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25 December 2009, Volume 31 Issue 06
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  • Articles
    Changes in Free, Conjugated and Bound Polyamine Content in Salt Adaptation of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides , Poaceae)
    ZHOU Qiang, YU Bing-Jun
    2009, 31(06):  477-485.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09165
    Abstract ( 1904 )   HTML ( )   PDF (357KB) ( 1537 )   Save
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    Polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to play roles in plant salt stress adaptation . In this study , alteration of free, conjugated and bound PAs [ putrescine (Put ) , cadaverine (Cad) , spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) ] in roots and leaves of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides) seedlings in response to salt stress were investigated. Under moderate salt stresses (100 and 200mmol L - 1 NaCl) for 9 days, vetiver grass grew at similar vigor compared with seedlings under normal growth conditions . However , growth was severely arrested when plants were treated with severe salt stress (300 mmol L- 1NaCl). Under three different concentrations of NaCl stress mentioned above, the contents of free Put , Cad , Spd , Spm and total free PA substantially decreased in roots and leaves , and more severe loss of free PAs was observed under higher NaCl concentration. Conjugated Put , Cad , Spd , Spm, and total conjugated PAs remarkably increased, and the extent of the increase after 300mmol L- 1 NaCl treatment was smaller than those after 100 or 200mmol L- 1 NaCl treatments . Bound Put, Cad and total bound PAs decreased in both roots and leaves under salt stress , moreover , bound Spd and Spm decreased in leaves while increased in roots in response to salt treatments, and the more obvious rise was displayed under moderate salt stresses. With the exception of the significant decreases of free (Spd + Spm )/Put ratio in roots and leaves after 300 mmol L- 1 NaCl treatment , other ratios of free , conjugated , bound and the total (Spd + Spm )􊄯Put increased in roots and leaves of vetiver grass seedlings after different salt treatments, and especially under moderate salt stress . These results indicated that maintaining homeostasis of total PAs content and high (Spd + Spm )/Put ratios could be an adaptation mechanism in vetiver grass to moderate saline environment .
    The Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Growth, Active Oxygen Metabolism and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Seedlings Under Cadmium Stress
    YU Zhao-Duan , WANG Li-Na , CAO Chen-Xing ** , HU Xiang-Yang ,
    2009, 31(06):  486-492.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09147
    Abstract ( 2349 )   HTML ( )   PDF (282KB) ( 1652 )   Save
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    Cadmium is a non-essential element for plant growth which has serious biological toxicity and comparing with other heavy metals, Cadmium is more prone to accumulate in plants . The present study was conducted in nutrient solution to investigate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on growth of cucumber seedlings , photosynthetic characteristics
    and active oxygen metabolism in cucumber leaves under consistently different concentration of Cadmium stress (100 μmol L- 1 , 300μmol L - 1 , 500μmol L- 1 ) . The results showed that 300μmol L - 1 exogenous sodium nitrop russide (SNP) , a nitric oxide donor , could significantly alleviate the injury to cucumber under Cadmium stress . The treatment of SNP showed
    the best results when cucumber under 300μmol L- 1 Cd2 + stress , which increased the seedling growth , the activity of SOD, POD, and the content of photosynthetic pigment and proline . Moreover , exogenous nitric oxide markedly decreased the content of MDA under 300μmol L- 1 Cd2+ stress .
    Analysis of Relationship Between Genetic Diversity and Taxol Content of Taxus wallichiana var. wallichiana in Different Provenance
    YU Xiao-Qin , , LIU Xi-Kui , GU Zhi-Jian
    2009, 31(06):  493-498. 
    Abstract ( 2516 )   HTML ( )   PDF (133KB) ( 1824 )   Save
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    We studied the relationship between genetic diversity and taxol content of Taxus wallichiana var. wallichiana using AFLP and HPLC . The results of AFLP fingerprinting indicated that two patterns were discovered among seven populations. Through PopGene 1 . 31 and Arlequin 3. 1 software , stable genetics within population and significant differentiation among populations (Fst = 0. 67 ) were revealed . However, taxol content was markedly different within and among populations when testing the one-year twigs . Among wild forests, the highest taxol content was found in Luxi population which average percentage was 0. 0185%. While the taxol content level was low in Tengchong and Yongde populations , which were 0. 0049% and 0. 0087% respectively . The cultivated population in Lufeng showed the highest taxol content level which was 0. 0225% comparing with that in the populations of wild forests. There were relations between genetic diversity and taxol
    content at the population level to some extent , while no corresponding relations were found at the individual level .
