage of seed vigor was close to zero, but the vigor index of seeds among different year was respectively 0, 041 and 027, which indicated that TTC was not suitable for the estimation of Tsinense seed vigor. After stored at lower temperature, the germination rate of these seeds was respectively 125%、965%、708%, and the germination force was 1%、598%、418%. With the increase of storage time, seeds vigor of three years would decrease gradually, but the loss rate of seed vigor from 2007 was the slowest compared with other years. After stored at room temperature, the seed vigor would decrease even faster with the increase of storage time, compared with that stored at lower temperature. Different media had a certain effect on seed germination and seedling growth. The results showed that seed vigor from an abundant year was better than that of off year, and would decrease even slower than that of off year with the increase of storage time. The storage at lower temperature was favorable to the maintenance of seed vigor. The reasons resulted in severe danger related to Tsinense seeds are as follows: (1) Small seeds contributed to the spread and dispersal of species, was not beneficial to the survival of seed and seedling. (2) Perennial low temperature was not suitable for seed germination and the formation of a seedling pattern; (3) Perennial moist environment was not suitable for seed living through cold period safely.
    Species Diversity of Russuloid Mycorrhizaeforming Fungi on Pinus yunnanensis Seedlings and the Mycorrhizal Morphology
    XIE XueDan, ,LIU PeiGui,YU FuQiang
    2010, 32(03):  211-220.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10001
    Abstract ( 2734 )   HTML ( )   PDF (38219KB) ( 2018 )   Save
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    Russuloid ectomycorrhizae on 1-2 yearsold seedlings of Pinus yunnanensis collected from the central Yunnan, China were investigated. Six morphotypes were recognized by macro and anatomicalmorphological approaches as well as molecular analyses. The six morphotypes were confirmed to represent six phylotypes by matching rDNA ITS sequences. The fungal partners in the six morphophylotypes are those closely related with Russula livescens, Rvioleipes ,Rdensifolia ,Rnigricans ,Rsanguinea and Rnauseosa respectively. The correlation between the morphology of mantles and cystidia and the phylogenetic clades is further supported in our work. The framework, in which this report is included, shows that russuloid mycorrhizae are one of the most dominant representative ectomycorrhizae formed on 1-2 years seedlings of Pinus yunnanensis.
    Revising the Yunnan Key Protected Wild Plants List
    ZHOU Bin
    2010, 32(03):  221-226.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09255
    Abstract ( 2458 )   HTML ( )   PDF (570KB) ( 2918 )   Save
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    Key Protected Wild Plants List plays an important role in forestry enforcement, science research and biodiversity conservation. Revise work contribute to keep the plant names accurate on list and revised list can timely show the achievement of biodiversity conservation in Yunnan province. According to the Flora of China and some plants databases, this paper revised the Yunnan Key Protected Wild Plants List published by government in 1989. Results showed that 214 species on list included 60 synonyms or basionyms, 28 species′ Chinese names changed, 9 species with incorrect Latin names, 3 misidentified species and 5 nomen nudum. This revision results will add more understandings to implement and manage the list. Finally this paper suggests establishing some criteria and a mechanism to revise the list in the future.
    New Invasive and New Distribution Species of Spermatophyte in Yunnan
    WANG HuanChong, WAN YuHua, WANG ChongYun, HE ZhaoRong,
    2010, 32(03):  227-229.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09217
    Abstract ( 2853 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2549KB) ( 2082 )   Save
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    Two invasive species, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides and Cyclospermum leptophyllum, as well as two new distribution species, Primula nutantiflora and Allium aciphyllum are recorded for the first time from Yunnan Province. The harmfulness and controlling of Gymnocoronis spilanthoides and Cyclospermum leptophyllum are also disscussed in this paper.
