The genetic diversity of 158 individuals from eight semi-wild populations from Yunnan Province was estimated using ISSR method (8 primers). The results revealed an extraordinarily high level of genetic diversity ( at species level,
percentage of polymorphic loci PPB = 91.04% , effective number of alleles Ne = 1.5244 , Nei′s (1973 ) gene diversity He= 0.3070, and Shannon′s information index Ho = 0 . 4618 ; at population level, PPB = 55. 04% , Ne = 1.3826, Nei′s (1973) gene diversity He = 0.2171, and Shannon′s information index Ho = 0.3178). The level of genetic differentiation between populations is lower than that among populations . The low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on Nei′s genetic diversity analysis (29.44%), and AMOVA (36.50%). There is no associations between geographical distance and genetic identity.We suggest that Jatropha curcas of Yunnan Province might not be introduced from the same place.