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25 February 2010, Volume 32 Issue 01
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  • Articles
    Phylogeny of Camellia sects Longipedicellata, Chrysantha and Longissima (Theaceae) Based on Sequence Data of Four Chloroplast DNA Loci
    FANG Wei, YANG JunBo, YANG ShiXiong, LI DeZhu
    2010, 32(01):  1-13.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09120
    Abstract ( 2572 )   HTML ( )   PDF (739KB) ( 2133 )   Save
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    We focused on the systematic positions and relationships of three sections of Camellia subgenThea of Theaceae, i.e., sect.Longipedicellata, sect.Chrysantha (golden camellias) and sect.Longissima by using four chloroplast DNA regions (rpl16, psbAtrnH, trnLF & rpl32trnL). We sampled 28 species representing four subgenus, 11 sections in Camellia and two outgroups. Combined analyses of chloroplast DNA sequence data sets are performed with the neighborjoining, maximumparsimony and Bayesian inference methods, and the gene trees are constructed. The topologies of gene trees revealed that: 1) sect. Chrysantha is paraphyletic or polyphyletic, containing three parallel lineages and Camellia longipedicellata (type of sectLongipedicellata) nested inside; 2) all four species from Vietnam, together with C. longipedicellata, forming a wellsupported monophyletic clade, which implies the close relationship between sect. Longipedicellata and sect.Chrysantha; and 3) sectLongissima is not monophyletic because C.hekouensis is the sister to the rest of Camellia species. The systematic position of C.longissima and the relationship between sect.Longissima and sect.Longipedicellata are unsolved.
    Nomenclatural Notes on Alien Vascular Plants in North America Originated from East Asia
    MA JinShuang
    2010, 32(01):  14-24.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09078
    Abstract ( 2261 )   HTML ( )   PDF (559KB) ( 1658 )   Save
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    The scientific names of twentythree alien vascular plants in North America, originating from East Asia, are reviewed here, since their uses in North America are different from those in East Asia. Most are taken from the invasive plants literatures in North America as well as in Europe, but a few are also from native floras in East Asia. The synonyms for each accepted species, along with their distributions both in North America and in East Asia, with discussion if necessary, are also provided.
    Substratum Affects the Gametophyte Development and Reproduction of Sinopteris grevilleoides(Sinopteridaceae), an Endangered Fern Endemic to China
    WANG WeiQing , ,CHENG Xiao*, JIAO Yu ,CHEN GuiJu
    2010, 32(01):  25-31.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09140
    Abstract ( 2139 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5421KB) ( 1566 )   Save
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    Sinopteris grevilleoides is an endangered fern endemic to the region of Yunnan and Sichuan in southwest China. In this study, we investigated the effects of four different culture substrata on the development of gametophyte and reproduction of this fern. Cultured on different culture substrata, the fern showed different morphology of gametophyte. In humus soil, cordate prothalli did not bear archegonia, and thus the process of sexual reproduction ofSgrevilleoides could not be finished. The substratum composed of humus soil and original soil in ratio of 1∶1 was the most suitable substratum for gametophyte development and sexual reproduction of this species. Otherwise, infant sporophytes needed extra nutrient solution to sustain its growth on improved Knop′s agar medium.
    Prokaryotic Expression and Bioinformatics Analysis of Cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase from Camellia sinensis(Theaceae)
    CHEN LuLu, ZHAI YuJia, WANG Peng , Wang Hui, HAO JiaSheng, ZHU GuoPing,
    2010, 32(01):  32-40.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09182
    Abstract ( 2170 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4156KB) ( 1851 )   Save
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    The complete gene of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (cMDH) from Camellia sinensis, called CscMDH, was obtained by RTPCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (GenBank accession number GQ845406). This gene was 1 235 bp in length, encoding a protein of 332 amino acids with the putative molecular weight of 355 kD. The Ecoli Rosetta (DE3) harboring pGEXMDH was induced by 05 mmol·L1 IPTG at 32℃ for 3 hours, and a 615 kD glutathione Stransferase (GST)fused MDH was obtained in soluble form. The results of NCBIBLAST revealed that CscMDH shared 88%-93% of amino acid sequence identity with other cMDH from different higher plants. According to the multiple sequence alignment based on the threedimensional structure of protein, CscMDH was predicted to be a dimer with thirteen βsheet and thirteen αhelix of each subunit. CscMDH contains typical fingerprint sequence (G12AAGQIG18) as all MDHs. The amino acid D43 in CscMDH is conserved in all NADMDHs. CscMDH also has some conserved sequence units homologous to other NADMDHs, such as NAD+ binding sites, catalytic motif and substrate binding sites. Moreover, CscMDH contains six Cys which are highly conserved in all plant NADcMDHs. Therefore, CscMDH was inferred to be NADdependent cMDH. The present study may provide the fundament for the further functional characterization of CscMDH.