    The Crossability and Hybrid Seed Vigor among Several Sympatric Hedychium (Zingiberaceae) Species
    GAN Tian, LI QingJun
    2010, 32(03):  230-238.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09240
    Abstract ( 2124 )   HTML ( )   PDF (605KB) ( 1848 )   Save
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    Gametic incompatibility and low hybrid seed vigor are two of multiple species reproductive barriers. In order to infer the gametic incompatibility and hybrid seeds fitness of sympatric populations among Hedychium forrestii, Hspicatum and two morphs of Hyunnanense, we have done a set of field cross experiments among these Hedychium species in Lancang, Yunnan Province, and then compared the fruit set, seed number per fruit and germination data of seeds from cross experiments. The experiments showed that the gametic compatibility between these species are different, and the germination performances of hybrid seeds are worse than the intraspecies outcrossed seeds. These results suggested that gametic incompatibility is not the effective reproductive barrier among these species and hybrid seeds fitness is the incomplete reproductive barrier among these Hedychium species, which indicated that hybridization may exist among them.
    The Preliminary Study on DNA Barcoding of Mosses——A Case of Part of Genera of Meteoriaceae
    ZHAO LiJia, ,JIA Yu**,ZHOU ShiLiang,DU GuiSen
    2010, 32(03):  239-249.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09234
    Abstract ( 2331 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1015KB) ( 1890 )   Save
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    We compared the performances of the candidate loci for moss DNA barcoding and the primers used in amplifying the loci. Primers for three coded loci (matK, rps4 and rbcLa) and four noncoded loci (atpBrbcL, atpFH, psbKI and trnHpsbA) of the chloroplast genome, one from the mitochondrial genome (nad5), and one from the nucleus genome (ITS2) were evaluated. Seventyfour samples representing 14 species belonging to five genera of Trachypodoaceae (or Meteoriaceae) were screened. All primers for matK and a pair of primers for trnHpsbA failed. Low successes were encountered with the primers for atpFH and psbKI. The primers for psbKI produced several bands and the PCR products of atpFH were difficult to sequence. The powers of the remaining six loci were compared using the variability, identification success and the resolutions. It was found that ITS2 is the most promising candidate for DNA barcoding for mosses. Among the chloroplast genes, atpBrbcL exhibited the highest resolution. Although trnHpsbA is very variable, it is too short to be an ideal barcode alone. Combinations of chloroplast genes were also tried and Ps of both atpBrbcL+trnHpsbA and rbcLa++trnHpsbA were 64% using NJ method. More additions of loci did not increase the resolution. No barcoding gap exists for all these loci. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out prior to the DNA barcoding evaluation and some taxonomic problems do exist. This study exemplifies the necessity of correct species delimitation and the adoption of both plastid and nuclear loci in plant DNA barcoding.
    Parental Selection in the Cross Breeding of Hedychium Koenig Based on SRAP Markers
    GAO LiXia, LIU Nian, HUANG BangHai
    2010, 32(03):  250-254.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09245
    Abstract ( 2061 )   HTML ( )   PDF (603KB) ( 1614 )   Save
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    In the cross breeding of Hedychium, parental selection is related not only to the parental morphologic characters, but also to the reproducing barrier of self incompatibility. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of 28 materials were analyzed. The results showed that parents with a similarity coefficient of 04-06 tended to have a high setting percentage after combined the relathionshipe with the setting percentages. The methods of parental selection in actual breeding work were suggested based on the present results. The characteristics, such as bract arrangements, fragrance and color, were the most important factors to be considered for cross breeding of Hedychium. When the parents selected were either too distant or too close, bridge parental taxon were necessary for gathering better characteristics.
    Genetic Diversity of Wild Lycoris radiata (Amaryllidaceae) from China Revealed by SRAP
    YUAN JuHong, HU MianHao, XIA Bing
    2010, 32(03):  255-262.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09162
    Abstract ( 2221 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2217KB) ( 1794 )   Save
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    Genetic diversity of 24 wild Lycoris radiata collected from different localities in China was examined by sequencerelated amplified polymorphism(SRAP). Two hundred and eighteen loci were identified with 10 SRAP primer combinations, out of which 173 were polymorphic and accounted for 7936% of total genetic diversity at species level. Observed number of alleles (na), effective number of alleles (ne), Nei′s gene diversity (h) and Shannon information index (I) were 17936, 14131, 02415 and 03664, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) and gene flow (Nm) were 09547 and 00136, suggesting that most of variation occurred among different resources of Lradiata, and the genetic showed significant differentiation. UPGMA cluster analysis of the 24 resources based on Nei′s genetic distance showed two major clusters. Cluster I included 7 resources from southwest and northwest China, except for Jiangsu, Lianyungang resource(JS3). Cluster II included the rest 17 resources from south China to east China. The subgroups exhibited related to the morphology and habit of different resources of Lradiata to some extent. There was no significant correlation between genetic diversity and longitude, altitude, latitude, annual rainfall, and annual average temperature. The results suggested that the genetic diversity of wild Lradiata was high and the possible reasons for significant genetic differentiation might due to the very low gene flow. The results of this study might be useful for guiding the exploitation and conservation of germplasm of Lradiata.