    Expression and Enzyme Activity Assay of pfu with Molecular Chaperone
    ZHANG Hai-Jun , YANG Jun , , LIU Xiao-Guang , HU Xiang-Yang ,
    2009, 31(06):  499-503.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09183
    Abstract ( 2422 )   HTML ( )   PDF (125KB) ( 2699 )   Save
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    Co-expressing the plasmid pET32a- pfu which was constructed using Infution technique with chaperone plasmid HG-PGRO7 at the same time in E. coli . BL21 (DE3) . The expression system, which expressed pfu gene alone in E. coli . BL21 (DE3) , was used as control .Most of unnecessary proteins were exenterated by heat treatment and (NH4 )2 S04 precipitation. The purified fusion protein was obtained by the Ni chelating resin affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular mass of the purified fusion protein was about 90 kD, conforming to the expected molecular mass of Pfu protein. The results of enzyme activity assay of pfu demonstrated that molecular chaperone was able to activate pfu gene expression and its enzyme activity .
    A Karyological Study of Fourteen Species in Eleven Genera of the Orchidaceae
    MO Rao , LENG Qing-Yun , , HUANG Ming-Zhong , PEN Bin, TANG Yan-Qiong , LUO Yuan-Hua , DENG Xiao-Guo
    2009, 31(06):  504-508.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09139
    Abstract ( 2857 )   HTML ( )   PDF (223KB) ( 2261 )   Save
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    The chromosome number and karyotype of 14 species in 11 genera of the Orchidaceae was studied . The results showed that Acampe papillosa is 2 n = 2 x = 36m + 2sm; A. rigida 2 n = 2 x = 32m + 6sm; Arachnis labrosa 2 n = 2 x =34m+ 4sm; Cleisostoma simondii var. guangdongense 2 n = 2 x = 32m + 6sm; Doritis pulcherima 2 n = 2 x = 30m + 8sm; Gastrochilus acinacifolius 2 n = 2 x = 38m; G. calceolaris 2 n = 2 x = 38m; G. obliquus 2 n = 2 x = 38m; Holcoglossum subulifolium 2 n = 2 x = 38m; Kingidium deliciosum 2 n = 2 x = 30m + 8sm; Luisia morsei 2 n = 2 x = 24m + 12sm + 2st; Pomatocalpa spicatum 2 n = 2 x = 36m+ 2sm; Rhynchostylis gigantean 2 n = 2 x = 36m + 2sm; and Robiquetia spathulata 2n = 2x = 36m + 2sm. The system and evolution in the Orchidaceae was briefly discussed based on our results .

    Kaempferia sawanensis ( Zingiberaceae) , A New Species from Southern Laos

    2009, 31(06):  509-512.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09110
    Abstract ( 2096 )   HTML ( )   PDF (176KB) ( 2703 )   Save
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    A new species of Kaempferia from Southern Laos, K. sawanensis, is described and illustrated. Relationship of this new species with other taxa is discussed.
    Cytological Studies on the Structure of Spermatozoid and Fertilization in Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae)
    WANG Bao-Juan , ZHU Guo-Ping , AN Li-Hua
    2009, 31(06):  513-519.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09164
    Abstract ( 2449 )   HTML ( )   PDF (909KB) ( 1989 )   Save
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    The structure of the spermtozoid and fertilization process of Ginkgo biloba were studied by light microscopy using paraffin and epoxy resin semi-thin section . It was found that the spermatogenous cell divided to form two semi-spherical sperm cells prior to fertilization. Each sperm cell contained one vacuole-like structure, one blepharoplast and one fibrillogranular body. The two vacuole-like structures from the same spermatogenous cell could be located at the same proximal surface or the same distal surface or the proximal surface and distal surface, respectively. The position change of vacuolelike structure might be caused by the rotation of sperm cells for flagellar movement and indicated that the rotation of the sperm cells could be happen when they were in pollen tube . The nucellus at the micropylar end showed regular changes during fertilization . Fistly , the nucellus protruded upward, then, the fertilization drop appeared, and finally it shrink. These phenomena were good morphological characters to determine the optimal time for fertilization. At the time of fertilization, the integral sperm with flagella entered into the archegonium, and then the sperm cytoplasm and the flagella were left beyond the egg cell , while only the sperm nucleus which was a dark area about 30 μm in diameter entered into the egg cell. The mature sperm nucleus which were about 40μm might be condensed before it entered into the egg cell. These results have some significance in understanding the phylogeny of Ginkgo biloba and reproductive evolution of gymnosperms.
