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25 February 2012, Volume 34 Issue 01
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  • Articles
    Evolution of Pollen in the Family Berberidaceae
    ZHANG Ming-Ying-, LU Lu-, LI De-Zhu-, WANG Hong
    2012, 34(01):  1-12.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11105
    Abstract ( 2888 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2575KB) ( 2730 )   Save
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    In the APG III, the family Berberidaceae is placed in the Ranunculales within the basal Eudicots. Here, the phylogenetic relationships within Berberidaceae were reconstructed using the Maximum Likelihood method on sequence data from four genomic regions (nuclear ribosomal 26S rDNA and plastid rbcL, matK, and trnLF). Based on previously reported phylogenetic tree and pollen observation, the pollen morphologies of 16 genera of this family were investigated. Pollen plesiomorphy,synapomorphy, and evolutionary pattern were revealed by Fitch Parsimony analysis. Ten pollen characters, including dispersal unit, polarity, shape class, size, aperture number, aperture position, ectoaperture shape, supratectal elements, tectum sculpture, and exine thickness, were evaluated to reassess phylogenetic relationships. Tracing pollen character evolution showed that Berberidaceae possessed a series of plesiomorphies, such as the monad pollen unit, isopolarity, spheroidal shape and medium size. Apolarity, multiple apertures and global aperture state were found to be synapomorphies for the Berberidoideae, strongly supporting the monophyly of this subfamily. Triaperture was a synapomorphy for both Podophylloideae and Nandinoideae, respectively. Berberidoideae and Nandinoideae shared the synapomorphy supratectal elements absent, which distinguished them from Podophylloideae, and supported the sister relationship between Berberidoideae and Nandinoideae. Pollen evolutionary significance of some genera was discussed, and several pollen characters were suggested to be used for defining certain genera, such as Bongardia and Ranzania.

    Supplementary Description of Inflorescences of Three Species in Elatostema (Urticaceae)
    TUN Zeng-Yuan-, WANG Hong-, LI De-Zhu
    2012, 34(01):  13-16.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11089
    Abstract ( 1712 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1575KB) ( 2071 )   Save
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     The inflorescence of Elatostema is not only one of the key characters helpful to understand the evolutionary trend in various infrageneric taxa, but also plays important role in the delimitation of its sections and series. In this paper, based on careful examinations of inflorescences from several voucher specimens including type and literatures, the description of inflorescences of three species in this genus was presented.

    Two New Species of Cyrtomium (Dryopreridaceae) from Shandong
    LI Jian-Xiu-, ZHOU Feng-Qin-, LI Xiao-Juan-, SUN Zhi-Ying-, KONG Xian-Xiu-, GUO Qing-Mei-, DAN You-Xia
    2012, 34(01):  17-21.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11109
    Abstract ( 2287 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11474KB) ( 2081 )   Save
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    Two new species of Cyrtomium from Shandong, C.confertiserratum and C.reflexosquamatum were described. The morphology and palynology showed that Cyrtomium confertiserratum is similar to C.fortunei f. fortunei, while it differs from the latter one mainly in: the upper pinnae rhombic, the lower part 1-2 deep pinnatifid, lobes 3-4cm long, about 10 mm wide, lateral pinnaes densely serrate, indusia have small tooth on the edge, spores reniform with irregular tuberculate perine. Cyrtomium reflexosquamatum is similar to C.shandongense in morphology, but C.reflexosquamatum is larger, up to 60cm with 15-29 pairs pinnae, densely covered with anatropous scales above the pinnae bases, and spores reniform with rugate and finely fenestrate perine.

    Some New Records of Ferns from Vietnam and Laos (3)Pteris (Pteridaceae)
    WU Su-Gong-, XIANG Jian-Yang-, Phan Ke Loc, Onevilay Souliya
    2012, 34(01):  22-24.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11100
    Abstract ( 1882 )   HTML ( )   PDF (463KB) ( 2100 )   Save
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    Genus Pteris from Vietnam and Laos is revised in this paper. Seven species newly reported from Vietnam and Laos are P.argyraea, P.sichuanensis, P.maclurei, P.pseudopellucida, P.setulosocostulata, P.morii, and P.wangiana.

