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25 August 2006, Volume 28 Issue 04
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  • Articles
    The Endemic Species of Seed Plants and Their Eco-geographic Distribution in Qinghai WU Yu-Hu
    WU Yu-Hu
    2006, 28(04):  327-336. 
    Abstract ( 2807 )   HTML ( )   PDF (151KB) ( 2227 )   Save
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    Based on the specimens deposited in the Herbarium of Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and relevant literature, it was found that 82 species and 37 varieties belonging to 54 genera and 19 families are endemic to Qinghai Province. Their localities, habitats, altitudes, original documents and field collection numbers are provided. Such data are basic information for further investigating the composition, characteristics, nature, origin and evolution of the Qinghai plateau flora.
    The Study on Systematic Position of Cyclopeltis
    LU Jin-Mei; LI De-Zhu
    2006, 28(04):  337-340. 
    Abstract ( 2695 )   HTML ( )   PDF (415KB) ( 2137 )   Save
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    Based on the data from comprehensive methods involving morphology, leaf epidermis, palynology, molecular systematics and biogeography, we thought it was improper that the genus Cyclopeltis was placed in the family Dryopteridaceae. These evidences also indicated that the genus had more closely related to some members of Tectariaceae than any other genera of Dryopteridaceae. We suggested that the genus should be deleted from Dryopteridaceae but placed in Tectariaceae.
    A Review on Systematics and Genetic Diversity of Nelumbonaceae
    TIAN Hong-Li; ZHOU Shi-Liang
    2006, 28(04):  341-348. 
    Abstract ( 3151 )   HTML ( )   PDF (143KB) ( 2454 )   Save
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    This review summarizes the recent ideas on (1) the systematics of Nelumbonaceae; ( 2) the classification of lotus cultivars; and (3) genetic diversity of lotus. The plants of the Nelumbonaceae were formerly grouped in the Nymphaeaceae. Evidences from comparative morphology, cytology, palynology and embryogenesis etc. supported Nelumbonaceae as a family in Nymphaeales, Ranunculales or Nelumbonales. Recent phylogenetic reconstruction based on DNA sequence demonstrated that Nelumbonaceae is a basal family of eudicots, closely related to Proteaceae and Planataceae. It is generally accepted and reconfirmed that Nelumbonaceae is consisted of two disjunct species, N. nucifera and N. lutea, though their hybrids are fertile. China has a very long history of cultivation of N. nucifera, over 600 cultivars are now under cultivation. Hybridization between cultivars complicated the relationships among cultivars. The genetic variations of lotus have not been well understood, especially for wild lotus. Genetic diversity revealed bymolecular markers overestimated the actual levels due to lumping together the cultivars of the two species.
    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Status of Wetland Plants Collected from Yunnan
    WANG Kai; ZHAO Zhi-Wei
    2006, 28(04):  349-351. 
    Abstract ( 2509 )   HTML ( )   PDF (49KB) ( 1919 )   Save
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    The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of 32 wetland plant species came from 15 families sampled in Kunming, Chengjiang, Jianshui, Tonghai, Shiping, Dongchuan and Luquan was surveryed by means of acid fuchsin stain after the roots were lysised in alkaline solution. Typical arbuscular mycorrhizal structures were detected in the roots of 11 species . Sixteen arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to 4 genera were wet-sieved from the rhizospheric soil of the wetland plants. Acaulospora and Glomus presented dominantly in the wetland soil (94% ). Glomus mosseae was dominant species in wetland soil and accounted for 88% of the total spores.
    An Analysis of CHS Gene Family for Some Basal Eudicots
    YANG Jun-Bo;YANG Han-Qi; LI De-Zhu; LI Hong-Tao
    2006, 28(04):  352-358. 
    Abstract ( 2555 )   HTML ( )   PDF (249KB) ( 2347 )   Save
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    Partial sequences of chalcone synthase (CHS) gene exon 2 were amplified by PCR method from genomic DNA of 10 species of the basal eudicots. After cloning and sequencing , 26 seqences were obtained . There were two to four copies of CHS gene family among various plants. All of sequences showed a similarity higher than 70% at the nucleotide level . A 29-base deletion was found in a copy (CedeCHS3) in Ceratophyllum demersum, which indicated that the function of the CHS enzyme in this species was lost. GrroCHS8, a copy from Grevillea robusta, had many mutations at active sites, implying the new function may be devoloped in this copy. The result of analyzing the base content revealed that only the sequences from Buxus bobinieri have GC bias, especially at the third base of codes, and the GC content is more than 70%. All of molecular phylogenetic trees, based on the Beyesian, MP, and NJ methods, consisted of three major clades. Four sequences from Ceratophyllum demersum were grouped into a monophyletic clade (subfamily Ⅱ ). Two sequences out of Trochodendron aralioides nested in subfamily Ⅲ. Another three sequences from Kingdonia uniflora interspersed among different subclades of subfamily Ⅰ. Sequences of most species dispersed in subfamily Ⅰ and subfamily Ⅲ. And it revealed that CHS gene family derived from two ancestor copies, which had existed before eudicots were evolved. The two copies experienced different evolutionary process among different species . These differences related to the diversity of habits and environments of these plants.
    Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Haloxylon persicum (Chenopodiaceae) in Xinjiang by ISSR
    ZHANG Ping; DONG Yu-Zhi; WEI Yan; HU Cheng-zhi
    2006, 28(04):  359-362. 
    Abstract ( 2984 )   HTML ( )   PDF (119KB) ( 1938 )   Save
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    ISSR molecular markers were used to detect genetic diversity of 105 individuals in four populations of Haloxylon persicum. 171 polymorphic bands were induced by amplication primers. Percentage of polymorphic bands is 84 . 85% and the difference among four populations ranged from 33 . 92% to 40. 35%. Shannon’s indices of diversity (I) is 0. 3518 and Nei’s gene diversity (h) is 0. 3482 respectively. Genetic variance analysis showed that the coefficient of gene differentiation in the species is 0. 6238 and the gene flow is 0.3016 among populations. Genetic distance and cluster analysis indicated that the populations of Ganjiahu and Tulufan had the smallest genetic difference.
    Secondary Xylem Anatomic Characteristics of Dominant Plant Species in Three Communities in Xiangshan Mountain, Huaibei , China
    SHI Gang-Rong; LIU Lei
    2006, 28(04):  363-370. 
    Abstract ( 2782 )   HTML ( )   PDF (124KB) ( 1962 )   Save
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    The results of anatomic observations on secondary xylem of 6 dominant species in a Platycladus orientalis + Broussonetia papyrifera mixed forest in Xiangshan mountain, Huaibei, China, indicated that these species share some xeromorphic features in secondary xylem such as high vessel frequency, less percentage of single porous, thinner vessel, shorter fibers, and lower rays. The availability and safety of the vessel associated with water conduction was evaluated through relative conductivity and the vulnerability index, the result shown that relative conductivity of the 6 dominant species is ordered as Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia, Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa, Grewia biloba var. parviflora, Broussonetia papyrifera, Cudrania tricuspuidata, Rhamnus parvifolia , while the vulnerability index is ordered as B. papyrifera, V. negundo var. cannabifolia, G. biloba var. parviflora, Z. jujuba var. spinosa, C. tricuspuidata, R. parvifolia, and the availability and safety of water conduction of these plants is coincided with their distribution in Xiangshan mountain. The three widely distributed dominant species, Z. jujuba var. spinosa, V. negundo var. cannabifolia and G. biloba var. parviflora, show great plasticity in some characters, including vessel element length, vessel frequency, relative conductivity, vulnerability index, percentage of single porous, multiserate ray height, multiserate ray width, and single ray height, etc. Compared to those in mixed forest and P. orientalis forest, the species in shrub tend to have shorter vessel elements, higher vessel frequency, less single porous percentage, lower rays, higher relative conductivity, and less vulnerabilityindex, thus indicated that they are inclined to more xeromorphic anatomically. The result from the stepwise multiple regressions show that both of the vessel element length and percentage of single porous increased with the canopy density, and the vessel frequency increased with the wind velocity, multiserate ray width increased with the soil water content.
    Floral Variation in Tepals, Sterile and Fertile Stamens of Kingdonia uniflora (Ranunculaceae) with Reference to Pollinators and Pollination
    HE Hai-Xia; ZHANG Xiao-Ling; REN Yi
    2006, 28(04):  371-377. 
    Abstract ( 2482 )   HTML ( )   PDF (182KB) ( 1932 )   Save
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    To understand the influence of different floral organs of Kingdonia uniflora to the pollinators and pollination, we divided the flowers into four groups, A, with the sterile stamens removed, B, with the tepals removed, C, with the fertile stamens removed and D, without the remove of any organ. The results showed that the insects visiting frequency were 0.4 time h in group A, 0 time h in group B, 0. 9 time h in group C and 2. 2 time h in group D. The percentage of pollinated flowers was 29.09% in group A, 40. 38% in group B, 70.91% in group C and 91. 67% in group D. The percentage of pollinated carpels was 17.77% in group A, 20.94% in group B, 40.58% in group C and 75.27% in group D respectively. The relationships between the insect visiting frequency and the nectarial secretion of the sterile stamens were observed in the field. To compare with group D, the decrease of the rate of pollinated flower and the carpel was group A > group B>group C. To combine the observation of the relationships between the nectarial secretion of the sterile stamens and the insect visiting frequency, we considered that the sterile stamens with nectar as the reward of the visiting insects play the most important rule for the pollinators and pollination. However, the tepals that could afford the platform of staining and moving of the insects on the flowers are also important for the pollinators. The fertile stamens that could form the chromatic to attract some of the pollinators and supply the pollen grains as the food of some pollinators play less important rule .
