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25 January 2023, Volume 45 Issue 01
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  • Short communication
    U.Taxonstand: An R package for standardizing scientific names of plants and animals
    Jian Zhang, Hong Qian
    2023, 45(01):  1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.09.001
    Abstract ( 170 )   HTML ( )   PDF (338KB) ( 175 )   Save
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    The scientific names of organisms are key identifiers of plants and animals. Correctly treating scientific names is a prerequisite for biodiversity research and documentation. Here, we present an R package, ‘U.Taxonstand’, which can standardize and harmonize scientific names in plant and animal species lists at a fast speed and at a high rate of matching success. Unlike most of other similar R packages each of which works with only one taxonomic database, U.Taxonstand can work with all taxonomic databases, as long as they are properly formatted. Multiple databases for plants and animals that can be directly used by U.Taxonstand, which include bryophytes, vascular plants, amphibians, birds, fishes, mammals, and reptiles, are available online. U.Taxonstand can be a very useful tool for botanists, zoologists, ecologists and biogeographers to standardize and harmonize scientific names of organisms.
    Research paper
    Why is the beautyberry so colourful? Evolution, biogeography, and diversification of fruit colours in Callicarpa (Lamiaceae)
    Xing Liu, Hui-Min Cai, Wen-Qiao Wang, Wei Lin, Zhi-Wei Su, Zhong-Hui Ma
    2023, 45(01):  6-19.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.10.002
    Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( )   PDF (9062KB) ( 105 )   Save
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    Fruit colour is essential to seed dispersal, speciation, and biological diversity in global ecosystems. The relationship between fruit-colour variation and species diversification has long been of interest in evolutionary biology, but remains poorly understood at the genus level. Here, we used Callicarpa, a typical representative of pantropical angiosperm, to analyse whether fruit colours are correlated with biogeographic distribution, dispersal events, and diversification rate. We estimated a time-calibrated phylogeny for Callicarpa and reconstructed ancestral fruit colour. Utilizing phylogenetic methods, we estimated the major dispersal events across the phylogenetic tree and the most likely fruit colours related to each dispersal event, and tested whether the dispersal frequencies and distances of the four fruit colours between major biogeographical areas were equal. We then tested whether fruit colours are correlated with latitude, elevation, and diversification rate. Biogeographical reconstructions showed that Callicarpa originated in the East Asia and Southeast Asia during the Eocene (~35.53 Ma) and diverse species diverged mainly in the Miocene and lasted into the Pleistocene. Large-scale dispersal events were significantly associated with violet-fruited lineages. Furthermore, different fruit colours were markedly correlated with different latitudes and elevations (e.g., violet fruits were correlated with higher latitudes and elevations; red fruits and black fruits with lower latitudes; white fruits with higher elevations). Notably, violet fruits were statistically associated with highest diversification rates, driving fruit colour variation among different regions globally. Our results contribute to further understanding why fruit colour is so variable at the genus level of angiosperms in different areas around the world.
    Asymmetric migration dynamics of the tropical Asian and Australasian floras
    Li-Guo Zhang, Xiao-Qian Li, Wei-Tao Jin, Yu-Juan Liu, Yao Zhao, Jun Rong, Xiao-Guo Xiang
    2023, 45(01):  20-26.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.05.006
    Abstract ( 51 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5583KB) ( 47 )   Save
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    The tropical Asian and Australasian floras have a close relationship, and is a vital distribution pattern of seed plants worldwide. As estimated, more than 81 families and 225 genera of seed plants distributed between tropical Asia and Australasia. However, the evolutionary dynamics of two floras were still vague. Here, a total of 29 plant lineages, represented the main clades of seed plants and different habits, were selected to investigate the biotic interchange between tropical Asia and Australasia by integrated dated phylogenies, biogeography, and ancestral state reconstructions. Our statistics indicated that 68 migrations have occurred between tropical Asia and Australasia since the middle Eocene except terminal migrations, and the migration events from tropical Asia to Australasia is more than 2 times of the reverse. Only 12 migrations occurred before 15 Ma, whereas the remaining 56 migrations occurred after 15 Ma. Maximal number of potential dispersal events (MDE) analysis also shows obvious asymmetry, with southward migration as the main feature, and indicates the climax of bi-directional migrations occurred after 15 Ma. We speculate that the formation of island chains after the Australian-Sundaland collision and climate changes have driven seed plant migrations since the middle Miocene. Furthermore, biotic dispersal and stable habitat may be crucial for floristic interchange between tropical Asia and Australasia.
