Plant Diversity ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (04): 340-350.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2022.05.003

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Recent advances on phylogenomics of gymnosperms and a new classification

Yong Yanga, David Kay Fergusonb, Bing Liuc,d, Kang-Shan Maoe, Lian-Ming Gaof,g, Shou-Zhou Zhangh, Tao Wanh, Keith Rushforthi, Zhi-Xiang Zhangj   

  1. a Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Biology and the Environment, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China;
    b Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria;
    c State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China;
    d Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China;
    e Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China;
    f CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China;
    g Lijiang Forest Biodiversity National Observation and Research Station, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lijiang 674100, China;
    h Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, FairyLake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China;
    i The Shippen, Ashill, Cullompton, Devon, EN15 3NL, UK;
    j School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
  • Received:2022-03-04 Revised:2022-05-12 Online:2022-07-25 Published:2022-08-13
  • Contact: Yong Yang,
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31970205, 31870206) and the Metasequoia funding of the Nanjing Forestry University, China. We thank Y.H.Ji and two other anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions.

Abstract: Living gymnosperms comprise four major groups: cycads, Ginkgo, conifers, and gnetophytes. Relationships among/within these lineages have not been fully resolved. Next generation sequencing has made available a large number of sequences, including both plastomes and single-copy nuclear genes, for reconstruction of solid phylogenetic trees. Recent advances in gymnosperm phylogenomic studies have updated our knowledge of gymnosperm systematics. Here, we review major advances of gymnosperm phylogeny over the past 10 years and propose an updated classification of extant gymnosperms. This new classification includes three classes (Cycadopsida, Ginkgoopsida, and Pinopsida), five subclasses (Cycadidae, Ginkgoidae, Cupressidae, Pinidae, and Gnetidae), eight orders (Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Araucariales, Cupressales, Pinales, Ephedrales, Gnetales, and Welwitschiales), 13 families, and 86 genera. We also described six new tribes including Acmopyleae Y. Yang, Austrocedreae Y. Yang, Chamaecyparideae Y. Yang, Microcachrydeae Y. Yang, Papuacedreae Y. Yang, and Prumnopityeae Y. Yang, and made 27 new combinations in the genus Sabina.

Key words: Classification, Gymnosperms, Morphology, New tribe, Phylogenomics, Taxonomy