Plant Diversity ›› 2023, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (01): 54-68.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2022.03.001

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Phylogenomics and integrative taxonomy reveal two new species of Amana (Liliaceae)

Mei-Zhen Wanga, Xiao-Kai Fana, Yong-Hua Zhangb, Jing Wua, Li-Mi Maoc, Sheng-Lu Zhanga, Min-Qi Caid, Ming-Hong Lie, Zhang-Shi-Chang Zhua, Ming-Shui Zhaof, Lu-Xian Liug, Kenneth M. Cameronh, Pan Lia   

  1. a. Laboratory of Systematic & Evolutionary Botany and Biodiversity, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China;
    b. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, 325035, China;
    c. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China;
    d. Shanghai Science and Technology Museum, Shanghai, 200127, China;
    e. Nanyue Hengshan National Nature Reserve Administration, Hengyang 421900, Hunan, China;
    f. Zhejiang Tianmushan National Nature Reserve Management Bureau, Hangzhou, 311311, China;
    g. Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China;
    h. Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706, USA
  • Received:2021-08-23 Revised:2022-03-01 Published:2023-02-23
  • Contact: Yong-Hua Zhang,;Pan Li,
  • Supported by:
    The research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31970225), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. LY19C030007), and the NSFC-NSF Dimensions of Biodiversity Program (Grant No. 31461123001).

Abstract: Until now the genus Amana (Liliaceae), known as ‘East Asian tulips’, has contained just seven species. In this study, a phylogenomic and integrative taxonomic approach was used to reveal two new species, Amana nanyueensis from Central China and A. tianmuensis from East China. A. nanyueensis resembles Amana edulis in possessing a densely villous-woolly bulb tunic and two opposite bracts, but differs in its leaves and anthers. Amana tianmuensis resembles Amana erythronioides in possessing three verticillate bracts and yellow anthers, but differs in aspects of its leaves and bulbs. These four species are clearly separated from each other in principal components analysis based on morphology. Phylogenomic analyses based on plastid CDS further support the species delimitation of A. nanyueensis and A. tianmuensis and suggests they are closely related to A. edulis. Cytological analysis shows that A. nanyueensis and A. tianmuensis are both diploid (2n = 2x = 24), different from A. edulis, which is either diploid (northern populations) or tetraploid (southern populations, 2n = 4x = 48). The pollen morphology of A. nanyueensis is similar to other Amana species (single-groove germination aperture), but A. tianmuensis is quite different because of the presence of a sulcus membrane, which creates the illusion of double grooves. Ecological niche modelling also revealed a niche differentiation between A. edulis, A. nanyueensis and A. tianmuensis.

Key words: Amana edulis, Parallel evolution, Phylogeny, Species concept, Taxonomy, Tulip