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25 April 2010, Volume 32 Issue 02
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  • Articles
    Reproductive Ecology of Iris ensata (Iridaceae)
    XIAO YueE, TIAN Qi, ZHOU XiangYu, CHEN XiaoYa, HU YongHong
    2010, 32(02):  93-102.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09155
    Abstract ( 2020 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1850KB) ( 1737 )   Save
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    By investigating and experimenting pollination pattern, reproduction mode, fruit and seed dispersal, seed dormancy and germination, characters of reproduction ecology of Iris ensata were researched in one nature population of Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province from 2006 to 2008. Results were as follows. (1) The natural population of Iensata was in the spatial pattern of aggregation distribution. Its population regeneration was almost built upon asexual reproduction with 0756 percent contribution. (2) Artificial pollination indicated that the fruit set and seed set of self pollination were much lower than cross pollination (P<005). The flower of Iensata being covered by a mesh had no seed setting, and the fruit set rate of selfpollination between the same or different petal of the flower were 10% and 20% with 0 and 4±1(n=2) seed per fruit respectively. However, the fruit set rate of geitonogamy and xenogamy were 80% and 100% respectively, and seeds per fruit were 59±7(n=8) and 64±9 (n=10) respectively. The pollenovule ratio was 1277±270 (n=10), which further indicated that the pollination type of Iensata was mainly xenogamy. (3) Apis mellifica was the effective pollinator with the frequency of 0019 each flower in one minute, and the ratio of visiting the same flower was about 35%. (4) The seed number was estimated about 368 per square meter in nature. Fruits and seeds of I ensata were persistent and the seed had no deep physiological dormancy. Light was needed during seed germination and the seed germination rate was 949±07% after 60 days cold moist stratification. (5) We concluded that Iensata can adapt to the wet and cold mountain climates very well, and Tianmu Mountain may be one of origin and refuge places of this plant during the glacial epoch. The species of Iensata takes the adaptation strategy of k type, and they possess the mechanisms of natural sustaining renovation in natural population. Some of those mechanisms are being disturbed more or less by human activities now.
    Observations on the Asexual Diaspores of Mosses in China
    PEI LinYing, LIU Qian, JIA Yu, WANG YouFang
    2010, 32(02):  103-113.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09221
    Abstract ( 2683 )   HTML ( )   PDF (12962KB) ( 1747 )   Save
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    Asexual reproduction plays an important role in the life cycle of bryophytes. Usually, mosses complete their asexual reproduction by different diaspores. The morphology of asexual diaspore has been commonly used for delimiting sterile mosses. In the present paper, asexual diaspores of 38 gemmiferous mosses were observed under light microscope. The results showed that the asexual diaspores have evolved several times independently in different moss lineages. The morphology of asexual diaspore is generally stable within species, and is closely related to its growing position and branching mode of gametophyte, but not to phylogenetic positions of the plants and their habitats. The color of diaspore is determined by the thickness of the diasporal wall and its ornamentation on the surface. In addition, the asexual diaspores often coexist with rhizoids or protonemata. In this study, asexual diaspores include protonemal gemmae and gemmae (laminar gemmae, costal gemmae, stem gemmae), bulbils, rhizoidal tubers and rhizoidal gemmae. Among them, protonemal gemmae and gemmae are the commonest asexual diaspores.
    New Records of Lichens of Verrucariaceae from China
    Hurnisa XAHIDIN, Adili ABUDOULLA, Pazilat BAHTI, Muhtaber MUSA, Abdulla ABBAS
    2010, 32(02):  114-116.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09051
    Abstract ( 1936 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2387KB) ( 1503 )   Save
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    Two species of Verrucariaceae, viz. Placidiopsis pseudocinerea and Thelidium pyrenophorum, are reported in this paper. Both of them were collected from Tomur Mountain in Xinjiang, and are reported for the first time from China.