    Karyotype Analysis of an Endemic Species
    YANG Xing-Yu-, LIANG Kai-Ming-, ZHANG Xin-Hua-, MA Guo-Hua
    2012, 34(01):  25-27.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11126
    Abstract ( 2640 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4319KB) ( 2204 )   Save
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    1 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; 2 Graduate University of Chinese
    Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 3 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization,
    South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China; 4 Institute of Tropical
    and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China

    Isolation and Identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant with Serration Leaf Margin
    LI Wan-Sha, WANG Chun-Tao, HU Xiang-Yang
    2012, 34(01):  28-32.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11103
    Abstract ( 2401 )   HTML ( )   PDF (6445KB) ( 4916 )   Save
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    Leaf polarity determines leaf flatness development directly, and abnormal polarity usually results in many abnormal leaves, which subsequently affects many physiological functions of plants. So the normal leaf development is important to plants. Here, an abnormal serration leaf margin mutant with abnormal leaf trichome development, named pCB1294, was isolated from an activation tagging Arabidopsis mutant pool through reverse genetics. By TailPCR, the mutant gene loci At5g41663 encoding miR319b was successfully identified. Real time PCR shows the relative expression level of miR319b gene in the pCB1294 mutant is eleven times of higher than that of the wild (col). Our study lay the foundation for further studying the genetic mechanism of leaf polarity and investigating the interaction between miR319b and leaf morphology.

    Unraveling the Distribution and Evolution of miR156targeted SPLs in Plants by Phylogenetic Analysis
    LING Li-Zhen-, ZHANG Shu-Dong
    2012, 34(01):  33-46.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11117
    Abstract ( 2421 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1488KB) ( 3122 )   Save
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    Squamosa promoterbinding proteinlike genes (SPLs) are critical during plant development and mostly regulated by miR156. However, little is known about phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary patterns of miR156targeted SPLs. In this study, 183 SPLs from nine genomesequenced species representing algae, bryophytes, lycophyte, monocots, and eudicots were computationally analyzed. Our results showed that miR156 responsive elements (MREs) on SPLs were present in land plants but absent from unicellular green algae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that miR156targeted SPLs only distributed in group II not group I of land plants, suggesting they originated from a common ancestor. In addition, group II were further divided into seven subgroups (IIaIIg) and miR156targeted SPLs distributed in some specific members of SPLs from six subgroups except subgroup IId. Such distribution pattern was well elucidated by gene structure evolution of miR156targeted SPLs based on the correlation of phylogenetic classification and gene structure. They could suffer from the exon loss events combined with MREs loss during evolution. Moreover, gene duplication contributed to the abundance of miR156targeted SPLs, which had significantly increased after angiosperms and lower plants split. With Arabidopsis as the model species, we found segmental and tandem gene duplications predominated during miR156targeted SPLs expansion. Taken together, these results provide better insights in understanding the function diversity and evolution of miR156targeted SPLs in plants.

    Construction of Leave Library by SSH and Preliminary Analysis of Genes Responsible for Heat Sress in Incarvillea zhongdiannensis
    DING Yong-, CHANG Wei-, ZHANG Shi-Bao-, HU Hong
    2012, 34(01):  47-55.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11143
    Abstract ( 2445 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1778KB) ( 2064 )   Save
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    High temperature might be one of the main limiting factors to be introduced and domesticated into lower altitude for Incarvillea zhongdiannensis. To further reveal the underlying molecular mechanism in I.zhongdiannensis responding to high temperature, the suppression subtractive hybridization approach (SSH) was used in this study. The results showed the quality of forward or reverse subtraction cDNA library is good enough for further SSH experiments. Total sixty expressed tags (ESTs) with high quality were randomly obtained by SSH and sequencing. According to BLAST screening and functional annotation, 50 ESTs with known function were classified into 9 broad categories such as defense/stress, photosynthesis, metabolism, energy, signal transduction and transcription, protein fate, transporter, biosynthesis, cell structure and cell growth. There were six ESTs significantly matched with hypothetical proteins. Four ESTs with no hits possibly encode novel genes and play important role in I.zhongdiannensis responding to high temperature stress.

