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25 August 2010, Volume 32 Issue 4
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  • Articles
    Programmed Cell Death during Fiber Cell Development  in Phyllostachys edulis (Poaceae) Culm
    GAN Xiao-Hong-, DING Yu-Long
    2010, 32(4):  285-295.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10065
    Abstract ( 2449 )   HTML ( )   PDF (22313KB) ( 2158 )   Save
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    利用TUNEL检测、细胞学及细胞化学方法,对毛竹茎秆纤维细胞发育过程中的细胞程序性死亡进行了研究。在次生壁形成的早期,纤维细胞出现染色质凝聚、细胞器膨胀、液泡膜解体和细胞质泡状化等典型的细胞程序性死亡形态学特征;TUNEL检测反应呈阳性,显示此时的纤维细胞核DNA发生了片段化。此时,在纤维细胞裂解的液泡膜、降解的细胞质和凝聚的染色质上具有ATPase活性。纤维细胞质的Ca2+水平会随着次生壁的形成而逐渐升高,随后Ca2+聚集成块状。在初生壁形成后期,纤维细胞染色质上的酸性磷酸酶(APase)活性增强。随着纤维次生壁的持续增厚,ATPase、酸性磷酸酶和Ca2+将在裂解的细胞质和凝聚的染色质上持续存在多年。结果表明,毛竹茎秆纤维细胞的次生壁形成过程是一个主动自溶的细胞程序性死亡过程。初生壁形成后期染色质上酸性磷酸酶活性增强及次生壁形成期胞质Ca2+的聚集,与纤维细胞的程序性死亡密切相关。ATPase, Ca2+和 APase参与了纤维细胞程序性死亡过程中原生质体的降解。

    Floral Organogenesis of Reineckia carnea (Convallariaceae) and Its Systematic Significance
    CHEN Yu-Xia-, Gao-Cui-, Bao-Ying-, Feng-Min-, LU An-Min
    2010, 32(4):  296-302.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10019
    Abstract ( 2853 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11852KB) ( 5150 )   Save
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    The floral organogenesis of Reineckia carnea (Convallariaceae) was observed under scanning electron microscope. The tepal and stamen primordia of Rcarnea initiated in a reversed unidirection type. The tepals, partly fused with filaments, formed a short tube at the late stage. Carpel primordia initiated, which overlapped by tepal and stamen primordia, by the same pattern, then fused into a syncarpous gynoecium. The flowers on the tip of inflorescences were prone to vary in floral organ numbers. Considering the floral organogenesis traits of Rcarnea in early stages and floral organ number variation, tepals and stamens should differentiate from common primordia. Characters of the floral organogenesis pattern and perianth tube formation time of Reineckia, Speirantha and Convallaria, revealed that Convallaria was more derived among them, and Speirantha was more primitive than Reineckia.

    An Ultrastructural Study of the Spermatogenesis of the Fern Pteris fauriei (Pteridaceae)
    CAO Jian-Guo, DAI Xiao-Fei, WANG Quan-Chi
    2010, 32(4):  303-314.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10035
    Abstract ( 2727 )   HTML ( )   PDF (50011KB) ( 2351 )   Save
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    The ultrastructural research reveals that the spermatogenesis of the fern Pteris fauriei undergoes the de novo occurrence of the motile organelles, including the blepharoplast, multilayered structure and flagella, the formation of the coiled mitochondrion and nuclear shaping, and finally forms a spiral spermatozoid, which resemble other homosporous ferns described. Some new phenomenon or details during spermatid differentiation in present study including: Spermatids show polar differentiation in the early stage, the nucleus lies in the proximal end (the end of cell plate formation in mitosis), and the blepharoplast, mitochondria and plastids mainly located in the distal end. Abundant microtubules extend from the blepharoplast and plenty of radial mitochondria surround the blepharoplast. The differentiation of the basal bodies undergoes 3 stages, ie. procentriole, centriole and basal body. Their internal structures show different patterns, which are the tubular pattern, cartwheel pattern, and stellate pattern respectively. The amorphous material in the blepharoplast is considered to be the microtubule organizer, from which the multilayered structure, the accessory microtubular ribbon and flagella are differentiated. Abundant membranous structures are produced in the course of spermatid differentiation, which may be used as envelope materials in nuclear shaping. This study reveals some details during spermatogenesis of the fern Pteris fauriei, which contributes to understand the mechanism of spermatogenesis.