    The Microcharacteristics of Seed Surface in Lysimachia (Primulaceae) and Its Systematic Implications
    SHAO Jian-Wen; ZHANG Xiao-Ping; ZHU Guo-Ping
    2006, 28(04):  378-382. 
    Abstract ( 2523 )   HTML ( )   PDF (471KB) ( 1827 )   Save
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    The microcharacteristics of seed surface in Lysimachia of the family Primulaceae were investigated by light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the morphological characters of seed epidermis cells, the seeds coats can be divided into two distinct types, Heterogenea-type and Grammica-type. 7 species of Subgen. Palladia of China all belong to Heterogenea-type, and 4 species of Subgen. Lysimachia of China to Grammica- type. The results show that there are remarkable differences in the morphological features of seed surface between subgen. Palladia and subgen. Lysimachia, which might have significant taxonomic implications at subgenus level .
    Morphological Diversity of Schisandra (Schisandraceae) Seeds and Its Taxonomic Implication
    SUN Cheng-Ren
    2006, 28(04):  383-393. 
    Abstract ( 3027 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1511KB) ( 2074 )   Save
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    Thirty-six seed samples represented 34 population of 27 taxa of Schisandra are measured in three dimentions. One new concept of“relative volume”was adopted here. 34 photographs of the seeds are selected for discussing seed feature and taxonomic significance of Schisandra. The seed surface of Schisandra may be divided into four types: (1) smooth or subsmooth; (2) obviously rugose or sparsely or densely tuberculate; (3) with dense papillae; (4) with irregular nodular rope-like protuberance, like cerebrumof the mammal . The comparative analysis of entire features from the seeds and androecium
    demonstrated that a highly relative variability between seed morpha and androecium feature existed in sect. Maximowiczia, Schisandra and Sphaerostema respectively except sect. Pleiostema with a smaller degree of the relative variability. The taxonomic revisions on Schisandra contributed by Lin Qi (2000) and Saunders (2000) are not supported by the comprehensive investigation for the morpha, relative volume, colour and surface sculpture of the seed in the present paper. Dividing sect. Sphaerostema into two subgenera by Law yu-wu is not supported by the evidences from the seeds also.
    Effect of 2, 4 -D on Seedling Physiology and Cytogenetical Studies in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor (Gramineae)
    Muhammad Rashid Khan; Khawaja Muhammad Aslam
    2006, 28(04):  394-398. 
    Abstract ( 1722 )   HTML ( )   PDF (161KB) ( 2770 )   Save
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    Effects of 2, 4 -D on seedling growth and chromosomal abnormalities were studied in Triticum aestivum and Phalaris minor. Seeds were soaked at different concentrations of 2, 4 -D (0.01%, 0.1%, 1.0%) for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. 2, 4 -D suppressed the germination more severely in P. minor than in T. aestivum. Shoot and root length was retarded with the increase of concentration and time of treatment in both species. Generally radical was more negatively affected than coleoptile and emergence of radical was not observed at 1.0% concentration at 8, 12, and 16 hours of treatment in T. aestivum while in P. minor there was a total lack of radical emergence at 1.0% concentration for all durations of treatment. Stiff and curled roots and undifferentiated callus like scutellar tissues were observed in T. aestivum, while in P. minor the coleoptile obtained was lean, pale green in colour and was lying flat on filter paper. Mitotic index decreased, while chromosomal abnormalities, bridges and laggards were increased with the increase of concentration and soaking time however, laggards were not observed in T. aestivum. Clumping and chain formation of chromosomes at metaphase was also noticed in P. minor.

    Study on Seeds Aseptic Culture and Embryo Growth Routes of Several Orchid
    ANG Bu-Qiong; LI Zhi-Lin; LIU Guo-Min; QIAN Hui-Sheng; YU Chao-Xiu
    2006, 28(04):  399-402. 