    Cloning and Analysis of NBSLRR Type Disease Resistance Gene Analogs from Rosa rubus in Yunnan
    CHEN Ling-, ZHANG Hao-, QIU Xian-Qin-, YAN Hui-Jun-, WANG Ji-Gang-, JIAN Hong-Ying-, TANG Kai-Xue
    2012, 34(01):  56-62.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11057
    Abstract ( 2049 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2994KB) ( 1935 )   Save
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    In the study of NBS resistance genes of Yunnan wild Rosa, the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the conserved motifs NBSLRR of most plant resistance (R) genes. The cDNA fragments were isolated from Rosa rubus by reverse transcription PCR (RTPCR). Then four resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were sequenced and named as AC9, AC39, AC50 and AC68, which contain NBSLRR domain. The sequence of each RGAs was compared with NBS region of eleven resistance genes reported before, and the similarities of aminoacid sequences ranged from 5.4% to 79.2%, and these four RGAs were clustered a group with Mi、RPS2、Pib and RPM1 gene. These results showed that the four RGAs will be used as molecular markers for screening candidate disease resistance genes and genetic map construction of Rosa rubus in the future.

    Germination Characteristics of Menghai Daye Tea Seeds
    CHEN Zhi-Xin-, ZHENG Li-, LAN Qin-Ying-, BAO Yun-Xiu-, TAN Yun-Hong
    2012, 34(01):  63-68.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11037
    Abstract ( 2289 )   HTML ( )   PDF (580KB) ( 2285 )   Save
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     Germination characteristics about Menghai Daye tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica cv. Menghai Dayecha) were explored in this paper. Results showed that hard seed coat influenced germination. When water content was high, getting rid of seed coat promoted germination percentage, but keeping seed coat became an advantage for seed germination when water content decreased. Optimum germination temperature was 30℃, bellow 15℃ was harmful temperature. The effect of 20/30℃ alternating temperature treatment on raising germination percentage was not notable. Effects of different soil types on germination percentage of Menghai Daye tea seeds were not notable too. Soil type was not a crucial factor during seed germination period of Menghai Daye tea.

    The Physiological Response of Phyllostachys edulis under the Elevated Atmospheric Ozone
    PENG Ming-Hao-, LI Ying-Chun-, LI Ying-, GU Li-Jian-, CHEN Shuang-Lin
    2012, 34(01):  69-75.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11088
    Abstract ( 2354 )   HTML ( )   PDF (789KB) ( 1995 )   Save
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    In order to provide theoretical evidences for bamboo cultivation under the background of climate change, the method of opentop chambers (OTCs) was employed to approach the effects of elevated ozone on photosynthetic pigments content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidation enzymes in the leaves of Phyllostachys edulis. The result indicated that with the increasing of ozone concentration, the content of the chlorophyll, carotenoid and SOD activity decreased, while the content of souble protein, relative electrical conductivity, contents of MDA, O2- and the activity of POD increased.Correlation analyses showed that there was significant negative correlation between O2-  content and SOD activity as well as photosynthetic pigment,whereas significant positive correlation between O2- and relative electeical conductivity, MDA, POD as well as soluble protein. It was summarried that, on one hand, long time exposure to high ozone concentration exposure, accelerated the aging of leaves, intensified the damage to membrane lipid, and destroyed the structure of cell membrane and the function of antioxidation system as well. It affected the regular growth of P.edulis. This research was conducted to provide theoretical evidence for bamboo cultivation during this time of possible climate change.

    Original Species Identification and Geographic Distribution of Hongxuecha
    NIU Dong-Ling-, YANG Chong-Ren
    2012, 34(01):  76-80.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11141
    Abstract ( 2142 )   HTML ( )   PDF (855KB) ( 2538 )   Save
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    The textual criticism of original species of Hongxuecha has been made combining species identification and field surveys. The results showed that Hongxuecha had two original species, Lethariella cladonioides and L.zahlbruckneri. There were chemical variability within the two populations. Hongxuecha in the market sales included four chemical races of the two species. The distribution center of Hongxuecha was mainly in the southeastern Tibet, western Sichuan and northwestern Yunnan. Currently, Hongxuecha resources have been greatly damaged and species are facing extinction. To enhance effective protection for wild hongxuecha resources, some proposals were presented.

