Plant Diversity ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (03): 198-205.DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2020.10.001

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Plastome and phylogenetic relationship of the woody buckwheat Fagopyrum tibeticum in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Bibo Yang, Liangda Li, Jianquan Liu, Lushui Zhang   

  1. Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China
  • Received:2020-06-11 Revised:2020-10-10 Published:2021-06-28
  • Contact: Lushui Zhang
  • Supported by:
    This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant No. 31590821).

Abstract: The phylogenetic position of the monotypic woody Parapteropyrum (Polygonaceae) remains controversial. Parapteropyrum has been thought to be closely related to the woody genera of the tribe Atraphaxideae, although some evidence indicates that it nests within the herbal buckwheat genus Fagopyrum of tribe Polygoneae. In this study, we used plastome data to determine the phylogenetic position of Parapteropyrum (Fagopyrum) tibeticum. Different reference species were used to assemble plastomes of three species currently placed in the tribe Ataphaxideae:Parapteropyrum (Fagopyrum) tibeticum, Atraphaxis bracteata and Calligonum ebinuricum. Once assembled, plastomes were characterized and compared to plastomes of 12 species across the family Polygonaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of Polygonaceae were performed using whole plastome, all plastome genes, and single-copy genes. Plastomes assembled using different reference plastomes did not differ; however, annotations showed small variation. Plastomes of Parapteropyrum (Fagopyrum) tibeticum, A. bracteata and C. ebinuricum have the typical quadripartite structure with lengths between 159,265 bp and 164,270 bp, and a total number of plastome genes of about 130. Plastome microsatellites (SSR) ranged in number from 48 to 77. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of three plastome data sets consistently nested Parapteropyrum within the genus Fagopyrum. Furthermore, our analyses indicated that sampled woody genera of the family Polygonaceae are polyphyletic. Our study provides strong evidence that the woody Parapteropyrum tibeticum, which is distantly related to woody genera sampled here, should be taxonomically placed under Fagopyrum as Fagopyrum tibeticum.

Key words: Woody buckwheat, Atraphaxideae, Plastome, Phylogeny, Woodiness