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25 November 2023, Volume 45 Issue 06
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  • Review
    The worldwide allometric relationship in anatomical structures for plant roots
    Yue Zhang, Jing-Jing Cao, Qing-Pei Yang, Ming-Zuo Wu, Yong Zhao, De-Liang Kong
    2023, 45(06):  621-629.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.05.002
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3345KB) ( 48 )   Save
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    The cortex (i.e., absorptive tissue) and stele (transportive vascular tissue) are fundamental to the function of plant roots. Unraveling how these anatomical structures are assembled in absorptive roots is essential for our understanding of plant ecology, physiology, and plant responses to global environmental changes. In this review, we first compile a large data set on anatomical traits in absorptive roots, including cortex thickness and stele radius, across 698 observations and 512 species. Using this data set, we reveal a common root allometry in absorptive root structures, i.e., cortex thickness increases much faster than stele radius with increasing root diameter (hereafter, root allometry). Root allometry is further validated within and across plant growth forms (woody, grass, and liana species), mycorrhiza types (arbuscular mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza, and orchid mycorrhizas), phylogenetic gradients (from ferns to Orchidaceae), and environmental change scenarios (e.g., elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen fertilization). These findings indicate that root allometry is common in plants. Importantly, root allometry varies greatly across species. We then summarize recent research on the mechanisms of root allometry and potential issues regarding these mechanisms. We further discuss ecological and evolutionary implications of root allometry. Finally, we propose several important research directions that should be pursued regarding root allometry.
    Articles
    Phylogeny, character evolution, and classification of Selaginellaceae(lycophytes)
    Xin-Mao Zhou, Li-Bing Zhang
    2023, 45(06):  630-684.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.07.003
    Abstract ( 50 )   HTML ( )   PDF (48681KB) ( 50 )   Save
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    Selaginella is the largest and most taxonomically complex genus in lycophytes. The fact that over 750 species are currently treated in a single genus makes Selaginellales/Selaginellaceae unique in pteridophytes. Here we assembled a dataset of six existing and newly sampled plastid and nuclear loci with a total of 684 accessions (74% increase of the earlier largest sampling) representing ca. 300 species to infer a new phylogeny. The evolution of 10 morphological characters is studied in the new phylogenetic context. Our major results include: (1) the nuclear and plastid phylogenies are congruent with each other and combined analysis well resolved and strongly supported the relationships of all but two major clades; (2) the Sinensis group is resolved as sister to S. subg. Pulviniella with strong support in two of the three analyses; (3) most morphological characters are highly homoplasious but some characters alone or combinations of characters well define the major clades in the family; and (4) an infrafamilial classification of Selaginellaceae is proposed and the currently defined Selaginella s.l. is split into seven subfamilies (corresponding to the current six subgenera + the Sinensis group) and 19 genera (the major diagnosable clades) with nine new species-poor genera. We support the conservation of Selaginella with a new type, S. flabellata, to minimize nomenclatural instability. We provide a key to subfamilies and genera, images illustrating their morphology, their morphological and geographical synopses, a list of constituent species, and necessary new combinations. This new classification will hopefully facilitate communication, promote further studies, and help conservation.
    Effects of land-use types and the exotic species, Hypochaeris radicata, on plant diversity in human-transformed landscapes of the biosphere reserve, Jeju Island, Korea
    Deokjoo Son, Bruce Waldman, Uhram Song
    2023, 45(06):  685-693.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.01.002
    Abstract ( 29 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3859KB) ( 19 )   Save
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    Land-use and plant invasion influence biodiversity. Understanding the effects of land-use types and invasive plants on the ecosystem is crucial for better management and the development of strategic plans for increasing biodiversity in Jeju Island, Korea, a designated Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. The effect of the most dominant invasive exotic species, Hypochaeris radicata, on the four land-use types of Jeju Island was investigated. Plant composition, soil characteristics, and plant diversity among four land-use types (cropland, green space, neglected land, and residential) were compared. Among the land-use types, croplands had the most diverse plant composition and the highest richness in exotic and native plant species. Croplands, such as tangerine orchards, which are widely distributed throughout Jeju Island, showed the highest plant diversity because of medium intensity disturbance caused by weed removal. The relative cover of H. radicata did not differ between land-use types. However, H. radicata invasion was negatively related with plant species richness, making this invasive species a threat to the biodiversity of native herbs present in land-use areas. H. radicata adapts to areas with a broad range of soil properties and a variety of land-use types. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor land-use types and patterns of plant invasion to guide the implementation of consistent management and conservation strategies for maintaining ecosystem integrity of the transformed habitat in Jeju Island.
