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25 April 2011, Volume 33 Issue 2
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  • Articles
    Six New Species of Elatostema (Urticaceae) from Gaoligong Shan, Yunnan
    WANG Wen-Cai
    2011, 33(2):  145-156.  doi:10. 3724/ SP. J. 1143. 2011. 10058
    Abstract ( 2721 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1478KB) ( 2350 )   Save
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    In this paper, six species of the genus Elatostema (Urticaceae), E. tricaule, E. paucifolium, E. dactylocephalum, E. pianmaense, E. cikaiense and E. pseudoplatyphyllum, are described as new on the basis of the specimens which were collected from Gaoligong Shan, western Yunnan Province, China during recent two decades.

    Taxonomic Revision of Five Species of the Genus Phoebe (Lauraceae) from China
    LI Lang-, LI Jie-, LI Xi-Wen
    2011, 33(2):  157-160.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10148
    Abstract ( 2397 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2252KB) ( 2660 )   Save
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    On the basis of molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Persea group (Lauraceae) using the sequences of ITS and LEAFY intron II, the species Phoebe chinensis Chun, P.minutiflora H. W. Li, P.faberi (Hemsl.) Chun, P.microphylla H. W. Li and P.forrestii W. W. Smith, which are characterised by the persistent perianth lobes loosely clasping the base of fruit, apex extrorse, as well as globose fruit, were transferred into the genus Machilis. Accordingly, a new name Machilus montana L. Li, J. Li & H. W. Li, as well as three new combinations M.minutiflora (H. W. Li) L. Li, J. Li & H. W. Li, M.microphylla (H. W. Li) L. Li, J. Li & H. W. Li and M.forrestii (W. W. Smith) L. Li, J. Li & H. W. Li were reported here.

    Supplementary Description of Inflorescences and Fruits for Dendrocalamus asper and D.barbatus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)
    YANG Han-Qi-, Sun-Mao-Sheng
    2011, 33(2):  161-163.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10059
    Abstract ( 2383 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1982KB) ( 2260 )   Save
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    In this paper, supplementary descriptions in Latin and Chinese are provided for inflorescence and fruit characters of Dendrocalamus asper and fruit characters of D.barbatus. The new specimens indicate that flowering branches of D.asper are leafless, 0.5-3m long, and each node bears 3-6 pseudospikelets or 10-25 (-30) pseudospikelets clustered in a spiky globose mass, with 1.5-2cm in diameter; pseudospikelet comprises 4 or 5 florets, and apical one is fertile; fruits are nut-like caryopsis, nearly globose, with 2-4mm in diameter; and apex of caryopsis remains persistent style base which is 1-2mm long and covered with cilia. The fruits of D. barbatus are also nut-like caryopsis, cylindrical, 6-10mm long, 1.2-2mm in diameter;and apex of caryopsis remains persistent style base which is 2-3mm long and covered with cilia.

    A Karyological Study of Piptanthus (Leguminosae) from Sino-Himalayas
    LIU Qin-Yu, WANG Xin-Jiang, ZHANG Yong-Zeng, LI Zhi-Min
    2011, 33(2):  164-170.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10178
    Abstract ( 2910 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5904KB) ( 2393 )   Save
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     The karyology of 5 populations, all two species of Piptanthus (P.nepalensis and P.tomentosus) from Sino-Himalayas were studied in this paper, of which chromosome number and the karyotype of P.tomentosus was firstly reported. The results show that both species P.nepalensis and P.tomentosus share the same chromosome basic number x=9 and 2n=18, all of them are diploids. Statistical analyses show that there are evidently differences of karyotypes between the two species, that is, P.nepalensis belong to the 1A type, and P.tomentosus is the 2A type. In addition, there are some differences in karyotype among populations in P.nepalensis as well. These results are consistent with the anterior hypothesis by systematic and biogeography that P.tomentosus (with 2A) was resulted from the expansion and differentiation of P.nepalensis (with 1A ) from west to east during the himalaya uplift.