    Effects of Nitrogen on the Growth and Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites of Erigeron breviscapus (Compositae)
    SU WenHua, ZHANG GuangFei, ZHOU Hong, GUO XiaoRong, ZHANG Lei,
    2010, 32(01):  41-46.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09177
    Abstract ( 2233 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1067KB) ( 1676 )   Save
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    Erigeron breviscapus a medicinal plant was planted under different nitrogen levels to investigate effects of nitrogen on the growth and the accumulation of secondary metabolites, address the relationship between them in medicinal plants in the plantation. Results showed that the amount of N fertilizer was significantly positively correlated with the biomass, but negatively to contents of total caffeates and scutellarin of Ebreviscapus Moreover, increasing amount of N fertilizer did not significantly enhance yields of 2 active constituents. The biomass was negatively correlated with contents of total caffeates and scutellarin. Contents of total caffeates and scutellarin were negatively correlated with contents of N in Ebreviscapus, as predicated by the carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis. The result suggested that the nitrogen addition could increase the biomass yield, nevertheless, decrease active constituents ( flavonoids ),there could be a trade off between the growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants.
    Seed Dormancy, Germination and Storage Behavior of Magnolia wilsonii (Magnoliaceae), an Endangered Plant in China
    HAN ChunYan, , LONG ChunLin
    2010, 32(01):  47-52.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09187
    Abstract ( 2238 )   HTML ( )   PDF (728KB) ( 1865 )   Save
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    In this paper, we measured the embryo morphology and size of Magnolia wilsonii seeds. And the effects of temperature, stratification, KNO3 and soaking on seed dormancy and germination were studied. Seeds were desiccated to different moisture content, and then stored at 4℃ and -20℃ for 100 d. The effects of desiccation and storage temperature on seed viability of M. wilsonii were analyzed. The results showed that the underdeveloped embryos of Mwilsonii seeds needed cold stratification to achieve physiological afterripening. The favorable temperature for germination of Mwilsonii seeds was 25/20℃. Cold stratification and GA3 could effectively overcome dormancy of Mwilsonii seeds. Therefore, Mwilsonii seeds have morphophysiological dormancy. About 5350% of seeds could survive in the moisture content of 539%. After 100 d storage at -20℃, all seeds in different moisture contents died. However, after 100 d storage at 4℃, 76% of seeds survived. Thus, Mwilsonii seeds exhibited intermediate seed storage behavior. The optimum storage environments was dry or moist storage at 4℃.
    Constructing and Phenotypic Analyzing an Activation Tagging Arabidopsis Mutant Pool
    GUAN YanLong, LI WanSha, YIN KuiDe, YANG YongPing, HU XiangYang
    2010, 32(01):  53-59.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09167
    Abstract ( 2635 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3077KB) ( 2604 )   Save
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    Activation tagging method is an effective tool of obtaining gainoffunction mutant and investigating the gene function, which plays an important role in plant functional genomics study. In this paper, we used Arabidopsis Columbia wild type as material to construct an activation tagging mutant pool by Agrobacterium tumefaciensmediated transformation, the binary vector pCB260 contained two Ds elements, one GFP report gene and one basta resistance selection genes, which show more convenient and efficient to screen the transgenic plant. Until now, over ten thousand transformed plants were generated. Among them, about 50 dominant mutants with obvious phenotypes were isolated, including early or late flowering time, unmoral leaf shape and flower, sterility and thin seed capsule color. TDNA flanking sequences of ten special mutants were validated by TAILPCR and sequencing, whose TDNA insertion fragments distributed in all five chromosomes of Arabidopsis genome, respectively.