    An Analysis Model for the Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants
    ZHUANG Hui-Fu , , WANG Yu-Hua
    2009, 31(06):  520-528.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09103
    Abstract ( 2420 )   HTML ( )   PDF (186KB) ( 1914 )   Save
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    Based on the analysis of medicinal plants use , we proposed a Pattern-Path Model (PPM) to explore the development process of medicinal plant use . To test this model, 549 medicinal plant species recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005 version) were analyzed to understand the sustainability of medicinal plants in China . Our results show that among
    medicinal plant species in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 79% are more or less used with sustainable supply, but 21% with unsustainable supply . The current trends of increasing domestication and plantation of medicinal plants are partly promoted by resource scarcity (40% of used species are threatened or being exhausted before plantation prepared) . The conclusions
    from PPMquantitative analysis further supported existing practices about resource assessment and cultivation program of medicinal plants in China , so PPM can be applied more to provide bases for resources management decision-making .
    Analysis on the Patch Characteristics of Vegetation Landscape of Xiaoxiangling Mountains in Sichuan Province
    HU Cui-Hua , HUANG You-You , , LIU Shou-Jiang , XU Wu-Cheng
    2009, 31(06):  529-536.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09137
    Abstract ( 2486 )   HTML ( )   PDF (221KB) ( 1999 )   Save
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    The spatial pattern characters of vegetation landscape of Xiaoxiangling Mountains in Sichuan were meticulously analyzed in four respects, that is, the basic characteristics, the shape characteristics, the aggregation and interspersion characteristics and the diversiform characteristics of patches , by the method of 3S technology combined with Landscape ecology. Our results indicate that : (1) there are 9 vegetation types in these Mountains with 1 849 number of patch , 18 6951 hm2 areas . Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is the background of the area because of its biggest distribution area and densest inlaid there ; Secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest is of the lowest heterogeneity degree for its smallest area .
    ( 2) Evergreen broad- leaved and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest is of the most simply shape, and high degree of patch aggregation . But Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is of the most complicated of both patch shape and edge . Besides, secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest is of its least connectivity , and alpine shrub is of the highest degree of patch
    aggregation . ( 3) These Mountains′species richness, dominance and diversity are 1 . 54 , 0 . 66 and 0 .67 . It is found to be the main features of the vegetation landscape and the inlaid degree of each vegetation types is better in Mountains .
    The Relationship of Morphological Characters , Crude Fat of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) Seed with Environmental Factors
    LUO Yuan , OU Xiao-Kun, SU Wen-Hua , YANG Wen-Zhong
    2009, 31(06):  537-542.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09153
    Abstract ( 2629 )   HTML ( )   PDF (106KB) ( 1739 )   Save
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    This paper focused on the relationship of morphological characters , crude fat content of Jatropha curcas seed with environmental factors from two areas in Yunnan . The research demonstrated that seed maturity and dispersal in humid and hot Jinghong area were shorter than that in dry and hot Yuanmou area , and the criterion of seed morphological characters from Jinghong was also better than that from Yuanmou ( P < 0 . 01) . Soil organic matter content was the most important soil factor which made positive effects to seed crude fat accumulation while drought stress was one of the most important climatic
    factors restricting the seed crude fat accumulation . Seed from Jinghong contained higher crude fat content, moisture content and lower ratio of crude fat content and moisture content ( P < 0 .01) than seed from Yuanmou . High ratio of crude fat content and moisture content in the seed from dry area could be one of the adaptive mechanism of J. curcas to drought stress which made an important ecological significance to species adaption .