    Grindelia, A New Naturalized Genus of the Tribe Astereae, Asteraceae in China
    FAN Xiang-Yuan-, ZHANG Shu-Mei-**, GAO Tian-Gang
    2011, 33(2):  171-173.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10127
    Abstract ( 2788 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5849KB) ( 2677 )   Save
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    Grindelia, a new naturalized genus of the tribe Astereae, Asteraceae in China, was found in Liaoning, Northestern China. Morphologically it is related to the genus Inula, but differs in the obtuse anther base, lanceolate to deltate style-branch appendages, pappi of scales. Grindelia squarrosa, the only one represented species of the genus is described based on the specimens collected in China. Its natural distribution and possible pathways into China are also discussed.

    Comparative Morphology of Leaf Epidermis in the Fern Genus Phymatopteris (Polypodiaceae)
    SHAO Wen-, LIU Shu-Gang-, SHANG Qing-Chun
    2011, 33(2):  174-182.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.09238
    Abstract ( 2486 )   HTML ( )   PDF (35405KB) ( 2642 )   Save
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     Leaf epidermises of 24 taxa, representing 2 series and 5 subseries of the genus Phymatopteris (Polypodiaceae), were examined by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the systematically informative characters. The leaf epidermal cells were usually irregular in shape. The patterns of anticlinal walls were sinuolate, sinuous, and sinuate. The stomatal apparatus were restricted in abaxial epidermises for all species, and generally could be assigned to polocytic, copolocytic, coaxillocytic, axillocytic, and anomocytic types. Under SEM observation, the inner margin of the outer stomatal rim was often sinuous and seldom smooth. Strikingly tall, upright outer stomatal rims occurred in most species. The cuticular membrane of the leaf epidermis was sinuous and occasionally granular. Leaf epidermal features in Phymatopteris appeared to be constant within species, and thus could be used for distinguishing some species. The microcharacters of leaf epidermises (the patterns of anticlinal walls and the stomatal apparatus types) could not be used as evidence for the classification of the series and subseries in Phymatopteris.

    A Study on Characters Variation of Different Flower Color Groups of Paeonia delavayi (Paeoniaceae)
    2011, 33(2):  183-190.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10182
    Abstract ( 2381 )   HTML ( )   PDF (579KB) ( 2352 )   Save
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    Paeonia delavayi has great value in P.suffruticosa new variety breeding because of its profuse flower color. Ten different flower color groups of P.delavayi were investigated and studied,based on 13 quantitative characters and 5 qualitative characters. Morphological variation patterns and differentiation levels among different groups were revealed, providing data and evidence for cross breeding and systematics study. The results showed that: (1) there was no flower color group which all its flower components was in the same color; (2) Flowers of green color group had green stigma exclusively which might imply the linkage relationship between them. Furthermore,green color group was unique by its erect flowers,green filaments,and green anthers; (3) the average variation coefficient of 13 quantitative characters of 10 groups ranged from 32.80% to 50.56%,which indicated that the character stability of individual plants within group were quite different from each other; (4) the mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient of 10 groups was 42.25%,which indicated that the phenotypic differentiation was distinguished among different color groups; (5) it was suggested that P.delavayi should have been originated from the areas of Shangri-la and Deqin of Yunnan Province according to its evolutionary trend of flower color.

    Plant Community Succession on Ant-hills of a Sub-alpine Meadow in Northwestern Sichuan, China: Species Composition and Diversity
    MENG Feng-Qun-, GAO Xian-MIng-, SUN Shu-Cun
    2011, 33(2):  191-199.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10186
    Abstract ( 3019 )   HTML ( )   PDF (733KB) ( 2533 )   Save
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    Ants may increase habitat heterogeneity by means of building ant-hills, thereby changing community species composition and ecosystem structure and functioning. We investigated plant height, coverage and abundance for each species and calculated species richness and diversity for ant-hills of Camponotus herculeanus differing in size (309.45cm2, 948.45cm2, 2124.90cm2 for the small, intermediate and large ant-hills, respectively).  The dominant species was subsequently identified for the three size-classes of ant-hills and the mechanism underlying anthill community succession was derived. Our results showed that diurnal temperature fluctuation was greater in ant-hills than the surrounding flat soil, where the temperature of the ant-hills was higher in daytime but lower at night relative to the counterpart. The soil moisture was lower in center than in edge of ant-hills whose moisture was lower than the flat soil. Plant species diversity and richness were not significantly different among the three classes of ant-hills while the dominant species conspicuously changed. The importance value of the most dominant species, Kobresia uncinoides, increased significantly with increasing ant-hill size; the subdominant species was Galium aparine, Festuca ovina, Elymus nutans for the small, intermediate and large ant-hills, respectively. The dominance of grasses was significantly higher, but that of forbs was lower on ant-hills than in surrounding communities. The ant-hills were dominated by species from Cyperaceae and Gramineae while Compositae and Ranunculaceae dominated the surrounding communities. In addition, we discussed the possible mechanisms driving ant-hill community succession and the potential significance of ant-hills to the whole community composition and dynamics in the alpine meadow.

    A Preliminary Study on Patterns of TE-gene Associations in Oryza (Poaceae) and Adaptive Significance
    FAN Ya-Yu-, Gao-Li-Zhi
    2011, 33(2):  201-208.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10183
    Abstract ( 1923 )   HTML ( )   PDF (794KB) ( 2384 )   Save
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    Transposable elements (TEs) have been found to be significant fractions of eukaryotic genomes. Moreover, they make great contributions to the structure, function and evolution of host genomes and associated genes in particular. Starting from bioinformatics searches, this study investigated the distribution of two TE-gene associations in 94 strains belonging to 16 Oryza species through PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that TE-insertions in the gene LOC_Os02g26349 distributed in AA-genome species while TE inserted into the gene LOC_Os02g45130 in part of AA-genome species. The result is obviously in agreement with the phylogeny of AA-genome species. The observed patterns of TE-gene associations in Oryza species and the fixation of TE-insertions within populations of different geographic origins together imply adaptive significance of TEs in the evolution of their host genes and genomes.

    Allelopathic Potential and Pathway of an Invasive Weed Eupatorium adenophorum (Asteraceae)
    YANG MIng-Zhi, LV Xia, ZHANG Ting, YANG Chen, LI Wen-Jun, SHI Yun-Thao, ZHANG Han-BO
    2011, 33(2):  209-213.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10168
    Abstract ( 3022 )   HTML ( )   PDF (571KB) ( 5074 )   Save
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    Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) is one of the most notoriously invasive plants in China. Allelopathy has been considered to play an important role for population spread. In this study, we demonstrate that this weed has strong adverse effects on two agronomic cultivars, barley and maize, through a variety of allelopathic pathways including volatiles, leachates and root exudates. The allelopathic effect was even detected in early growth stages of the weed. However, there was no evidence to indicate that allelochemicals in dead leaf tissue either persisted or converted into new allelochemicals by naturally colonizing phyllosphere microbes.

    Effects of Altitude on Photosynthetic Gas Exchange and the Associated Leaf Trait in an Alpine Oak, Quercus guyavifolia (Fagaceae)
    ZHANG Shi-Bao-, ZHOU Zhe-Kun-, XIU Kun
    2011, 33(2):  214-224.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10159
    Abstract ( 2710 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1051KB) ( 2335 )   Save
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    Understanding the pattern and process governing the distribution is a central goal of ecology, yet for many species the causes of distribution limit are unknown. To understand the relationship between altitudinal distribution of alpine oak and ecophysiological trait, leaf nitrogen content, chlorophyll content, leaf mass per unit area and photosynthetic gas exchange of Quercus guyavifolia were investigated at four sites along an altitudinal gradient from 2650 to 3920m in the Hengduan Mountains. Q.guyavifolia showed a significant midday depression in photosynthesis and transpiration at all sites due to high vapour pressure deficit and temperature. Both in May and August, this species had higher light-saturated photosynthesis, water use efficiency, maximum RuBP rate of carboxylation, light saturated rate of electron transport and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency at the middle altitude than at the lowest or highest location. Leaf nitrogen content was different in May among altitudes, but remained relatively constant in August. Leaf thickness increased with altitude while chlorophyll content and photosynthetic optimum temperature decreased. The altitudinal trend in photosynthesis of Q.guyavifolia could be linked to leaf biochemical efficiency and nitrogen content, but not leaf mass per unit area. The variation in temperature along the altitudinal gradient imposed a constraint on photosynthesis and leaf trait. The altitudinal range from 3180m to 3610m would be optimal for the photosynthetic carbon gain and growth of Q.guyavifolia.

    Anther Culture and Haploid Induction from Isatis indigotica (Cruciferae)
    LI Tao, LIN Wen-Yuan, WANG Zhe-Zhi
    2011, 33(2):  225-228.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10155
    Abstract ( 1814 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1162KB) ( 2312 )   Save
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    Anther culture and haploid induction were carried out from Isatis indigotica. The experimental results showed that cold pretreatment could increase the induction rate of callus. The induction rate of callus was 23.35% after 2 days of cold pretreatment. Then the calluses were successively transferred to differentiation medium (MS+BA 0.5mg·L-1+ NAA 1.0mg·L-1) and rooting medium (1/2MS+NAA 1.0mg·L-1). The complete plants were obtained 3 days later. Among which, those weak and green plantlets were haploids with 7 chromosomes.

    Study on the Characteristics of Seed Dormancy and Germination of Rauvolfia yunnanensis (Apocynaceae)
    WANG Fu-Yun, CA Chuan-Chao, WEN Bin
    2011, 33(2):  229-234.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10154
    Abstract ( 2938 )   HTML ( )   PDF (890KB) ( 2493 )   Save
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     Rauvolfia yunnanensis (Apocynaceae) is known for its medical properties. Its large-scale cultivation is limited due to the limited availability of seedlings. This study investigated the factors that cause seed dormancy by testing the effects of exogenous gibberellin, temperature and illumination upon the germination of R.yunnanensis seeds. The results indicate that fresh mature seeds of R.yunnanensis did not germinate at either 28℃ or 31℃/22℃ (alternating temperature), whether in light or darkness. The seed coat was water-permeable, but endogenous germination inhibitors were found in the seed kernel. Gibberellic acid (GA) improved germination of R.yunnanensis seeds, indicating that R.yunnanensis seeds have non-deep physiological dormancy. Dormancy breaking of R.yunnanensis seeds can be achieved by applying GA at a concentration of 400-1800mg·L-1. The suitable temperature range for germination was 22℃-28℃ and 31℃/22℃, while the highest germination success was obtained at 28℃. R.yunnanensis seeds germinated both under continuous dark conditions and alternating light/dark conditions, however, at 31℃ and 31℃/22℃, alternating light/dark conditions improved germination.

    Analysis of the Volatile Compounds from Flower of Buddleja officinalis (Buddlejaceae) by Dynamic Adsorption and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    CHEN Gao, SUN Wei-Bang
    2011, 33(2):  235-238.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10117
    Abstract ( 2365 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2247KB) ( 2444 )   Save
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    The volatile compounds from flower of B.officinalis were collected by dynamic absorption, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relative content of each compound was determined by area normalization. Sixteen compounds were isolated and among them, eleven compounds were identified, accounting for 95.44% of the total volatile component. The major compounds were butyl ester acetic acid (81.57%), benzaldehyde (4.92%), 3-hexen-1-ol (3.26%), lilac aldehyde B (2.34%) and linalool L (1.05%). The result reveals natural floral fragrance of B.officinalis and could provide the scientific data for further germplasm innovation of new odor type cultivars in Buddleja in future.

    Study on Traditional Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants Used by the Mongolians in Xilingol Typical Steppe Area*
    HA Shi-Ba-Gen-, YE Ru-Han-, ZIAO Hui
    2011, 33(2):  239-246.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10158
    Abstract ( 2772 )   HTML ( )   PDF (668KB) ( 2623 )   Save
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    The local herdsmen were served as informants, methods of interviews and voucher specimen collection and identification have been used to conduct ethnobotanical field investigations on wild edible plants in the Xilingol typical steppe area, Inner Mongolia. The results show that 29 species and two varieties of wild plants used for food and drinks by the Mongolians in Xilingol typical steppe area. The edible parts of the plants are whole plant, aerial parts, roots, stems, bulbs, leaves, flowers, fruits or/and seeds respectively. Among them, the leaf is the most widely used part. Six categories of food uses based on the mode of folk edible use were established to classify wild food plants, including wild grain, vegetables, fruit, substitute for tea, seasoning, and snacks. Among them, vegetables were the largest group, followed by plants used as substitute for tea, and plants used for seasoning. Wild plants are usually eaten raw or cooked by the local people. Raw materials and prepared food from wild plants are preserved through the method of pickling and drying. A distinguishing feature of region and ethnic group is that mutton, beef, fresh milk and yoghourt are necessarily used in cooking dish and making milk tea from wild plants by local Mongolians.