    Phenotypic Diversity of Acer ginnala (Aceraceae) Populations at Different Altitude
    WANG Dan, PANG ChunHua, GAO YaHui, HAO XiaoJie, WANG YiLing
    2010, 32(02):  117-125.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09219
    Abstract ( 2173 )   HTML ( )   PDF (612KB) ( 1498 )   Save
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    In this study, we analyzed the phenotypic variation of Acer ginnala natural populations at different altitude in Qiliyu, investigated the level of phenotypic diversity by using ANOVA analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that there were significant differences in phenotypic variation among and within populations. Coefficient of variation (CV) varied from 705% to 3812%. High phonotypic diversity (1.9253) occurred within A.ginnala populations, the mean phenotypic diversity index of populations ranged from 1.9022 to 1.9837. Phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) among populations (13.79%) was less than that of within populations (86.21%). The variation withinpopulations comprised a majority of total phenotypic variation. A significant relation had occurred between phenotypic traits and soil factors. Phenotypic diversity index had a very significant correlation with soil total nitrogen (P<0.05), no significant relation with altitude. Five populations gathered into two groups by cluster analysis, which consistent with the geographic distribution of Aginnala in Qiliyu. The traits variations of natural populations at different altitude were affected mainly by micro-environmental heterogeneity of different Aginnala populations. Utilizing of variation within and among populations is important significance for genetic improvement of A.ginnala.
    Ultracytochemical Localization of Peroxidase during the Ground Tissue Development in Phyllostachys edulis (Poaceae) Culms
    YU Fen,DING YuLong
    2010, 32(02):  127-133.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09191
    Abstract ( 2266 )   HTML ( )   PDF (17842KB) ( 1518 )   Save
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    The Ultracytochemical localization of peroxidase during the ground tissue development in bamboo Phyllostachys edulis culm was studied with cytochemical technology. In the primary wall development period, peroxidase concentrated in the intercellular layer near the intercellular space, and then extended to all intercellular layer, and at the same time the peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria also showed peroxidase activity. After that the distribution of peroxidase appeared in the tonoplast and plasma membrane.In the secondary wall development period, peroxidase activity partially increased in the long cell walls and concentrated in the narrow lamellae,especially in dormancy period. The peroxidase activity in the narrow lamellae of the long cell walls declined gradually with aging, and in nine years old culm there was little peroxidase reactive product both in the long and short cells. The short cell always had higher peroxidase activity than that of the long cell. The cell wall, plasma membrane, transfer vesicles and pits of the short cell had also shown higher peroxidase activity. A relationship between peroxidase and the differentiation of the ground tissue in bamboo culms was also discussed.
    Mapping and Analysis of a Yellow Mutant chlm-4 of Arabidopsis thaliana (Cruciferae)
    CAO ZhiLin, LIN GuanNan, DING WenQing, YANG ZhongNan, CUI YongLan
    2010, 32(02):  134-140. 
    Abstract ( 2983 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4126KB) ( 2128 )   Save
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    Chlorophylls are essential for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll biosynthesis is catalyzed by a series of enzyme complexes, such as Mgprotoporphyrin IX methyltransferase. A yellow mutant of Arabidopsis was isolated using an enthylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis strategy. Chlorophyll content dramatically reduced and grana stacking was absent in the mutant. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene. Using mapbased cloning strategy, the gene responsible for the mutant phenotype was mapped to a region of 114 kb between the molecular markers F13M23 and T30C3 on chromosome 4, in which the CHLM gene encoding Mgprotoporphyrin IX methyltransferase was included. The mutant was proved to be an allelic mutant of CHLM gene by sequencing and allelism test and then was designated as chlm4. Gly59 of CHLM was replaced by Glu59 in chlm4, which indicated that Gly59 was essential for the function of Mgprotoporphyrin IX methyltransferase.
