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25 October 2005, Volume 27 Issue 06
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  • Articles
    Origin and Differentiation of Endemism in the Flora of China
    WU Zheng-Yi , SUN Hang, ZHOU Zhe-Kun , PENG Hua, LI De-Zhu
    2005, 27(06):  577-604. 
    Abstract ( 3166 )   HTML ( )   PDF (372KB) ( 5285 )   Save
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    The paper analyzed 239 endemic genera in 67 families in the flora of seed plants in China . The results showed that there are five families containing morn than ten endemic genera , i. e ., Gesneriaceae (27 , number of endemic genera in China , same thereafter) , Composite (20) , Labiatae (12) , Cruciferae (11) , and Umbelliferae (10) , 15 families with two endemic genera, and other 30 families with only one endemic genus . Four monotypic families, i. e ., Ginkgoaceae, Davidiaceae , Eucommiaceae and Acanthochlamydaceae
    , are the most ancient , relic and characteristic in the flora of seed plants in China . Based on integrative data of systematics, fossils histories, morphological and molecular evidence of these genera, their origination, evolution and relationships were discussed . In gymnosperms, all endemic genera are relics of the Arctic-Tertiary flora , having earlier evolutionary history, and can be traced back to the Cretaceous or to the Jurassic and even earlier . In angiosperms, the endemic genera are mostly relic, and are represented in all lineages in our Eight-Class System of classification of angiosperms , and endemism can be found in almost every evolutionary stage of extant angiosperms . The relic genera once occupied huge areas in North Hemisphere in the Tertiary or the late Cretaceous, while neo-endemism was mostly originated in the late Tertiary . They came from Arctic-Tertiary , Paleo- tropical-Tertiary and Tethys-Tertiary florisitic elements and the blend of the three elements, with many genera of autochthonous origination . The endemism was formed when some dispersal route such as the North Atlantic Land Bridge, and the Bering Bridge became discontinuous
    during the Tertiary , as well as the climate change and glaciation in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary . Therefore , the late Tertiary is the starting point of extant endemism of the flora of China .
    Studies on Jatropha curcas Seed
    DENG Zhi-Jun , CHENG Hong-Yan , SONG Song-Quan
    2005, 27(06):  605-612. 
    Abstract ( 3471 )   HTML ( )   PDF (117KB) ( 3415 )   Save
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    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L .) is a semi-fleshy small tree or large shrub , belonging to Euphorbiaceae family, Jatropha genus, which has highly tolerance to drought and nutrient deficiency . Their roots, barks, leaves and seeds can be used as medicines . The main components are fats, proteins and terpenes, and the toxins are curcin and seed oil in physic nut seed . Oil content of kernel is about 50% , which can be used as biological diesel oil without pollution . Curcin , seed oil and other extracts from physic nut seeds can be used as biological pesticide . There are a little study on development and dehydration behaviour of the seeds, and their regulation . Physic nut is an important strategic resource with great economic value .
    Progress of Study on Chitosan in Regulating Plants’Growth and Eliciting Plants’Defense Responses

    CHEN Hui-Ping , , XU Lang-Lai

    2005, 27(06):  613-619. 
    Abstract ( 2240 )   HTML ( )   PDF (98KB) ( 2845 )   Save
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    Important effect of chitosan on regulating plant growth , eliciting plant resistance to disease and it’s possible operating mechanism are reviewed . Chitosan shows evidence physiological effect on the key enzymes of ammonia assimilation and enhances the amination capacity in plant, which is in favor of biology synthesize and accumulation of protein . Thus , chitosan improves nutrition quality and horticulture properties of plant . Moreover , chitosan rapidly stimulates plant defense responses , then startups defensive system and elevates resistance to disease . To a further understanding of the mechanism of chitosan on plant , we have isolated and determined some biochemical properties of a chitosan-bingding protein .
    Molecular Phylogeny and Species Speciation of Adoxaceae. s. s
    MAO Kang-Shan , YAO Xing-Lei , HUANG Zhao-Hui
    2005, 27(06):  620-628. 