    Biomass Carbon Accounting Parameters for Young and Middle Aged Plantation of Simao Pine (Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis)
    LI Jiang, MENG Meng, ZHU HongTao, QIU Qiong, ZHAI MingPu**,CHEN HongWei, GUO YongQing
    2010, 32(01):  60-66.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09138
    Abstract ( 2213 )   HTML ( )   PDF (581KB) ( 1597 )   Save
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    Based on data collected from field surveys, biomass carbon accounting parameters including biomass conversion and expansion factor (BCEF), biomass expansion factor (BEF) and rootshoot ratio (R) for Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantation were calculated, and relationships between the parameters and relative stand factors were studied. Main findings were as follows. (1) Mean BCEF for Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantation was 05483 Mg m3(n=30, 95% confidence interval=05357-05609), lower than the IPCC default value. BCEF for Pinus kesiya var langbianensis plantation was negatively related to stand form height (FH), mean stand height (H), stand growing stock (V) and stand age(A) (P<005). BCEF was negatively related to mean diameter at breast height (D), but not statistically significant(P >005), positively related to stand density (N), not statistically significant(P>005). Regression equations developed for calculating BCEF with stand factors did not give satisfied estimates. (2) Mean BEF for Pinus kesiya var langbianensis plantation was 178378 (n=30, 95% confidence interval=171714-185043), higher than the IPCC default value. BEF was negatively related to D、H、FH、V and A (P <001), positively related to N (P <005). Regression equations of y=a+bx+cx2 performed well to calculating BEF with A and V as variables. Regression equation of y=a+b/x performed well to calculate BEF with N. Regression equations of y=a xb performed well to calculate BEF with FH、H and D as variables. (3) Mean R for Pinus kesiya varlangbianensis plantation was 02400 (n=30, 95% confidence interval=02194-02606), close to the IPCC default value. R was negatively related to D、H、FH、V and A (P <001), positively related to N (P <005). Regression equations of y= a+bx +cx2 performed well to calculate R with D、H、FH、V and Aas variables. Regression equation of y=a+b/x performed well to calculate R with N.
    From Valley to Alpine Mountain: Diversity and Utilization of Tibetan Medicinal Plants in Deqin
    MA JianZhong , ZHUANG HuiFu ,
    2010, 32(01):  67-73.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09128
    Abstract ( 2226 )   HTML ( )   PDF (715KB) ( 1820 )   Save
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    A field and interdisciplinary survey of Tibetan medicinal plant resources was undertaken in Deqin Country of Northwest Yunnan in 2008. Three typical habitats, river valley, midmountain and alpine regions were selected to document the use knowledge and species diversity used locally, and to evaluate the importance and vulnerability of medicinal plant species. 144 medicinal plant species of 63 families and 126 genera were recorded in this paper. Most of them (64%) are used through collecting wild plants, and the other 36% are supplied by pilot cultivation or conventional plantation. 26% of total 144 species are being threatened because of commercial harvesting and limited resources. Among the three surveyed plots along altitude gradients, the river valley has the least vulnerable plant species, while alpine region has the most plant species which are being threatened by overharvesting, limited by slow growth rate, and exacerbated by the difficulty of manmade cultivation. And reasonable strategies should be developed for plants resources in this and other special habitats.
    Chemical Analysis of Old Tea Trees in BaiYingShan Mountain and the Origin of Cultivated Tea
    ZHANG YingJun**, YANG ChongRen,**, ZENG ShuFen, CHEN KeKe, JIANG HongJian, ZUO ChengLin
    2010, 32(01):  77-82.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09104
    Abstract ( 2168 )   HTML ( )   PDF (800KB) ( 2240 )   Save
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    The contents of dalichasu (1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucopyranose), catechins, theogallin, gallic acid, caffeine and theanine in old tea trees from BaiYingShan mountain were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC method, while their total polysaccharides and polyphenols were measured by an UVVis spectrophotometer. Based on the chemical composition and morphological variation, the germplasm resource diversity of tea trees in BaiYingShan Mountain and their relationship with wild Camellia taliensis and cultivated tea (Csinensis var assamica) were discussed. The results provided not only the scientific data of quality evaluation of the old tea trees in BaiYingShan Mountain, but also the chemical evidence for the origin of cultivated tea and the hypothesis that Ctaliensis might be one of the origins of cultivated tea during the long natural variation and artificial breeding.
    A New Phenolic Glycoside from Chloranthus multistachys(Chloranthaceae)
    RAN XinHui, NI Wei, WEI Gang, CHEN ChangXiang, LIU HaiYang
    2010, 32(01):  83-86.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.09201
    Abstract ( 2376 )   HTML ( )   PDF (763KB) ( 1703 )   Save
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    A new phenolic glycoside, named syringic acid-4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), together with three known compounds were isolated from the MeOH extract of the whole plants of Chloranthus multistachys. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic. To the best of our knowledge, the three known compounds, 1β,4β-dihydroxy-5α, 8β(H)-eudesm-7 (11) Z-en-8, 12-olide (2), 1β, 4α-dihydroxy-5α, 8β(H)-eudesm-7 (11) Z-en8, 12-olide (3), and (–)(7S,8R)dihydrodehydrodiconifery alcohol (4) were all isolated from this plant for the first time.