    Soil water content and nitrogen differentially correlate with multidimensional leaf traits of two temperate broadleaf species
    Ming-Yue Jin, Daniel J. Johnson, Guang-Ze Jin, Qing-Xi Guo, Zhi-Li Liu
    2023, 45(06):  694-701.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.03.001
    Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4220KB) ( 18 )   Save
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    The variation and correlation of leaf economics and vein traits are crucial for predicting plant ecological strategies under different environmental changes. However, correlations between these two suites of traits and abiotic factors such as soil water and nitrogen content remain ambiguous. We measured leaf economics and vein traits as well as soil water and nitrogen content for two different shade-tolerant species (Betula platyphylla and Acer mono) in four mixed broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forests along a latitudinal gradient in Northeast China. We found that leaf economics traits and vein traits were decoupled in shade-intolerant species, Betula platphylla, but significantly coupled in a shade-tolerant species, A. mono. We found stronger correlations among leaf traits in the shade tolerant species than in the shade intolerant species. Furthermore, leaf economic traits were positively correlated with the soil water gradient for both species, whereas vein traits were positively correlated with soil water gradient for the shade intolerant species but negatively correlated in the shade tolerant species. Although economic traits were positively correlated with soil nitrogen gradient in shade intolerant species but not correlated in shade tolerant species, vein traits were negatively correlated with soil nitrogen gradient in shade tolerant species but not correlated in shade intolerant species. Our study provides evidence for distinct correlations between leaf economics and vein traits and local abiotic factors of species differing in light demands. We recommend that the ecological significance of shade tolerance be considered for species when evaluating ecosystem functions and predicting plant responses to environmental changes.
    Parasite-host network analysis provides insights into the evolution of two mistletoe lineages (Loranthaceae and Santalaceae)
    Jin Zhao, Yuanjie Li, Xuanni Wang, Manru Li, Wenbin Yu, Jin Chen, Ling Zhang
    2023, 45(06):  702-711.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.03.008
    Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4618KB) ( 29 )   Save
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    Mistletoes are ecologically important parasitic plants, with > 1600 species from five lineages worldwide. Mistletoe lineages exhibit distinct patterns of species diversification and host specificity, however, the mechanisms underlying these differences are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed a comprehensive parasite–host network, including 280 host species from 60 families and 22 mistletoe species from two lineages (Santalaceae and Loranthaceae) in Xishuangbanna, located in a biodiversity hotspot of tropical Asia. We identified the factors that predict the infection strength of mistletoes. We also detected host specificity and the phylogenetic signal of mistletoes and their hosts. We found that this interaction network could be largely explained by a model based on the relative abundance of species. Host infection was positively correlated with diameter at breast height and tree coverage, but negatively correlated with wood density. Overall, closely related mistletoe species tend to interact more often with similar hosts. However, the two lineages showed a significantly different network pattern. Rates of host generality were higher in Loranthaceae than in Santalaceae, although neither lineage showed phylogenetic signal for host generality. This study demonstrates that the neutral interaction hypothesis provides suitable predictions of the mistletoe–host interaction network, and mistletoe species show significant phylogenetic signals for their hosts. Our findings also indicate that high species diversification in Loranthaceae may be explained by high rates of host generality and the evolutionary history shared by Loranthaceae species with diverse host plants in the tropics.
    Review
    Germplasm resources and genetic improvement of Akebia: A new fruit crop in China
    Shuai-Yu Zou, Chen Feng, Pu-Xin Gao, Tong-Jian Li, Tian-Jiao Jia, Hongwen Huang
    2023, 45(06):  712-721.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.12.001
    Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( )   PDF (24043KB) ( 12 )   Save
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    Akebia species, belonging to Lardizabalaceae, are widespread from subtropical to temperate environments of China, Japan, and Korea. All known Akebia species have medicinal and dietary value and have been widely cultivated as a new fruit crop in many areas of China. However, compared with other crop species, the breeding improvement and commercial cultivation of Akebia remain in their infancy. This review systematically introduces the present germplasm resources, geographical distribution, biological characteristics, interspecific and intraspecific cross compatibility, molecular biology, and breeding progress in Akebia species. Akebia plants are widely distributed in Shanxi, Henan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Fujian provinces of China, and wild Akebia plants exhibit abundant phenotypic and genetic diversity due to their wide range of geographical distribution and high adaptability in different habitats. Interspecific artificial hybridization experiments have been conducted in our Akebia germplasm resources nursery. The results showed that there was no reproductive isolation between Akebia species, and fertile progeny could be produced. The synthesis of knowledge on these species provides insights for the rational development and utilization of these germplasm resources, and can facilitate the development of new breeding lines or varieties for commercial cultivation or production. Finally, perspectives on Akebia breeding research are discussed and conclusions are provided. This review provided breeders with new insights into Akebia domestication and breeding, and we also proposed five basic steps in the domestication of new fruit crops.