    Abstract ( 2823 )   HTML ( )   PDF (112KB) ( 3210 )   Save
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    Microexamination were carried out on the embryo growth of the seeds of the orchids of Cymbidium hookerianum× C. mastersiiC. mastersii × C. hookerianumC. hookerianum × C. iridioidesC. iridioides × C. hookerianum
    C. dayanumArundina graminifoliaArachnis labrosaEria corneriCalanthe triplicate and Acampe multiflora. We have found there were two routes for the embryo growths, carrying through at the same time. One of the route was the embryo become green after breaking through the seed coat, the other was the embryo turned green before breaking through the seed coat. We also discovered that embryo broke through the seed coat through three ways: (1 ) the embryo becomes a bare embryo because the seed coat disappears in growth; (2) the embryo breaks through the seed coat from one aspect of the seed; (3) the embryo breaks through the seed coat from profile, then it becomes a bare embryo. The globules grew into seedlings in two ways: (1) The globules grew into seedlings through their protocorms. (2) The globules grew first into rhizome, then into seedlings.
    Effects of Explants, Medium Formulations and Light on Callus Induction and Secondary Metabolites Accumulated in the Calli of Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae)
    LIU Xiao-Qin; ZHANG Wei; JIN Mei-Fang; YU Xing-Ju
    2006, 28(04):  403-409. 
    Abstract ( 2618 )   HTML ( )   PDF (160KB) ( 1736 )   Save
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    Callus initiation of a Chinese traditional medical plant , Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc (Polygonaceae) was studied, with a focus on the factors that could influence the callus induction ability and secondary metabolites accumulation. In comparison with the parent explants, the levels of total phenolics and flavones were 2 to 3-fold higher and the levels of anthraquinones (AQs) were lower in all calli induced. Different explants exhibited great variability in callus induction rate and secondarymetabolite accumulation. Among the three explants tested, leaf explants were with the best capacity in callus induction, while root explants accumulated the highest levels in secondary metabolites. Two media of six tested, MS and N6 respectively plus 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, showed the best performances in both callus growth and secondary metabolite accumulation. Illumination shower a remarkable effects on both callus induction and secondary metabolite accumulation, but no regular pattern was observed.
    Isolation, Purification and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharide of Prunella vugaris (Labiatae)
    ZHANG De-Hua
    2006, 28(04):  410-414. 
    Abstract ( 2377 )   HTML ( )   PDF (97KB) ( 2269 )   Save
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    This report described the isolation and purification of the polysaccharide from Prunella vugaris L. (PP2). The best combination of isolation conditions had been obtained through the orthogonal experiment. Paper Chromatography , agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectroscopy had been introduced to determine the purity of the PP2 and fractional deposition and gas chromatography had been applied to analyze the monosaccharide constituents of PP2. By the chemical simulation in vitro, the antioxidant activity of PP2 had been studied . The results of the experiment showed that PP2 had significant scavenging effect on oxide radical, hydroxide radical and univalent radical NO2 but poor scavenging effect on organic radical. PP2 could prevent the membrane lipid from peroxidation and reduce hemolysis of red cells and production of MDA as well .
    A Preliminary Study on Community Characteristics of Corticolous Lichen in Forest Ecosystem in Eastern Altay Mts .
    TUMUR·Anwar; ABBAS·Abdulla
    2006, 28(04):  415-420. 
    Abstract ( 2531 )   HTML ( )   PDF (110KB) ( 1950 )   Save
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    In this paper, the authors used cluster analysis method to study the corticolous lichen community structure in forest ecosystem of eastern AltayMts of Xinjiang according to the on the spot investigation results in many year. The results show that in this Mts the lichen species which can be divided into four communities: (1 ) Calicium abietinum Pers + Tephromela atra (Hundson) community; (2) Leptogium saturninum (Dicks. ) + Lecidea elabens Fr. community; (3) Parmelia sulcata Tayl. apud Mack + Ramalina farnacea (L. ) Ach community; (4) Caloplaca flavorubescens + Phaeophyscia nigricans (Flk. ) community. We also were compared the species diversity, similarity and evenness index of different
    communities.
    Impact of Temperature on Seed Germination of Pedicularis verticilata (Scrophulariaceae)
    LI Kai-Hui; HU Yu-Kun; Adeli·Maidy; LU Chun-Fang; Yu Jian-Mei; LIU Yan-Yan
    2006, 28(04):  421-424. 