    Phylogenetic diversity of eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunct plants is mainly associated with divergence time
    Han-Yang Lin, Miao Sun, Ya-Jun Hao, Daijiang Li, Matthew A. Gitzendanner, Cheng-Xin Fu, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Yun-Peng Zhao
    2023, 45(01):  27-35.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.09.008
    Abstract ( 89 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2875KB) ( 37 )   Save
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    The underlying causes of biodiversity disparities among geographic regions have long been a fundamental theme in ecology and evolution. However, the patterns of phylogenetic diversity (PD) and phylogenetic beta diversity (PBD) of congeners that are disjunctly distributed between eastern Asia-eastern North America (EA?ENA disjuncts) and their associated factors remain unknown. Here we investigated the standardized effect size of PD (SES-PD), PBD, and potentially associated factors in 11 natural mixed forest sites (five in EA and six in ENA) where abundant EA?ENA disjuncts occur. We found that the disjuncts in ENA possessed higher SES-PD than those in EA at the continental scale (1.96 vs ?1.12), even though the number of disjunct species in ENA is much lower than in EA (128 vs 263). SES-PD of the EA?ENA disjuncts tended to decrease with increasing latitude in 11 sites. The latitudinal diversity gradient of SES-PD was stronger in EA sites than in ENA sites. Based on the unweighted unique fraction metric (UniFrac) distance and the phylogenetic community dissimilarity, PBD showed that the two northern sites in EA were more similar to the six-site ENA group than to the remaining southern EA sites. Based on the standardized effect size of mean pairwise distances (SES-MPD), nine of eleven studied sites showed a neutral community structure (?1.96 ≤ SES-MPD ≤ 1.96). Both Pearson's r and structural equation modeling suggested that SES-PD of the EA-ENA disjuncts was mostly associated with mean divergence time. Moreover, SES-PD of the EA-ENA disjuncts was positively correlated with temperature-related climatic factors, although negatively correlated with mean diversification rate and community structure. By applying approaches from phylogenetics and community ecology, our work sheds light on historical patterns of the EA?ENA disjunction and paves the way for further research.
    Allopolyploid origin and niche expansion of Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae)
    Da-Lv Zhong, Yuan-Cong Li, Jian-Qiang Zhang
    2023, 45(01):  36-44.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.08.004
    Abstract ( 63 )   HTML ( )   PDF (8779KB) ( 69 )   Save
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    Polyploidy after hybridization between species can lead to immediate post-zygotic isolation, causing saltatory origin of new species. Although the incidence of polyploidization in plants is high, it is thought that a new polyploid lineage can succeed only if it establishes a new ecological niche divergent from its progenitor lineages. We tested the hypothesis that Rhodiola integrifolia from North America is an allopolyploid produced by R. rhodantha and R. rosea and determined whether its survival can be explained by the niche divergence hypothesis. To this end, we sequenced two low-copy nuclear genes (ncpGS and rpb2) in a phylogenetic analysis of 42 Rhodiola species and tested for niche equivalency and similarity using Schoener’s D as the index of niche overlap. Our phylogeny-based approach showed that R. integrifolia possesses alleles from both R. rhodantha and R. rosea. Dating analysis showed that the hybridization event that led to R. integrifolia occurred ca. 1.67 Mya and niche modeling analysis showed that at this time, both R. rosea and R. rhodantha may have been present in Beringia, providing the opportunity for the hybridization event. We also found that the niche of R. integrifolia differs from that of its progenitors in both niche breadth and optimum. Taken together, these results confirm the hybrid origin of R. integrifolia and support the niche divergence hypothesis for this tetraploid species. Our results underscore the fact that lineages with no current overlapping distribution could produce hybrid descendants in the past, when climate oscillations made their distributions overlap.
    Phyllosphere eukaryotic microalgal communities in rainforests: Drivers and diversity
    Ben-Wen Liu, Shu-Yin Li, Huan Zhu, Guo-Xiang Liu
    2023, 45(01):  45-53.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.08.006
    Abstract ( 51 )   HTML ( )   PDF (7121KB) ( 33 )   Save
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    Phyllosphere algae are common in tropical rainforests, forming visible biofilms or spots on plant leaf surfaces. However, knowledge of phyllosphere algal diversity and the environmental factors that drive that diversity is limited. The aim of this study is to identify the environmental factors that drive phyllosphere algal community composition and diversity in rainforests. For this purpose, we used single molecule real-time sequencing of full-length 18S rDNA to characterize the composition of phyllosphere microalgal communities growing on four host tree species (Ficus tikoua, Caryota mitis, Arenga pinnata, and Musa acuminata) common to three types of forest over four months at the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province, China. Environmental 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the green algae orders Watanabeales and Trentepohliales were dominant in almost all algal communities and that phyllosphere algal species richness and biomass were lower in planted forest than in primeval and reserve rainforest. In addition, algal community composition differed significantly between planted forest and primeval rainforest. We also found that algal communities were affected by soluble reactive phosphorous, total nitrogen, and ammonium contents. Our findings indicate that algal community structure is significantly related to forest type and host tree species. Furthermore, this study is the first to identify environmental factors that affect phyllosphere algal communities, significantly contributing to future taxonomic research, especially for the green algae orders Watanabeales and Trentepohliales. This research also serves as an important reference for molecular diversity analysis of algae in other specific habitats, such as epiphytic algae and soil algae.