    The Relationship between Mating Factors with Mycelial Growth Rate of Agrocybe salicacola (Bolbitiaceae)
    ZHOU Hui-Meng-, , DIAO Yong-Chang
    2010, 32(4):  315-322.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10040
    Abstract ( 2501 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4466KB) ( 2449 )   Save
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    Basidiospores of Agrocybe salicacola were collected from a mature fruiting body by ejection. 224 singlespore strains were isolated respectively by dilution separation method, 210 were identified as monocaryons. The result of mating test suggested that the sexinheritance of Asalicacola is tetrapolar heterothallism. Four different matingtype strains were acquired by mating test, and the ratio of AxBx∶AxBy∶AyBx∶AyBy of monocaryotic strains was 47∶59∶53∶51. The results showed that the number and distribution of its mating types was related with spore germination, growth rate of spore germination and mycelium growth. In four mating type strains, the growth rate of one mating type strains was more slow than other three, and only there were 3 and 5 slowgrowing strains in other two mating type strains. Especially, although the growth rates between the FastFast mating heterocaryotic strains and FastSlow mating heterocaryotic strains in YPD plate were primarily same, but the differences in cultivation bag were obvious. The growth rate genes may be linkaged with mating factors A and B. In breeding of mushroom, most scientists may select FastSlow mating heterocaryon, so distorted segregation of mating types may happen.

    Isolation of Embryo Sac Cells of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
    CHEN Lin-, ZHANG Y-Nan-, QIU Yi-Lan-, TIAN Hui-Qiao
    2010, 32(4):  323-327.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09131
    Abstract ( 2180 )   HTML ( )   PDF (7665KB) ( 2073 )   Save
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    Viable egg cells, synergids, central cells and zygotes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were isolated using enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissection. The ovaries were digested in enzymatic solution for 40-50 min, and then transported into the isolation solution without enzymes to dissect. In the dissected embryo sacs, the outline of an egg cell, two synergids and a central cell could be observed. When dissected embryo sacs were sliced from the chalazal end, four cells could be released by gently pushing its micropylar end. In optimal condition, 29 embryo sacs and 11 egg cells could be isolated from 40 ovaries during 90 min. The isolated egg cells could be collected using micromanipulator for preparation of molecular biology of egg cell of lettuce. The isolation of egg cell of lettuce will make a great chance for in vitro fertilization in a dicot plant.

    Petrocosmea shilinensis, a New Species of Gesneriaceae from Yunnan, China
    DIAO Hou-Chao-, SHUI Yu-Min
    2010, 32(4):  328-330.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10011
    Abstract ( 3579 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1654KB) ( 2485 )   Save
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    Petrocosmea shilinensis, a new species of Gesneriaceae, is described and illustrated. The new species was collected at Guishan region of Shilin County, Yunnan Province in 2008. It is different from its similar species Psericea , in its cordate base of leaf, retrorse indumentums on petioles and the abaxial surfaces of leaf, geniculate filaments with dense ca. 15 mm long beardlike indumentums in the middle.

    Miscellaneous Taxonomic Notes on Orchidaceae from China
    JIN Xiao-Hua-, DAI Zheng-Quan-, LIU Qing-Yi-, JU Hua-Yong
    2010, 32(4):  334-338.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09257
    Abstract ( 3519 )   HTML ( )   PDF (497KB) ( 2545 )   Save
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     Based on fieldwork and specimen examination,Gastrochilus fuscopuntuatus and Oberonia pumila were treated as synonyms of Gastrochilus pseudodistichus and Oberonia insularis respectively. Gastrochilus somai was recognized as a distinct species, differing from Gastrochilus japonicus by the larger plant, subumbellate inflorescence, and slippershaped hypochile. Four species, Bulbophyllum gyrochilum, Dendrobium praecintum, Peristylus superanthus and Sunipia angustipetala, are represented as new records from China.