    Abstract ( 3242 )   HTML ( )   PDF (148KB) ( 2276 )   Save
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    It remains unclear about the speciation and phylogeny of Adoxaceae s. s ., a small family with 3 genera and 4 species . In this paper , ITS ( nuclear DNA internal transcribed spacer) regions of Adoxa orientalis and Sambucus adnata were firstly sequenced . Phylogenetic trees were constructed for all species of Adoxaceae (four species ) , Sambucus, Viburnum and four genera of Caprifoliaceae . The divergences among four species of this family were further calculated based on the calibration of the fossil records of the Caprifoliaceae and the general evolutionary rate of herbs for ITS . The phylogenetic analyses did not support the previous assumptions on the phylogeny and species divergence of Adoxaceae s. s . based on the morphological evidence : Tetradoxa is not the firstly diverged and it clustered with two species of Adoxa as a monophylogenetic group , paralleling to the other lineage comprising of monotypic Sinadoxa . The allopatric speciation at the diploid level might have contributed to the differentiation among Sinadoxa corydalifolia, Tetradoxa omeiensis and Adoxa moschatellina and the polyploidy to the origin of A. orientalis . The crude timing based on ITS sequence differentiation suggested a recent divergence among all four species probably between the late Miocene and the Tertiary and this speciation process might be closely correlated with habitat fragmentation and change due to the extensive uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and climatic oscillation during the glacial and interglacial ages occurred at this stage .
    Characters of Leaf Epidermis in Genus Sauromatum (Araceae) and It’s Relative Genera
    LI Ai-Hua , GUAN Kai-Yun , WANG Zhong-Lang
    2005, 27(06):  629-638. 
    Abstract ( 2533 )   HTML ( )   PDF (989KB) ( 1771 )   Save
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    Leaf epidermis of 2 species in genus Sauromatum Schott were examined under light microscope and scanning electron microscope ( SEM) and compared with that of 13 species in genera Typhonium, Pinellia and Arisaema in the same tribe Area of Araceae . The result reveals that the characters of leaf epidermis between the several genera generally are very similar . However , some of the characters in the species of the same genus are variable and can be used to identify its species . The characters of leaf epidermis support to merge Typhonium kunmingense into Typhonium calcicolum . The stomata apparatus of 15 species are all brachyparacytic types with 2 subsidiary cells . This type of stomata apparatus is considered more evolutional than that with more than 2 subsidiary cells which existed in majority tribes of Araceae . This also verify some taxonomists’viewpoint that tribe Area is more evolutional in family Araceae .
    Comparative Study on Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Leontopodium leontopodioides Grown at Different Elevations
    HE Tao , WU Xue-Ming , ZHANG Gai-Na , WANG Xue-Ren , JIA Jing-Fen
    2005, 27(06):  639-643. 
    Abstract ( 2237 )   HTML ( )   PDF (217KB) ( 1714 )   Save
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    The chloroplast ultrastructures of Leontopodium leontopodioides distributed in the northeast of Qinghai-Xizang plateau at altitute of 2300 , 2700 and 3800 m were observed respectively with TEM . The result demonstrated that the chloroplast ultrastructure exhibited a varied proclivity in the shape, thylakoid and number of grana lamellae with increasing elevation . In both populations at altitutes of 2300 and 2700 m, they are shuttle-or boat-shaped and scattered along cell wall , but those from lower altitute provided with grana lamellae not less than thirty-two and arranged regularly , whereas those from higher altitute merely provided with gana lamellae not more than twenty and with a slightly swelling thylakoid . In the population at altitude of 3800m, the chloroplasts become round and locate at the cell center with grana lamellae not more than ten in seriously distorting arrangement and with an obviously swelling thylakoid . All
    swelling thylakoids occur a lot of lipid droplets . It was suggested that the chloroplast variations of Leontopodium leontopodioides aforementioned above were caused by long-time stress of habitat factors at different altitudes of Qinghai-Xizang plateau . It is an adaptation of the plant to the environment .
    Observation of Vessel Elements of Secondary Xylem in Mangifera indica
    CHEN Shu-Si , TANG Wei-Ping
    2005, 27(06):  644-648. 
    Abstract ( 2160 )   HTML ( )   PDF (193KB) ( 1708 )   Save
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    The various vessel elements in the secondary xylem of Mangifera indica L . are observed respectively with Bio-microscope image analysis system and supplied their photographs in the present paper . Their conformation , evolutionary trend and special structures in the same vessel are discussed in detail .
    Polymerziton and Electron Microscopy of Tubulin of Pollens from Hemerocallis fulva in vitro
    LIAO Jun-Jie, , WU Ying-Jie , YEN Lung-Fei
    2005, 27(06):  649-652. 