    Comparison of the Differences in Response to the Change of the Extrafloral Nectar-ant-herbivore Interaction System Between a Native and an Introduced Passiflora Species
    XU Fang-Fang , , CHEN Jin
    2009, 31(06):  543-550.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2009.09101
    Abstract ( 2563 )   HTML ( )   PDF (173KB) ( 2072 )   Save
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    How introduced plants associate with native biotic is one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary biology and invasive biology. Extrafloral nectar ( EFN) bearing plants usually use nectar to attract ants while those ants could help plants defense herbivores; establishing a plant-ant-herbivore interactive system . In this study , we conducted artificial ant- exclusion, EFN- exclusion, herbivore exclusion, ant and herbivore exclusion to compare the differences in response to the change of the extrafloral nectar- ant-herbivore interaction system in an native passionflower ( Passiflora siamica) and an newly introduced species ( P. coccinea) . A total of about 24 ant species were recorded consuming the EFN resource . There was no significant difference in the total number of visiting ants while ant species composition was different in the two Passiflora plants (χ2 = 14 .76 , df = 4 , P < 0 . 01) . The most abundant ant species for P. siamica was Dolichoderus thoracicus while for P. coccinea was Paratrechina sp . The herbivorous insects observed were mainly generalists, including snails, katydisds(Pseudophyllidae) or some larvae of butterflies and moths . The amount of nectar per leaf produced from P. siamica is significantly higher than P. coccinea (Willcox, z = - 3 . 87 , P < 0 . 01) . Ant- exclusion in this experiment did not significantly influence the average leaf loss per plant. The treatments for ant-exclusion, herbivore exclusion , and ant + herbivore exclusion all did not significantly influence the EFN production. As a whole, the plant- ant-generalist herbivore in the two Passiflora species did not show a significant difference in the response to the change , while the interactive system with specialist herbivores request further investigation .
    Resource Utilization Pattern Analysis in Pali Gad Watershed of Tehri , Garhwal Himalaya ( India)
    LI Qiao-Hong , , P.K . Joshi, YANG Xue-Fei , , N . Lele , XU Jian-Chu ,
    2009, 31(06):  551-558.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2009.09157
    Abstract ( 2322 )   HTML ( )   PDF (251KB) ( 1701 )   Save
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    The western Himalaya has had a central role as a life support system for the local people and as a source of ecological services . This long term use of these resources, including livestock grazing, fuel wood collection and a variety of other uses , has shaped its montane cultural landscape . The present paper focuses on resource utilization in the Pali Gad watershed , which consists of 25 villages situated in the lesser Himalaya . Using a satellite derived map , natural resources available in this area were assessed , and the ecosystem services provided by them and level of pressure on them were computed
    through a door to door socioeconomic survey . The study revealed a spatio-temporal variation in the resource demand and extraction at the permanent villages . Average fuel wood consumption was 1 . 12 kg&#1089839;day&#1089839;capita , fodder consumption was 3 . 69 kg&#1089839;day&#1089839;capita from lopping and 3 .25 kg/day&#1089839;capita from grass collection from forest . An attempt has been taken to evaluate the ecosystem services . The forest provides more provisional and regulatory services, whereas agriculture provides more supporting services and river bed&#1089839;water bodies serve more cultural purposes for the locals. This study contributes an example of a human shaped ecosystem in a mountainous region where an additional fragmentation of natural resources exists. An increase in resource demand has been noticed in the less productive lands of the region . This has resulted in increased resource extraction from the entire watershed may not be sustainable in the long run .

    Two New Glycosides from Diplopterygium laevissimum (Gleicheniaceae)

    LI Ming-Ming , , WANG Kou , , CHEN Xuan-Qin , , PENG Li-Yan ,
    CHENG Xiao , ZHAO Qin-Shi

    2009, 31(06):  559-562.  doi:10.3724/SP.J. 1143.2009.09115
    Abstract ( 2268 )   HTML ( )   PDF (82KB) ( 1631 )   Save
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    Two new glycosides hymenoside X ( 1) and hexanoside A ( 2) , were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of Diplopterygium laevissimum . Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis .