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25 June 2011, Volume 33 Issue 3
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  • Articles
    Evolution of Pollen in the Dipsacales
    XU La-, LU Lu-, LI De-Zhu-, WANG Hong
    2011, 33(3):  249-259.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10198
    Abstract ( 2792 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2989KB) ( 2472 )   Save
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    Following APGIII, the order Dipsacales was divided into the two families, i.e. Caprifoliaceae and Adoxaceae. Based on the molecular phylogenetic tree published by Tank and Donoghue in 2010 and pollen data reported previously, pollen diversity of thirty genera in this order was investigated, which represented twentyfive genera in Caprifoliaceae and five genera in Adoxaceae, respectively. Pollen evolution in the Dipsacales was studied by unordered (Fitch) parsimony. This paper lights on the plesiomorphies, synapomorphies and diagnostic pollen characters presented in this order. Key characters were chosen for inferring evolutionary patterns, which were aperture number, aperture type, shape, size and sculpture. Our results showed that Dipsacales presented distinct evolutionary patterns having plesiomorphies like tricolporate, subspheroidal, small size and reticulate ornamentation. Presences of synapomorphies such as prolate, medium and large size, and echinate have strongly supported the monophyletic position of Caprifoliaceae and its subclades. Under the order, the families Caprifoliaceae and Adoxaceae are readily distinguished from pollen morphology, i.e. echinate and reticulate ornamentation respectively. Palynological data were found to be relatively congruent with recent molecular phylogeny, finally, we supported that Heptocodium should be put into Caprifoliaceae and Zabelia into Morinaceae.

    Phylogeny of the Chinese Endemic Fern Genus Neocheiropteris (Polypodiaceae)
    DU Xin-Yu- , CHENG Xiao
    2011, 33(3):  261-268.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10188
    Abstract ( 2375 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4796KB) ( 2686 )   Save
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     Neocheiropteris is one of the four Chinese endemic fern genera. The taxonomic circumscription and systematic position of Neocheiropteris have always been argued among taxonomists since its establishment by Christ in 1905. The anatomical examination of Neocheiropteris and Neolepisorus is performed, and four chloroplast DNA markers: rbcL, rpS4 & rpS4-trnS IGS, trnL intron & trnL-trnF IGS and atpB & atpB-rbcL IGS for Neocheiropteris and its closely related taxa, totally 14 taxa are sequenced. Phylogenetic trees are constructed with the Maximum-parsimony, Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference method based on coded dataset/non-coded dataset/combined dataset. The division of Neocheiropteris and Neolepisorus is supported by both anatomical and molecular phylogeny evidence. Anatomical research provides support for the division of the two genera by their totally different characters of the division back and vein of frond, and for the close connection of the two genera by their common characters of rhizome scale. Molecular phylogeny research shows that: Neocheiropteris is sister to a clade that includes Tricholepidium and Lepidomicrosorium, and Neolepisorus is sister to the combination of above-mentioned three genera. The taxonomic circumscription and systematic position of Neocheiropteris are investigated by integrating anatomical characters and molecular phylogenetic results, only Neocheiropteris palmatopedata and N.triglossa should be treated as members of Neo-cheiropteris. The systematic position of N.triglossa is investigated based on molecular together with anatomical evidence for the first time.

    Geographic Isolation between the Homoploid Hybrid Pinus densata and Its Parental Pinus yunnanensis
    LIU Yong-Liang-, MAO Jian-Feng-, WANG Xiao-Ru-, LI Yue
    2011, 33(3):  269-274.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10227
    Abstract ( 2598 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1947KB) ( 2556 )   Save
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    In order to elucidate the geographic isolation mechanisms between the homoploid hybrid Pinus densata and its parental Pinus yunnanensis in the Hengduan Mountains, we investigated the geographical distribution and flowering phenology of the populations of P.densata and P.yunnanensis by the actual route survey. The cluster analysis was based on seven meteorological factors. The resutls showed that P.densata and P.yunnanensis were distributed in different landscapes, and Zhongdian which located in Yunnan Province was the distribution critical region between the two species. P.densata was distributed northwardly along the Jinshajiang valley, and P.yunnanensis southwardly. The flowering phenology of P.yunnanensis was earlier than that of P.densata. The UPGMA clustering of the populations produced two clearly defined groups, almost all the P.densata populations forming one cluster and P.yunnanensis another. Because of the apophysis of the high mountains and altitude arising in geological history, P.densata and P.yunnanensis were separated geographically. The difference of meteorological factors in suitable regions for each species made their flowering phenology not meet, which blocked the gene flow between them, and formed the isolation.

    Role of Protein Kinases in Abscisic Acid and H2O2 Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize
    XU Shu-Cheng-, ZHU Xue-Lan-, ZHANG Li
    2011, 33(3):  275-286.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10197
    Abstract ( 2508 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2391KB) ( 2104 )   Save
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    Protein phosphorylation plays a central role in mediating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling transduction in plant cells, whereas many of the sensory proteins involving in ABA signaling pathway remain unclear. Here, using a modified in vitro kinase assay, our results showed that ABA and H2O2 induced a rapid activation of total protein kinases and calcium dependent protein kinases in the leaves of maize seedlings. However, ABA-induced activation of protein kinases was inhibited by reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors or scavengers. Protein kinase inhibitors decelerated not only the ABA and H2O2 -induced kinase activity but also ABA or H2O2-induced antioxidant enzyme activity. Protein phosphorylation caused by ABA and H2O2 preceded ABA or H2O2 -induced antioxidant defense obviously. Using in-gel kinase assays, our results showed that several protein kinases with molecular masses of 66kDa, 52kDa, 49kDa and 35kDa respectively might mediate ABA and H2O2-induced antioxidant defense. And the 66kDa and 49kDa protein kinases may act downstream of ROS, and the 52kDa and 35kDa protein kinases may act between ABA and ROS in ABA-induced antioxidant defensive signaling.

    Genetic and Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Male Sterile Mutant ms214
    ZHOU Que, YI Jun, YANG Zhong-Nan, ZHANG Sen
    2011, 33(3):  287-292.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10193
    Abstract ( 2633 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4716KB) ( 2610 )   Save
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    Through EMS mutagenesis we obtained an Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant named ms214 which is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Map-based cloning strategy was used and MS214 gene was mapped to a region of 700kb on the upper end of chromosome 1. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that there is a CER1 gene which is involved in wax biosynthesis in this region. Sequencing analysis indicated that ms214 mutant had a C to U base-pair change in the first exon of CER1 gene, which resulted in the replacement of a proline170 by a leucine170 re-sidue in this region. Allelism tests indicated that MS214 and CER1 belong to the same locus. Unlike the wild type, the mutant displays glossy green stems and siliques. Cytology observation showed that there were no differences in anther development between the mutant and the wild type. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination revealed that no wax was formed on the ms214 stems and siliques. But SEM examination on pollen grains showed that the pollen coat of the ms214 mutant was aberrant with numerous smaller lipid droplets. These data demonstrated that MS214 protein was involved in wax biosynthetic pathways, and proline170 is very important for the function of this protein.

    Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Metal Ion Stress is Positively Related to Lonic Polarization in Plants
    YANG Hui- , GAO Bo-, LI Wei-Qi
    2011, 33(3):  293-298.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10218
    Abstract ( 2377 )   HTML ( )   PDF (780KB) ( 2193 )   Save
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    Metal ion stress results in a variety of physiological damage to plants, including membrane lipid peroxidation. The effects of different metal ions on the membrane lipid peroxidation are various, and so far, the little knowledge about the relationship between lipid peroxidation and characteristics of metal ions is known. The physical and chemical effects of metal ions on the anions and other moleculars depend on the polarization of metal ions, such as the amount of charge, radius and electron shell structure. In this study, the stresses caused by metal ions with different ionic polarization on hydroponic Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus seedings were investigated, and the production of Malondialdehyde (MDA) of both plants incubated to different metal ions for 1, 3 and 5 days were tested. The results indicated that with the same concentration treatment, Li+ induced more production of MDA than that of Na+ and K+, Fe3+ induced more production than that of Fe2+, and Fe2+ induced more production than that of Ca2+.That is, with the same amount of metal ions, the smaller ion radius, higher ion potential and more complicated electronic shell, the more MDA were produced in plants. The results suggested that there was positive relationship between the ability of inducing MDA production and the ionic polarization, that is, the higher charge, smaller ionic radius and more complex the electron shell, the more severe oxidative stress were induced.

    Suppression of Phospholipase Dδ Enhances the Membrane Damage Induced by UV-B Irradiation
    LI Yan-, TIAN Bo-, LI Wei-Qi
    2011, 33(3):  299-305.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10217
    Abstract ( 2044 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1239KB) ( 2064 )   Save
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    The changes of molecular species in membrane lipids under UV-B irradiation in WS and PLDδ-knockout plants were profiled with ESI-MS/MS based lipidomics. The content of membrane lipids, double bond index (DBI) and carbon number of the fatty acid were examined in both of them. The results showed that UV-B irradiation induced the degradation of membrane lipids, in which chloroplast membrane lipids such as MGDG and DGDG were the main targets of membrane injury. In addition, the degradation of membrane lipid in PLDδ-def was more severe than that in WS plants. The results suggested that suppression of PLDδ enhanced membrane damage induced by UV-B irradiation.

    Influence of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on F-actin in Wheat Division Cells
    CHEN Hui-Ze, ZHAI Jing-Ru, DU Mei-Ting, HAN Rong
    2011, 33(3):  306-310.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10180
    Abstract ( 2277 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1226KB) ( 2302 )   Save
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    The distribution of F-actin was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in the wheat root-tip cells under the enhanced ultraviolet-B (10.08kJ·m-2·d-1) radiation treated with FITC-Phalloidin. The results showed that under the condition of the enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, distribution of actin MFs were disordered in interphase cells; The arrays of the F-actin disintegrated into short fragments of random during prophase; Fluorescence intensity significantly decreased and bright fragments of microfilaments disappeared in Metaphase cells; Actin MFs disappeared in the phragmoplast regions when cells were in anaphase and telophase time. And some types of chromosome aberration were induced, including Chromosomal logging, chromosomal bridge and partition-bundle division.

    An Introduction to Cryopreservation of Plant Germplasm
    WEN Bin
    2011, 33(3):  311-329.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10191
    Abstract ( 4140 )   HTML ( )   PDF (931KB) ( 3329 )   Save
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    This paper recited the history of plant germplasm cryopreservation, exhibited the diversity of cryopreservated plant materials, analysed biological foundation of plant cryotolerance, causes and types of cryo-injury, described the key techniques of frequently-used cryopreservation methods, and paid special attention to cryopreservation of plant germplasm of species producing recalcitrant seeds. Based on analysis of potential, status and difficulties, the author thought that regard to cryopreservation of plant germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species there are much to do, for it was the keystone and difficult part of plant germplasm cryopreservation.

    The Clone and Analysis on Different Lengths of 3′ Transcription of BcMF13 from Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis (Cruciferae)
    NIE Chuan-Peng, LI Yan-Yan
    2011, 33(3):  330-334.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.11021
    Abstract ( 1862 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4496KB) ( 2332 )   Save
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    Two different lengths of 3′ transcripts were got in cloning the pollen development gene BcMF13, using RACE technology. Compared with the EST database and found that their high sequence similarity are derived from cruciferous Brassica, Raphanus, plants’ reproductive organs, and different transcripts were also found in these sources. The existence of these different transcripts exist that BcMF13 shear isomers, flexible and complex regulation of the process, reflecting the important function of the gene. Expression analysis of RT-PCR have shown that BcMF13 only expressed in fertile lines, no in sterile lines, and mainly concentrated in the large flower buds and stamen. Analysis of the deduced protein structure of BcMF13 found that the proteins encoded multiple biological active sites. These results show that BcMF13 was late expression gene on pollen fertility. BcMF13 was active in the implementation of physiological function.

    The Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distributions of Seven Arbors Plants in China
    TUN Jian-Guo
    2011, 33(3):  335-349.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10187
    Abstract ( 2963 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3332KB) ( 2659 )   Save
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    It is crucial to understand rationally the effects of climate change on the distribution of species for the conservation of biodiversity. To conserve effectively plants biodiversity under climate change, the effects of climate change on the distributions of Qinling Fir (Abies chensiensis), Qilian Savin (Sabina przewalskii), Zhennan (Phoebe zhennan), Sergeant Spruce (Picea brachytyla), China Horsetailtree (Rhoiptelea chiliantha), Manyseeded Euptelea (Euptelea pleiospermn) and China Katsuratree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) in China was analyzed using the CART (classification and regression tree) model and climate change scenarios of A2 and B2. The results showed that climate change in China would cause decrease in the current distribution of these plants. It would cause a decrease in the new distribution or total distribution region of China Katsuratree, China Horsetailtree, Zhennan, and Qilian Savin from periods of 1991-2020 to periods of 2081-2100. It would also cause decrease in the new distribution and total distribution region of Qinling Fir from periods of 1991-2020 to periods of 2021-2050 year or a increase from periods of 2051-2100 to periods of 2021-2050 year. It would cause an increase in the new distribution or total distribution region of other plants increase from periods of 1991-2020 year to periods of 2081-2100 year. They were higher in A2 scenario than that in B2 scenario. Additionally, under climate change, the southeast of current distribution regions of Horsetailtree would reduce. Their new distribution regions would expand towards west, southwest, north or northeast of the current distribution regions. The southeast or east of current distribution regions of Qinling Fir would reduce. Their new distribution regions would expand towards west or northwest or north or southwest of current distribution regions. The northeast, southeast or south or east of current distribution regions of the other plants would reduce. Their new distribution regions of them would expand towards west or southwest of current distribution regions. Changing in current distribution, new distribution or total distribution region of the plants did not consistently change with changing in annual mean temperature or precipitation in China, and some plants were poor related with changing in annual mean temperature or precipitation in China. The linear regression relationship between changing in some plants distribution and annual mean temperature and annual mean precipitation in China were poor. The results indicated that climate change in China would cause changing in spatial distribution pattern of these plants, decrease in current distribution region of them.

    Dynamic Changes Analysis on the Main Vegetation Type in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains
    LIU Shou-Jiang-, HUANG You-You-, HU Cui-Hua
    2011, 33(3):  350-356.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10242
    Abstract ( 1928 )   HTML ( )   PDF (726KB) ( 2204 )   Save
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    Acquisition and processing information with 3S technology, and combining the principles of landscape ecology with the research methods of traditional vegetation variation, the main vegetation landscape changes of giant panda habitat in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains were quantitatively analyzed from complex mutual-transformation performance and dynamic variation characteristics in nearly 30 years.The conclusions are as follows: (1) The change tendency of the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest was similar to the coniferous forest,both increased by 17.57% and 7.56% respectively in 30 years; New patches and the original patches were joined together to form large patches complicated boundary, landscape fragmentation degree and landscape evenness index were decreased. (2) Rapid declined in Alpine shrubs in the former 20 years, while gradually increased in the later 8 years, and recovered in size and numbers during this period. But most of the new patches were smaller patches, and the appearance of large number of small patches caused the increase of landscape fragmentation degree and landscape apartness index. (3) Alpine talus vegetation decreased by 6.41% in 30 years; the reduction of the number of small patches resulted in decrease of landscape fragmentation degree and the strengthening of the uniformity of the distribution. The results not only can explain the mechanism of interaction between landscape patterns of the main vegetation and ecological processes in this mountain system, but also expound the direction and process of the dynamic succession or the expansion potential.

    A Study of Stand Growth Model for Pinus yunnanensis (Pinaceae) Based on Plots Data——A Case Study in Yangliu Township, Baoshan, Yunnan Province
    LANG Rong-, XIU Jian-Chu-, Timm Tennigkeit, YANG Xue-Fei-, BI Ying-Feng
    2011, 33(3):  357-363.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10192
    Abstract ( 2386 )   HTML ( )   PDF (966KB) ( 2530 )   Save
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    Pinus yunnanensis is one of most important timber species in Yunnan Province, and widely distributed in southwest China. Studies on growth model have been reported, however, most of which focused on a specific part of growth model. To build detailed, easily used and accurate empirical stand growth model from the same dataset, a case study was conducted in Yangliu Township, Baoshan, Yunnan Province. A total of 86 sample plots data were collected using two stages sampling design. Several popular non-linear growth functions were fitted and compared, including Chapman-Richards, Mitscherlich, Schumacher, Gompertz, Logistic, Korf and Allometric function. Models of site index, density index, average diameter at breast height (DBH) and stock volume growth model were fitted respectively. The different models performed more or less similarly in terms of coefficients of determination and root mean square error (RMSE). However, empirical growth function “Schumacher” had lower coefficient of variation for all parameters than other models. Schumacher function was the most suitable one for site index, average DBH and stock volume growth model in all alternative functions.