    A Note on a Scleromicrophyllous Evengreen Broadleaved ForestAssociation Olea ferruginea, Pistacia weinmannifolia in Lancang (Upper Mekong) River
    WANG Chong-Yun-, CHEN Mei-Qing-, HE Zhao-Rong-, BANG Ming-Chun-, LI Qi-Yang-, OU Guang-Long-, LANG Xue-Dong-, DANG Cheng-Lin
    2012, 34(01):  81-88.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11131
    Abstract ( 2983 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2496KB) ( 2344 )   Save
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     An unique scleromicrophyllous evergreen broadleaved community in the valley of Lancang (upper Mekong) River was recorded using the methodology of BraunBlanquet’s relevé. The plant community was nominated by Association Olea ferruginea, Pistacia weinmannifolia. It was mainly happened at altitude 1300m to 1900m above sea level along the river banks. Its physiognomy, life/growth form, and floristic components were summarized, depending fieldcollected releves. The results indicated community structure was relatively simple, with average species number of 18; Phanerophytes were the most common life form, and growth form was dominated by herbs; There were 116 vascular species, 39 families, and 84 genera in 15 relevés; Its flora had a tropical characteristics at family and genus level. This association was supposed to be a relic vegetation of paleomediterrean subtropical vegetation which is characterized by small and scelrophyllous leaves. With growing human impact of dams construction, this plant community type which remains and evolves in a narrow valley were worth of protection and further research.


    Amino Acids Contents of Common Wild Edible Mushrooms in Yunnan Province
    SUN Can, LIN Ji, MO Yu-Ping, LIU Yang, XU Hua-Kun
    2012, 34(01):  89-92.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11102
    Abstract ( 2730 )   HTML ( )   PDF (615KB) ( 2581 )   Save
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    Edible mushrooms are well known for their value of nutrition. We analysed the contents of 17 amino acids in 41 species of common wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province. The results indicate that the types of amino acids are rich and the contents of amino acids are high. The total amino acids contents of Lyophyllum shimeji, Boletus griseus, Termitomyces bulborhizeus, and T.striatus are rather higher than others.

    Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants at Periodic Markets of Autonomous County of Gongcheng Yao in Guangxi
    CAO Ming-, CAO Xiao-Yan-, CAO Li-Min-, XI Shi-Li
    2012, 34(01):  93-100.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11124
    Abstract ( 2936 )   HTML ( )   PDF (676KB) ( 2443 )   Save
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    Gongcheng is the second largest county in Guangxi with about 163000 Yao population. Periodic Markets are important places for trading of medicinal plants harvested by Gongcheng Yao villagers. The study aimed to look into the marked traded medicinal plants that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Ethnobotanical market survey methods, interviews, Participatory Action Research (PAR) and field visits were planned to elicit information on the uses of various medicinal plants. It was found that 71 plant species in the market which belong to 41 families are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases,  all species are wild plants. A total of 133 records of medical uses in 52 herbal recipes for the treatment some common diseases. In most of the recipes recorded, digestion diseases, respiratory system diseases, infectious diseases,rheumatological diseases and surgery are used. The traditional knowledge about the number of medicinal plants available in that area and used by interviewees was positively correlated with the threats on medicinal plants in the wild habitats of the research area, which indicating that the diversity of wild medicinal plants and the associated traditional knowledge trends to disappear in the area.

    New Withanolides from Nicandra physaloides (Solanaceae)
    YI Qan-Kun-, LI Bo
    2012, 34(01):  101-106.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2012.11086
    Abstract ( 1737 )   HTML ( )   PDF (757KB) ( 2032 )   Save
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    Two new withanolides, named nicandrenone methyl ether (1), 26Snicandrenone methyl ether (2), together with ten known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Nicandra physaloides (Solanaceae). Their chemical structures were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Ten known compounds were identified as nicandrenone (3), Nic-7 (4), nicaphysalin E (5), pinosylvin monomethyl ether (6), 2S-pinocembrin (7), (1S, 2R)-1, 2-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1, 3-propanediol (8), vanillin (9), indole-3-carboxylic acid (10), vanillic acid (11) and drummondol (12).