The first survey of vascular epiphytes was conducted using ground based inventory assisted by single rope technique in the recentlyestablished Bulong Nature Reserve, Xishuangbanna, China. Results indicated that vascular epiphytes were abundant and diverse there. On a total of 77 phorophytes in six plots (96 trees were examined in total, covered ca. 02ha area), 1756 individuals were recorded and were identified to 103 species (47 genera, 14 families). Compared with other regions, the epiphytes were as diverse as Paleotropics, and more diverse than temperate zone, but significantly less than the Neotropics. Orchids and ferns comprised 60%, 24% of the total flora, respectively, while others only took up 16%. The highest species richness and richest lifeform diversity was found in the middle canopy zone from 10 to 15m (51% of total species), where also supported high individual abundance (19% of total individuals). Besides the middle canopy, the most abundant zone of epiphyte individuals was detected at the base of the trunk (zone 0-5m, 24% of total individuals and 37% of total species), indicating another important niche for epiphytes in this forest environment. Primary hemiepiphytic figs were rare in the area and were not found on the surveyed host trees, while hemiepiphytic Araliaceae species (Schefflera elliptica and Tupidanthus calyptratus) were popular.