    Alternative Splicing of SDIR1 Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Cruciferae)
    WU XiaoLu, TANG XiaoQian, YU LiXia, YAO YouLin, YAN Bo
    2010, 32(02):  141-146.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09239
    Abstract ( 2640 )   HTML ( )   PDF (8264KB) ( 1664 )   Save
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    Sequences of DNA and cDNA of SDIR1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana were isolated by using PCR and RTPCR. The alignment result showed that there were three different transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana, which indicated that there were alternative splicing pneumonia in the transcription of SDIR1 gene. The length of three transcripts were 822 bp, 691 bp and 666 bp, respectively, and were named as SDIR1822, SDIR1691 and SDIR1666 subsequently. Compared with the reported sequences of DNA and cDNA in Arabidopsis thaliana, SDIR1822 contained intact coding domain, while the others missed some nucleotides in coding domain. SDIR1691 missed 131 bp which contained 33 bp in the 3′ end of the second exon, 53 bp of all the third exon and 45 bp in the 5′ end of the fourth exon. SDIR1666 missed 156 bp which contained 18 bp in the 3′ end of the third exon and 138 bp in the 5′ end of the fourth exon. The expression ratio of three different transcripts SDIR1822, SDIR1691 and SDIR1666 was 2600∶133∶100 analyzed by selecting 101 clones, which might indicate the relative content of different transcripts of SDIR1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Isolation and Molecular Characterization of RALFLike Gene BcRALF from Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis var.parachinensis
    LI YanYan, , CAO JiaShu
    2010, 32(02):  147-150.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09204
    Abstract ( 1948 )   HTML ( )   PDF (898KB) ( 1482 )   Save
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    The rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) gene is a new found plant polypeptide signal molecule, wide spreading in higher plants. In this study BcRALF was cloned from Brassica campestris sspchinensis Makino varparachinensis based on BcMF14 (GenBank accession number EF523516) from Bcampestris ssp. chinensis var. communis cv. Aijiaohuang. The sequence of this gene was 273 bp (GU086228) and was identified as a rapid alkalization factor gene according to its high identity with Boleracea var botrytis BoRALF1 and Arabidopsis thaliana RALFL9. Protein characteristics and sequence structure were predicted, and moreover, many bioactive sites were found. The results showed that the characteristics of the BcRALF protein consistent with its category as a peptide signal molecule.
    Cloning and Expression of a Coldinduced Gene (DiRCI) from Davidia involucrata (Davidiaceae)
    JI HongChun, SU ZhiXian, YANG Jun, BIAN ChunXiang,
    HU JinYao, QI Gang
    2010, 32(02):  151-157.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09190
    Abstract ( 2239 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2997KB) ( 1489 )   Save
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    A coldinduced plasma membrane protein which plays a protective role in avoiding freezing injury for some plants is one of hydrophobic proteins. A gene, named as DiRCI, was isolated from the cDNA library of Davidia involucrata, containing an open reading frame of 174 bp flanked by a 92 bp 5′untranslated sequence and a long 273 bp 3′noncoding region. Alignment analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of 57 amino acids was high conserved with the MpRCI from Plantago asiatica, and the identity was 895%. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) analysis showed that DiRCI wasn′t detected in various organs of Dinvolucrata above 25℃. When the plant grew under 8℃, the gene expressed in leaves, leafstalk and seeds, but not the roots. The expression level gradually increased after 4 h of the cold treatment and reached a maximum during 24-48 h, and then decreased. The results indicated the gene did have a relation with cold stress in plant and was predicted to be one DiRCI gene. The present data not only enrich gene resources of Dinvolucrata, but also laid a foundation for the research on molecular mechanism of plant acclimation to cold stress.
    Ice and Snow Damage and Subsequent Sprouting of Cunninghamia
    lanceolata (Taxodiaceae) Plantation and Their RelatedFactors Analysis
    LI HongJun, LIU Peng, ZHANG ZhiXiang, CHEN WeiXin, QIU ZhiJun, LIU ChunSheng, LIU JuLian, LIAO JinPing
    2010, 32(02):  158-166.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09189
    Abstract ( 2310 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3790KB) ( 1574 )   Save
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    According to the investigation on the Cunninghamia lanceolata forest plantation in the Jiulongshan Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, China, differences in resistance ability to ice and snow damage and sprouting ability of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) due to the severe ice and snow storms occurred between January and February 2008 were to be analyzed among different DBH, tree height, taperness and altitude. The results showed that the Chinese fir plantations at this site were severely damaged, The crown breakage and stem breakage exhibited higher proportion of the damage, while uprooting and died of freezing exhibited lower proportion. The Chinese fir possessed exceedingly strong sprouting ability, and the crown breakage plant possessed highest. Significant differences of resistance ability and sprouting ability of Chinese fir were observed among different DBH and the different tree height, the shorter trees with smaller DBH were more likely to be heavier afflicted by uprooting and died of freezing, while the taller ones with higher DBH were more likely to be lighter afflicted by crown breakage and stem breakage. The top sprouting exhibited greater proportion. The trees in the high altitude area were more heavily afflicted and the ones in midaltitude area possessed stronger sprouting ability.