    Phylogenomics and integrative taxonomy reveal two new species of Amana (Liliaceae)
    Mei-Zhen Wang, Xiao-Kai Fan, Yong-Hua Zhang, Jing Wu, Li-Mi Mao, Sheng-Lu Zhang, Min-Qi Cai, Ming-Hong Li, Zhang-Shi-Chang Zhu, Ming-Shui Zhao, Lu-Xian Liu, Kenneth M. Cameron, Pan Li
    2023, 45(01):  54-68.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.03.001
    Abstract ( 74 )   HTML ( )   PDF (28992KB) ( 61 )   Save
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    Until now the genus Amana (Liliaceae), known as ‘East Asian tulips’, has contained just seven species. In this study, a phylogenomic and integrative taxonomic approach was used to reveal two new species, Amana nanyueensis from Central China and A. tianmuensis from East China. A. nanyueensis resembles Amana edulis in possessing a densely villous-woolly bulb tunic and two opposite bracts, but differs in its leaves and anthers. Amana tianmuensis resembles Amana erythronioides in possessing three verticillate bracts and yellow anthers, but differs in aspects of its leaves and bulbs. These four species are clearly separated from each other in principal components analysis based on morphology. Phylogenomic analyses based on plastid CDS further support the species delimitation of A. nanyueensis and A. tianmuensis and suggests they are closely related to A. edulis. Cytological analysis shows that A. nanyueensis and A. tianmuensis are both diploid (2n = 2x = 24), different from A. edulis, which is either diploid (northern populations) or tetraploid (southern populations, 2n = 4x = 48). The pollen morphology of A. nanyueensis is similar to other Amana species (single-groove germination aperture), but A. tianmuensis is quite different because of the presence of a sulcus membrane, which creates the illusion of double grooves. Ecological niche modelling also revealed a niche differentiation between A. edulis, A. nanyueensis and A. tianmuensis.
    Genetic diversity and inferred ancestry of Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) germplasms in Thailand and Vietnam
    Feng-Luan Liu, Ya-Lan Dai, Thi Nga Hoang, Vichai Puripunyavanich, Primlarp Wasuwat Chukiatman, Mi Qin, Yan-Rong Fu, Yu-Chu Chen, Dai-Ke Tian
    2023, 45(01):  69-79.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.05.004
    Abstract ( 62 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11901KB) ( 35 )   Save
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    Tropical lotus (Nelumbo) is an important and unique ecological type of lotus germplasm. Understanding the genetic relationship and diversity of the tropical lotus is necessary for its sustainable conservation and utilization. Using 42 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats) and 30 SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers, we assessed the genetic diversity and inferred the ancestry of representative tropical lotus from Thailand and Vietnam. In total, 164 and 41 polymorphic bands were detected in 69 accessions by 36 EST-SSR and seven SRAP makers, respectively. Higher genetic diversity was revealed in Thai lotus than in Vietnamese lotus. A Neighbor-Joining tree of five main clusters was constructed using combined EST-SSR and SRAP markers. Cluster I included 17 accessions of Thai lotus; cluster II contained three Thai accessions and 11 accessions from southern Vietnam; and cluster III was constituted by 13 accessions of seed lotus. Consistent with the results from the Neighbor-Joining tree, the genetic structure analysis showed that the genetic background of most Thai and Vietnamese lotus was pure, as artificial breeding has been rare in both countries. Furthermore, these analyses indicate that Thai and Vietnamese lotus germplasms belong to two different gene pools or populations. Most lotus accessions are genetically related to geographical distribution patterns in Thailand or Vietnam. Our findings showed that the origin or genetic relationships of some unidentified lotus sources can be evaluated by comparing morphological characteristics and the data of molecular markers. In addition, these findings provide reliable information for the targeted conservation of tropical lotus and parent selection in breeding novel cultivars of lotus.