    Abstract ( 2701 )   HTML ( )   PDF (89KB) ( 1962 )   Save
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    Within recent years, Pedicularis verticilata L. have invaded in Bayanbulak grassland of XinJiang, and such invasion which is threatening grassland quality of livestock grazing in this region. Seed germinations of this species were
    examined based on six temperature treatments: constant temperature( treatment 1, 28℃; treatment 2, from17 to 20℃; treatment 3, from 9 to 16℃ ); alternative temperature ( treatment 4, 9.66, 10.21, 0.15 and - 0.83℃; treatment 5, 14.76, 20.9, 6.31 and 4.01℃; treatment 6, 26.17、29.58、5.19 and 0.75℃). The experiments results showed: 1) Germination rate were higher in alternative temperature than in constant temperature and the germination trend showed an uni-modal patterns; 2) Germination rate and germination index were lower in higher or lower temperature; 3) Germination rate and germination index under the alternatively changed temperatures (average temperature of the latter half on May in this region recorded as 14.76, 20.9, 6.31 and 4.01℃) was the highest, respectively 76.9% and 18.1. Therefore, it is suggested that, the late May might be the also the important time period to prevent this species from invading native grassland.
    Biochemical Characterization of the Pollen Tubulin from Day Lily ( Hemerocallis fulva , Liliaceae)
    LIAO Jun-Jie; WU Ying-Jie; YAN Long-Fei
    2006, 28(04):  425-428. 
    Abstract ( 2297 )   HTML ( )   PDF (103KB) ( 1892 )   Save
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    Eucaryotic cells contain a complex network of filamentous proteins collectively called the cytoskeleton, which participates in many cellular functions, including organelle motility and information transfer. Tubulins are one of the main
    components of the cell cytoskeleton. Tubulins of high purity were prepared from day lily pollen grains, and were biochemically and biophysically characterized in this study. The molecular weight ofα-andβ- tubulin from day lily pollen is about 56 kD and 58 kD on SDS-PAGE, respectively. The purity is 93.7% by scanning analysis. The tubulin has a sedimentation coefficient of 6.2S and an isoelectric point of about 5.35. The maximum ultraviolet absorption is 280.8 nm. Fluorescence emission wave length of day lily tubulin is 338 nm by excitation at 282 nm. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrum analysis showed that the percentage ofα-helix, β-sheet and random coil of day lily tubulin is 27.24%, 24.48% and 48.28%, respectively, indicating a typical feature of globulin.
    Non-alkaloid Constituents of Buxus sinica (Buxaceae)
    LIN Yun-Liang; QIU Ming-Hua; LI Zhong-Rong; ZHOU Lin; Liu Jian-Qiu
    2006, 28(04):  429-432. 
    Abstract ( 2520 )   HTML ( )   PDF (90KB) ( 2012 )   Save
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    From the aerial parts of Buxus sinica, ten non- alkaloid compounds were isolated and identified as cleomiscosin A ( 1 ), 3, 5-dihydroxyl-4', 6, 7-trimethyl flavone-3′- O-β- D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), 3, 5, 3', 4′tetrahydroxyl-3, 6, 7-trimethyl flavone (3 ) , cleomiscosin A-4′- O-β- D-gluco-pyranoside (4 ), 3, 5-dimethoxybenzoicacid-4- O-β- D-glucopyranoside (5 ), 4′, 5-dihydroxyl-3, 6, 7-trimethyl flavone (6), lupine (7), ( + )-pinoresinol- O-β- D-glucopyranoside (8 ), β-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10). Their structures were identified by spectral evidence.
    Lignans and Triterpenoids from Cissus repens (Vitaceae)
    WANG Yue-Hu; ZHANG Zhong-Kai; HE Hong-Ping; GAO Suo; KONG Ning-Chuan; DING Ming; HAO Xiao-Jiang
    2006, 28(04):  433-437. 
    Abstract ( 2996 )   HTML ( )   PDF (140KB) ( 2789 )   Save
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    Five lignans and eight triterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Cissus repens. Among them, a lignan, ( + )- isolariciresinol-9′- (2- p-coumaric ) - O-β- D-xylopyranoside (1), was new and its structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods and alkaline hydrolysis. Other compounds, ( + ) -isolariciresinol-9′- O-β- D-xylopyranoside (2), ( + ) -lyoniside (3), ( ─) -secoisolariciresinol-9- O-β- D-xylopyranoside (4 ), ( 7′R, 8′S )-4′-hydroxy-3′, 5-dimethoxy-7′, 8′-dihydrobenzofuran-1-propanolneolignan-9′- O-β- D-xylopyranoside (5 ), friedelin ( 6 ), epifriedelanol ( 7), taraxerol-3β- acetate (8), ursolic acid (9 ), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid ( 10), asiatic acid (11 ), niga-ichigoside F1 ( 12 ) and lupeol (13), were found in the plant for the first time.