    Study on Cryopreservation of Dendrobium chrysanthum (Orchidaceae) Seeds
    HE Ming-Gao-, WANG Rui-Xia-, SONG Xi-Qiang-, SONG Song-Quan-, ZHANG Ru-Lian
    2010, 32(4):  334-338.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10023
    Abstract ( 2849 )   HTML ( )   PDF (842KB) ( 2686 )   Save
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    This work aimed to study the role of plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) on seed germination, and the effect of rapid freezing and vitrification treatment on seed cryopreservation of the wild mature seeds of Dendrobium chrysanthum, an endangered orchid species. The results indicated that the seeds germination decreased with increasing treatment time of PVS2. Cryotolerance of seeds was obviously increased by PVS2 pretreatment. When pretreatment time was below 45 min, seeds cryotolerance increased with increasing pretreatment time of PVS2, while it decreased after 60 min. The survival seeds could germinate and develop into normal seedling after storage in liquid nitrogen. In conclusion, mature Dchrysanthum seeds could be successfully cryopreserved after 45 min pretreatment with PVS2.

    Physiological Responses of Gall Tissues on Ivy Tree Leaves Induced by Thrip
    YANG Ming-Zhi, ZHANG Han-Bo
    2010, 32(4):  339-346.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09252
    Abstract ( 2892 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1635KB) ( 3793 )   Save
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    In this research, tuberlike galls which induced by thrip on ivy tree leaves were chosen as materials, and the physiological responses as well as partitioning of mineral nutrition, soluble protein and saccharide contents in galled and ungalled tissues were assayed. Results indicated that compared to the ungalled tissues, galling tissues decreased in many physiological indexes including hydrogen peroxide concentration, Peroxidase and phenylnine amonialase activities and the contents of malondialdehyde. Galling tissues decreased in photosynthetic rate but increased in respiratory rate. Galling tissues acted as a nutritive sink that accumulate more nutrition than surrounding ungalled tissues. Phytohormones and insects extracts alone can not induce the formation of galls, but cytokinins such as kinetin, 6BA and Zeatin can induce responses which are similar to the earlier response of thrip feeding.

    Profiling the Changes of Molecular Species in Membrane Lipids during Coldacclimation in Winter and Spring Cultivars of Rapeseed (Brassica napus)
    LI Li-Xia-, LI Wei-Ai
    2010, 32(4):  347-354.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10038
    Abstract ( 2257 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1010KB) ( 2236 )   Save
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    The changes of molecular species in membrane lipids during coldacclimation (CA) in winter and spring cultivars of rapeseed (Brassica napus) were profiled with ESIMS/MS based lipidomics. The membrane fluidity, the critical properties for plants to tolerate freeing injuring, was examined with double bond index (DBI) and carbon number of the fatty acid of the glycrolipid. The results indicated that the molecular composition of membrane lipids in the two cultivars under both normal growth condition and CA were similar to that of Arabidopsis reported previously and that DBI in spring cultivar accumulation subtly more than that in winter cultivar. The results suggested that CA of rapeseeds needs more than 3 days and that spring cultivar were more sensitive to CA, which was confirmed by the CAinduced proline accumulation.