    Coryphoid palms from the K-Pg boundary of central India and their biogeographical implications: Evidence from megafossil remains
    Sanchita Kumar, Taposhi Hazra, Robert A. Spicer, Manoshi Hazra, Teresa E. V. Spicer, Subir Bera, Mahasin Ali Khan
    2023, 45(01):  80-97.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.01.001
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( )   PDF (71209KB) ( 33 )   Save
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    Ten palm leaf impressions are documented from the latest Maastrichtian (late Cretaceous) to early Danian (earliest Paleocene) sediments (K-Pg, c. 66-64 Ma) of the Mandla Lobe of the Deccan Inter-trappean Beds, Madhya Pradesh, central India. The palmate leaf shape along with a definite well-preserved costa support their placement in the subfamily Coryphoideae of the family Arecaceae. We place all recovered palm leaf specimens in the fossil genus Sabalites, report seven species of coryphoid palms and describe two new species namely, Sabalities umariaensis sp. nov. and Sabalites ghughuaensis sp. nov. The fossils indicate that coryphoid palms were highly diverse in central India by the latest Cretaceous. These and earlier reported coryphoid palm fossils from the same locality indicate that they experienced a warm and humid tropical environment during the time of deposition. These discoveries confirm the presence of a diversity of Coryphoideae in Gondwana prior to the India-Eurasia collision and provide information about coryphoid biogeographical history over geological time. Based on megafossil remains, we trace coryphoid palm migration pathways from India to mainland Southeast (SE) Asia and other parts of Asia after the docking of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia early in the Paleogene.
    The legacy effects of rubber defoliation period on the refoliation phenology, leaf disease, and latex yield
    De-Li Zhai, Jian-Chu Xu
    2023, 45(01):  98-103.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.01.003
    Abstract ( 58 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2185KB) ( 22 )   Save
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    The leaf phenology of trees has received particular attention for its crucial role in the global water and carbon balances, ecosystem, and species distribution. However, current studies on leaf phenology have mainly focused on temperate trees, while few studies including tropical trees. Little attention has been paid to globally extensive industrial plantations. Rubber plantations are important to both the local and global economies. In this study, we investigated the legacy effects of defoliation phenology on the following year's leaf flushing, leaf disease, and also latex yield of rubber trees, an economically important tree to local people and the world. Results show that extended duration of defoliation increased the subsequent duration of refoliation and rates of infection by powdery mildew disease, but led to reduced latex yield in March. This legacy effect of rubber defoliation may relate to the carbohydrate reserved in the trees. A longer duration of defoliation would consume more reserved carbohydrates, reducing available reserves for disease defense and latex production. Extended duration of defoliation period was associated with either a lower temperature before the cessation of latex tapping in October-November and/or a higher temperature after the cessation of latex tapping in December-January. Leaf falling signals the end of photosynthetic activities in deciduous trees. Thus, the leaf falling phenology will impact ecological processes involving rubber trees. Our findings indicated that the inclusion of defoliation periods in future rubber trees' research, will be crucial to furthering our understanding of leaf flushing, powdery mildew disease, and latex yield.
    2,3-Butanediol from the leachates of pine needles induces the resistance of Panax notoginseng to the leaf pathogen Alternaria panax
    Tian-Yao Li, Chen Ye, Yi-Jie Zhang, Jun-Xing Zhang, Min Yang, Xia-Hong He, Xin-Yue Mei, Yi-Xiang Liu, You-Yong Zhu, Hui-Chuan Huang, Shu-Sheng Zhu
    2023, 45(01):  104-116.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.02.003
    Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( )   PDF (8181KB) ( 43 )   Save
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    Compared with the use of monocultures in the field, cultivation of medicinal herbs in forests is an effective strategy to alleviate disease. Chemical interactions between herbs and trees play an important role in disease suppression in forests. We evaluated the ability of leachates from needles of Pinus armandii to induce resistance in Panax notoginseng leaves, identified the components via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and then deciphered the mechanism of 2,3-Butanediol as the main component in the leachates responsible for resistance induction via RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Prespraying leachates and 2,3-Butanediol onto leaves could induce the resistance of P. notoginseng to Alternaria panax. The RNA-seq results showed that prespraying 2,3-Butanediol onto leaves with or without A. panax infection upregulated the expression of large number of genes, many of which are involved in transcription factor activity and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Specifically, 2,3-Butanediol spraying resulted in jasmonic acid (JA) -mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) by activating MYC2 and ERF1. Moreover, 2,3-Butanediol induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) by upregulating pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)- and effector-triggered immunity (ETI)-related genes and activated camalexin biosynthesis through activation of WRKY33. Overall, 2,3-Butanediol from the leachates of pine needles could activate the resistance of P. notoginseng to leaf disease infection through ISR, SAR and camalexin biosynthesis. Thus, 2,3-Butanediol is worth developing as a chemical inducer for agricultural production.
    Invasive alien plants in China: An update
    Qiang Hao, Jin-Shuang Ma
    2023, 45(01):  117-121.  doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.11.004
    Abstract ( 133 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4526KB) ( 138 )   Save
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