    Effect of β-Aminobutyrie Acid on Anthocyanin of Leaves
    of Arabidopsis thaliana (Cruciferae)
    DU Yan, YU DiQiu
    2010, 32(03):  263-269.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09249
    Abstract ( 2329 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1802KB) ( 1835 )   Save
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    To analyze the effect of βaminobutyrie acid (BABA) on anthocyanin of leaves of Arabidopsis, 30old plants were sprayed with BABA while the control were sprayed with water. After treated with BABA, the content of anthocyanin was significantly lower than that of control. Furthermore, the results from RTPCR showed that CHS, LDOX, UF3GT were down regulated compared with contro1, while PAL showed an opposite trend. At the same time, the activity of PPO, which played an important role in the degradation of anthocyanin, showed higher level than control. In addition, the antioxidant capacity, the death rate of cells and electrical conductivity of leaves were also decreased with BABA treatment. All results suggested that BABA might inhibit the accumulation of anthocyanin in leaves of Arabidopsis in vitro.
    Altitudinal Variations in Reproductive Allocation of Bergenia purpurascens (Saxifragaceae)
    WANG Yun, HU LiJuan, DUAN YuanWen, YANG YongPing
    2010, 32(03):  270-280.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10015
    Abstract ( 2082 )   HTML ( )   PDF (867KB) ( 2051 )   Save
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    The strategy of resource allocation between vegetative and reproductive functions, quantitative relationship between size and reproductive output are central aspects of plant lifehistory. To test the tactics of resource allocation and its altitudinal trend, we examined the reproductive allocation (RA) of Bergenia purpurascens (Saxifragaceae), in six populations along a shady slope in Sejila Mountain of southeast Tibet, at an altitude gradient from 4 200 m to 4 640 m. Our results showed that (1) with increasing altitude, vegetative biomass, reproductive biomass, total aboveground biomass, flower number per plant and length of flower stalk decreased significantly, but the number of leaves did not change greatly. However, the change of RA did not show a monotonic trend when altitude increased, shifting from significantly decreasing below the tree line to slightly increasing above it; (2) vegetative biomass was positively correlated with reproductive biomass, but negatively correlated with RA in all populations, but the level of significance was different among the populations; (3) RA decreased with individual size in all populations, whereas the relationship between absolute resource allocated to reproduction and individual size was allometric; (4) reproductive allometry and a size threshold for reproduction did exist in this alpine perennial, but the obvious altitudinal trend was only found along the populations below the tree line, not above it. We then concluded the altitude could not fully explain the change of resource allocation strategy of this alpine perennial, and different effects of size and habitat on RA may result from various environmental constraints along the altitudinal gradient or genetic background. Therefore, each individual within a population will follow its own developmental trajectory shaped by its genotype and the habitats. The most innovative finding was plant adaptation and resource tradeoff might be sharply altered at the tree line, which is a sensitive area in alpine mountains. Further investigations are needed to better understand the relationship between the reproductive allocation and changing environmental conditions.
    One New Sesquilignan from Illicium spathulatum (Illiciaceae)
    LAI GuoFang, DONG XuJun , YANG JianKun, LUO HuaiRong, WANG YiFen
    2010, 32(03):  281-284.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09236
    Abstract ( 1855 )   HTML ( )   PDF (571KB) ( 1582 )   Save
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    One new sesquineolignan, named spathulatol, was isolated from the pericarps of Illicium spathulatum. Its structure was elucidated as 7′, 8′-trans-7″, 8″-cis5, 3′,3″-trimethoxyl sesquineolignan on basis of spectral evidence (MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR).