The local herdsmen were served as informants, methods of interviews and voucher specimen collection and identification have been used to conduct ethnobotanical field investigations on wild edible plants in the Xilingol typical steppe area, Inner Mongolia. The results show that 29 species and two varieties of wild plants used for food and drinks by the Mongolians in Xilingol typical steppe area. The edible parts of the plants are whole plant, aerial parts, roots, stems, bulbs, leaves, flowers, fruits or/and seeds respectively. Among them, the leaf is the most widely used part. Six categories of food uses based on the mode of folk edible use were established to classify wild food plants, including wild grain, vegetables, fruit, substitute for tea, seasoning, and snacks. Among them, vegetables were the largest group, followed by plants used as substitute for tea, and plants used for seasoning. Wild plants are usually eaten raw or cooked by the local people. Raw materials and prepared food from wild plants are preserved through the method of pickling and drying. A distinguishing feature of region and ethnic group is that mutton, beef, fresh milk and yoghourt are necessarily used in cooking dish and making milk tea from wild plants by local Mongolians.