    Abstract ( 2233 )   HTML ( )   PDF (152KB) ( 1633 )   Save
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    Microtubules are the components of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells . They are essential for a wide varieties of cellular functions . Most of our knowledge of biochemistry and pharmacology of tubulin has come from extensive studies on mammalian brain microtubule systems, very little information exists on the biochemical and pharmacological properties of plant tubulin and microtubules . We developed an efficient method to prepare enough tubulin in high purity from day lily ( Hemerocallis fulva L .) pollen . Here we reported the ultrastructural morphology of microtubule polymerzied by induction of tubulin taxol in the presence of Mg2+ and GTP with transmission electron microscopy .
    Characterization of HMW Glutenin Subunits from Taeniatherum crinitum by SDS-PAGE and PCR
    YAN Ze-Hong, DAI Shou-Fen , LIU Deng-Cai , WEI Yu-Ming , ZHENG You-Liang
    2005, 27(06):  653-656. 
    Abstract ( 2919 )   HTML ( )   PDF (114KB) ( 1722 )   Save
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    HMW glutenin subunits and genes in Ta. crinitum were investigated by using SDS-PAGE and PCR technology . The results suggested that HMW glutenin in Ta. crinitum were very similar but not identical to those of wheat especially in terms of electrophoresis mobility . The electrophoresis mobility of the x type subunits of Taeniatherum was slower or closer to that of Dx2 of wheat , and of y type subunits were faster than that of Dy12 of wheat . Our results indicated that Taeniatherum species may contain HMW glutenin subunits similar to those of wheat and that the Taeniatherum subunits may have the potential value for improving the end use qualities of wheat .
    Studies on Germination Characteristics and Storage Behavior of Trachycarpus fortunei Seeds
    TANG An-Jun , , LONG Chun-Lin, DAO Zhi-Ling ,SONG Song-Quan , TIAN Mei-Hua ,
    2005, 27(06):  657-662. 
    Abstract ( 2557 )   HTML ( )   PDF (96KB) ( 1858 )   Save
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    Desiccation tolerance and storage behavior of Trachycarpus fortunei seeds were analyzed . Seeds of Trachycarpus fortunei from three localities were tested for germination following hermetic storage for 120 days at several different combinations of temperatures (4℃ and - 20℃) and moisture contents (based on dry weight ) , they showed that one of the main features is that the seeds of low water content are also easily injured by low temperatures . These results , therefore , point to the possibility of a third category of storage behavior intermediate between those of orthodox and recalcitrant seeds . The natural habitat of Trachycarpus fortunei , especially altitude , had significant effects on characteristics of seeds .
    Effect of Kinetin (KT) on Physiological and Biochemical Variation of Cotyledons of Cucuibita pepo in Vitro during Construction of Floral Buds
    HUANG Zuo-Xi , , QING Dong-Hong , DUAN Hui-Guo , TANG Zheng-Yi , WANG Fang
    2005, 27(06):  663-668. 
    Abstract ( 2435 )   HTML ( )   PDF (113KB) ( 1651 )   Save
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    Physiological and chemical variation and construction of floral buds of cotyledons of Cucuibita pepo L . induced by kinetin are reported in the present paper . The results domonestrated that differentiation in floral bud of the cotyledons which cultured on MS mixed with kinetin 1 . 0 mg·L- 1 accounted for 45% of the total, whereas only reached 5% in the control . During construction of the floral buds , the endogenous soluble protein , soluble suger , RNA and POD activity of the cotyledons apparent exceeded
    those of the control ; the ratio between Spd and Put (Spd􊄯Put ) is two times more than that of the control ; the content of starch and DNA are not quite different from the control , but DAP and Cad apparently decreased. It is easy to come to a conclusion that the varition of physiological and chemical induces in the cotyledons in vitro induced by kinetin promoted the construction of floral buds .
    Expression of VP1 of the Food-and-Mouth Disease Virus Outer Capsid Protein in Transgenic Stylosanthes spp.
    WANG Dong-Mei , SHEN Wen-Tao, ZHOU Peng
    2005, 27(06):  669-675. 
    Abstract ( 2140 )   HTML ( )   PDF (300KB) ( 1731 )   Save
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    Tender leaves of Stylosanthes guianensis cv . Reyan Ⅱ were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 carrying the gene VP1 coding food-and-mouth disease virus outer capsid protein . After 3 times kanamycin-resistant selection , the regenerated plantlets were analyzed further by PCR, PCRSouthern blot and Southern blot, the results confirmed that the VP1 gene were integrated in the genome . The results of RT-PCR and Northern blot of transgenic plants showed that VP1 gene was transcribed in transgenic plants .