    Constraints and Opportunities for Sustainable Livelihoods and Cash Income Generation from NTFPs in the Mountains of Northern Parts of Pakistan
    Hassan Sher, Jehangir Khan, Kiramat Khan, Hazrat Sher,
    Muhammad Elyemeni
    2010, 32(02):  167-176.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09119
    Abstract ( 2297 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3337KB) ( 1337 )   Save
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    Pakistan′s forest resource base is mostly found in the mountains of the NorthWest Frontier Province (NWFP) supporting the livelihood of the rural poor and providing different ecological services. The present study was, therefore, initiated with the aim to evaluate different constraints and opportunities for sustainable livelihoods and cash income generation from NTFPs in the mountainous area of NWFP, Pakistan during 2008. Information was collected through questionnaire and interviews during field trips. A total of 117 NTFPs species have been recorded which are being used locally for various purposes such as fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants, vegetables, mushroom, agricultural tools making, furniture, thatching, shade, fencing/ poles, ornamental purpose and animal products. The majority of plants are multifunctional like Pinus wallichiana provides timber, firewood, torch wood, the leaves/small branches are used as thatch for roofing, split logs are used for fencing and the decomposed needles are collected as humus for agricultural fields. These products were widely used by the indigenous community supporting their livelihood. The study proposes protection and sustainable management of these valuable resources for rural livelihoods, which might be useful for developing regional strategies of sustainable management of forest resources.
    Research Advances in Methane Emission from Plants
    ZHANG XiuJun, JIANG PiWen,DONG Dan, XIA ZongWei
    2010, 32(02):  177-182.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09208
    Abstract ( 1950 )   HTML ( )   PDF (470KB) ( 2402 )   Save
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    Methane(CH4)is an important atmospheric trace gas,contributing to global warming and atmospheric redox chemistry. Traditionally, the only known biologial source of methane was a limited group of obligate anaerobic prokaryotes called methanogens. However, a recent research repoted aerobic CH4 emission from plants by an unrecognized,nonmicrobial mechanism. In this paper the study of methane emissions from plants was reviewed,and pointed out the directions for future research work in this field.
    Chemical Constituents of Guangdong TuNiuXi (Eupatorium chinense, Compositae)
    LIAO PengYing, ZHANG YingJun, WANG YiFei,
    WANG Dong, YANG ChongRen,
    2010, 32(02):  183-188.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09214
    Abstract ( 2124 )   HTML ( )   PDF (896KB) ( 1626 )   Save
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    One new compound, namely eupatorin A (1), was isolated from the methanolic extract of Guangdong TuNiuXi, the dried roots of Eupatorium chinense (Compositae). Its structure was determined to be (threo)3Oacetyl1(4hydroxy3methoxyphenyl)2\[4(3hydroxy1(E)propenyl)2, 6dimethoxyphenoxy\]propylβDglucopyranoside on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. In addition, ten known compounds, including (threo)3hydroxy1(4hydroxy3methoxyphenyl)2\[4(3hydroxy1(E)propenyl)2, 6dimethoxyphenoxy\]propylβDglucopyranoside (2), ardisiacrispin A (3), ardisiacrispin B (4), euparone (5), 3(2, 3dihydroxyisopentyl)4hydroxyacetophenone (6), 12,13dihydroxyeuparin (7), gymnastone (8), N(2′hydroxytetracosanosyl)2amino1, 3, 4trihydroxyoctadec8(E)ene (9), stigmasterol (10) and stigmasterol3OβDglucopyranoside (11) were also obtained. This was the first time that compounds 2-4 were reported from Compositae family, while 5-8 were isolated from the genus Eupatorium.