    Articles
    Root structure syndromes of four families of monocots in the Middle Urals
    Anna A. Betekhtina, Daria E. Tukova, Denis V. Veselkin
    2023, 45(06):  722-731.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.01.007
    Abstract ( 20 )   HTML ( )   PDF (13975KB) ( 11 )   Save
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    The present article tests the following general assumption: plant taxa with different specializations towards mycorrhizal interactions should have different root syndromes. Roots of 61 species common in boreal zone were studied: 16 species of Poaceae, 24 species of Cyperaceae, 14 species of Orchidaceae, and 7 species of Iridaceae. Using a fixed material of 5 individuals of each species, the following was determined: number of orders of branching roots; transverse dimensions of root, stele and cortex; number of primary xylem vessels and exodermis layers; length of root hairs; abundance of mycorrhiza. Species of each family had well-defined syndromes. Roots of Orchidaceae and Iridaceae were thick with a large stele and developed exodermis. Orchidaceae had no branching roots and had long root hairs. In Iridaceae, roots were branched, and root hairs were short. Roots of Poaceae and Cyperaceae were thin with a relatively thin stele. Root hairs were short in Poaceae and long in Cyperaceae. Our finding that root syndromes of four families of monocots differed is a new and unexpected discovery. The high specificity of root syndromes in Cyperaceae, Iridaceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae indicates that species of these families use different strategies to obtain water and soil nutrients.
    A novel seed cone of Pinus from the Miocene of coastal Southeast China indicates kinship with Southeast Asian pines
    Xiang-Chuan Li, Yi Hu, Xiang Zhang, Liang Xiao, Li-Na Liang, Rui-Zhi Zhang, Lei Qiao
    2023, 45(06):  732-747.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.12.002
    Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( )   PDF (24748KB) ( 15 )   Save
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    Pinus is an economically and ecologically important genus whose members are dominant components globally in low-latitude mountainous and mid-latitude temperate forests. Pinus species richness is currently concentrated in subtropical mid-low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, differing from the latitudinal diversity gradient mostly recognized in woody angiosperms. How the present pattern was developing in Earth's past is still poorly studied, particularly in eastern Asia. Here, a new fossil species, Pinus shengxianica sp. nov. is described based on a fossil seed cone from the Late Miocene Shengxian Formation in Zhejiang, southeast China. A co-occurring cone is recognized as a known fossil species, Pinus speciosa Li. Extensive comparison of extant and fossil members of Pinus suggests P. shengxianica shares a striking cone similarity to Pinus merkusii and Pinus latteri (subsection Pinus) from tropical Southeast Asia in having annular bulges around the umbo on the apophysis. The morphological resemblance indicates these two extant low-latitude pines probably possess a close affinity with the present newly-discovered P. shengxianica and originated from East Asian mid-low latitude ancestors during this generic re-diversification in the Miocene. This scenario is consistent with the evolutionary trajectory reflected by the pine fossil history and molecular data, marking the Miocene as a key period for the origin and evolution of most extant pines globally. The co-occurrences of diverse conifers and broadleaved angiosperms preferring diverse niches demonstrate Late Miocene eastern Zhejiang was one of the hot spots for coniferophyte diversity and hosted a needled-broadleaved mixed forest with complex vegetation structure and an altitudinal zonation.
    Short communication
    Degree of style coiling is associated with corolla-tube length in the nectarless flowers of Roscoea schneideriana
    Bo Wang, Ze-Yu Tong, Ying-Ze Xiong, Xiao-Fan Wang, W. Scott Armbruster, Shuang-Quan Huang
    2023, 45(06):  748-751.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.12.004
    Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2029KB) ( 7 )   Save
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    The plant-pollinator ‘arms race’ model posits that a major driver of the evolution of elongated corollas in flowers is reciprocal selection for ‘morphological fit’ between pollinator-tongue length and access distance to nectar (usually corolla-tube length). Evidence for the pollinator-mediated selection on tube length and evolution of multiple, correlated floral traits remains inconclusive. To gain possible insights into the strength of stabilizing selection by assessing standing phenotypic variation, we measured a series of functionally important floral traits, including corolla tube length and ‘effective’ tube depth and degree of style coiling. We then calculated coefficients of variation (CV) for these traits in three field populations of R. schneideriana. Unlike in most long-tubed flowers, the bottom part of the corolla tube is completely occupied by the style, with no room for nectar. The length of this portion of the corolla tube was more variable (higher CV) than the upper part of the corolla tube, suggesting that functional tube depth was under stronger stabilizing selection. The degree of style coiling was negatively related to the corolla-tube length in all three populations of R. schneideriana, suggesting that there may be conflicting selection acting on style length and corolla-tube length, which are otherwise usually tightly correlated. Given the lack of nectar in the flowers of this species, the long corolla tubes and long styles may represent morphological holdovers from ancestors that were pollinated by long-tongued pollinators, as is still seen in related species in the western Himalayas.
    Report
    The complete plastid genome provides insight into maternal plastid inheritance mode of the living fossil plant Ginkgo biloba
    Mengxue Feng, Hanghui Kong, Meixiu Lin, Rongjing Zhang, Wei Gong
    2023, 45(06):  752-756.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.09.001
    Abstract ( 36 )   HTML ( )   PDF (462KB) ( 27 )   Save
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    Corrigendum
    Corrigendum to Patterns of floristic inventory and plant collections in Myanmar [Plant Divers. 45 (3) (2023) 302-308]
    Thant Sin Aung, Alice C. Hughes, Phyo Kay Khine, Bo Liu, Xiao-Li Shen, Ke-Ping Ma
    2023, 45(06):  757-758.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2023.10.002
    Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( )   PDF (738KB) ( 12 )   Save
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