    Mutation of APETALA1 Affects the Basal Expression of WRKY Genes
    ZHANG Li-Ping-, , YU Di-Qiu
    2010, 32(4):  355-360.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09250
    Abstract ( 2178 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1591KB) ( 2534 )   Save
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    The floral homeotic gene APETALA1 (AP1) specifies floral meristem identity and sepal and petal identity in Arabidopsis. GUS staining showed that the expression of AP1 mainly focus on shoot apex, sepal and petal, floral meristem, junction of siliques and pedicels. Sequence analysis showed that numerous ciselements were found in the AP1 promoter, including the Wbox, which indicated the regulated expression of AP1 by certain transcriptional factors. 21 independent wrky single mutants did not affect the expression of AP1 in inflorescence, however, mutation of AP1 enhanced the basal expression of seven WRKY genes among the 10 genes checked. This result implied that AP1 may participate in the basal resistance of flower through controlling the development of both sepals and petals.

    Effect of Different Drying Rates on the Desiccation Tolerance and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Baccaurea ramilfora (Euphorbiaceae) Seeds
    LU Xin-, LUO Yin-Ling-, WANG Yi-Fan-, LAN Qin-Ying
    2010, 32(4):  361-366.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10039
    Abstract ( 2510 )   HTML ( )   PDF (761KB) ( 2553 )   Save
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     The effects of different drying rate on desiccation tolerance and ntioxidant enzyme activities of Baccaurea ramilfora seeds were studied in this paper. The initial water content(WC) of Bramilfora  seeds was high 172 g H2O·g1DW, and germination was 8667%, respectively. When the seeds dehydrated to the same water content (0.90g H2O·g1DW), the germination of seeds increased with slwodehydrated method ( 9778%), while decreased with rapiddehydrated method ( 6444%). The germination of rapiddehydrated seeds with 076 g H2O·g1DW WC was 2167%, while that of slowdehydrated seeds with 068 g H2O·g1DW WC was  5556%. The Bramilfora seeds were recalcitrant seeds which showed higher tolerance to slow dehydration. Both of relative electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation increased following hedehydration, and the increase rate of slowdehydrated seeds were slower than rapiddehydrated seeds. Among these antioxidant enzymes, the activities of SOD, DHAR and APX were higher in rapiddehydrated seeds than slowdehydrated seeds, while CAT was lower, and GR was not found. These results indicated that CAT played more important role in desiccation tolerance of Bramilfora seeds than the other antioxidant enzymes.

    Diaspore Traits of 145 Tree Species from a Tropical Seasonal Rainforest in Xishuangbanna, SW China
    YANG Xiao-Fei-, TANG Yong-, CAO Min
    2010, 32(4):  367-377.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10064
    Abstract ( 2875 )   HTML ( )   PDF (783KB) ( 2632 )   Save
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    In this paper, we described fruit and seed traits of 145 tree species from a 20 ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot. The fruiting of most tree species occurred in rainy season(7103%). Fewer species had fruit in dry season. Flesh fruits, such as drupes, capsules and berries, were very common in the plot and, fruits were mainly black, yellow and brown colored. Most species were animal dispersed(5655%). Species with large seeds(maximum seed length >10 mm)were predominate(5310%), followed by mediumsized seeds(2-10 mm), and small seeds(<2 mm in length). Seed mass varied from 23×105  to 2229 g, the majority of species(7655%) produced seeds with a mass ranged from 001 to 10 g. The mass of seeds collected exhibited a significant seasonal changes. Seeds collected in rainy season were heaver than seeds collected in dry season. Unassisted dispersal species tended to have large seed, and species dispersed by wind tended to have small seeds. A significant positive correlation was found between the seed mass and maximum DBH of the species.

    Plumieride B, a New Iridoid from Neolamarckia cadamba (Rubiaceae)
    LIU Ling-Li-, ZHU Feng-, DI Ying-Tong-, HAO Xiao-Jiang-, HE Hong-Ping
    2010, 32(4):  378-380.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10052
    Abstract ( 2181 )   HTML ( )   PDF (549KB) ( 2137 )   Save
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    A new iridoid, named plumieride B, was isolated from the leaves of Neolamarckia cadamba, together with a known iridoid. The new structure was determined to be Δ13,14plumieride by spectroscopic methods especially 2DNMR analysis.