    Ex-Situ Cultivation of Medicinal Plant Species in High Altitudes at Swat , Pakistan
    Hassan Sher , David Melick , Zaheer-ud-Ud-Khan
    2005, 27(06):  676-684. 
    Abstract ( 1584 )   HTML ( )   PDF (153KB) ( 2451 )   Save
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    An ex-situ experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of six medicinal species (Bergenia ciliata, Valeriana jatamansi, Dioscorea deltoidea, Paeonia emodi, Polygonum amplexicaule and Viola serpense) from upper Swat , Pakistan . Experiments were conducted at four different locations in the upper Swat valley at altitudes ranging from1200 to 1900 m. a. s. l . The objectives were : 1) to determine the suitability of ex-situ cultivation of different medicinal species, and; 2) to assess the economic geasibility of growing medicinal plants in the area . A highest mean survival of 80.7% across all locations was observed for Viola serpense, followed by 58.7% for Valeriana jatamansi. The remaining four species exhibited very poor survival rates , although Polygonum amplexicaule, did show encouraging signs of growth and flowered , before experiencing high mortality rates late in the trial . Altitude generally seemed to enhance the degree of sprouting for all species except Viola serpense. However, the productive yield of V. serpense was certainly not reduced, but rather slightly enhanced in the higher altitude sites. Overall, cultivation of only two of the investigated species, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola serpense, appeared
    successful and potentially economically viable under farmland conditions at upper Swat .
    HPLC Comparative Analysis of Ginsenoside Saponins in Different Underground Parts of Panax notoginseng
    WANG Dong , LI Hai-Zhou , CHEN Ke-Ke , ZHANG Ying-Jun, YANG Chong-Ren
    2005, 27(06):  685-690. 
    Abstract ( 2763 )   HTML ( )   PDF (6129KB) ( 2330 )   Save
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    In order to elucidate the distribution rule of saponins in Panax notoginseng, the contents of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 in different underground parts of notoginseng were determined by HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the contents of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 together
    with total content of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, notoginsenoside R1 in the taproot“60 Tou”(viz . 60 taproots per 500 g) are highest among all commercial grades of P. notoginseng. The rhizome provided more than 25% saponins, though its biomass is only about 18% of the underground parts. The levels of biomass and saponins of phloem in both taproot and rhizome are significantly higher than those of xylem. The biomass and saponin levels of two years old roots are markedly lower than those of three years old one. The comparative analyses were carried out on P. notoginseng of different stem colors .
    Chemical Constituents of Tibetan Herbal Medicine Saxifraga melanocentra
    ZUO Guo-Ying , , ZHANG Zhi-Jun , CHEN Li-Rong , XU Xiao-Jie
    2005, 27(06):  691-694. 
    Abstract ( 1946 )   HTML ( )   PDF (65KB) ( 1789 )   Save
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    From the aerial parts of Saxifraga melanocentra, ten compounds were isolated and identified with spectral analysis and compared with authentic samples as kaermpferol ( 1 ) , quercetin ( 2 ) , kaempferol-3- O-β-D-glucoside ( 3 ) , quercetin-3- O-β-D-glucoside ( 4 ) , kaempferol-3-rutinoside ( 5 ) ,
    rutin (6) , 2″- O-galloylrutin (7 ) , bergenin ( 8 ) , gallic acid ( 9) and methyl gallate ( 10) . Six compounds were found from the plant for the first time with the exception of 2 , 6 , 8 and 10 . These results provided new chemical evidences for the bioactive investigation of this plant .
    Chemical Constituents of Litsea euosma
    XIAO Yong,, ZHAO Jing-Feng, YANG Xiao-Dong, HUANG Rong, LI Liang
    2005, 27(06):  695-697. 
    Abstract ( 2459 )   HTML ( )   PDF (58KB) ( 1818 )   Save
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    Chemical investigation on the leaves and twigs of Litsea euosma W . W . Smith (Lauraceae ) led to the isolation of a new compound named a derivative of α-pyranone ( 1) together with three known compounds, a derivative of ferulic acidic ester (2) , 6- O-palmitoyl-β-sitosteryl-D-glucoside (3) and glucose ( 4) . The structure of the new compound is elucidated as 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3 -( undec-10-enyl ) -5 , 6-dihydropyran-2-one based on its spectroscopic analysis .