Plant Diversity ›› 2011, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 249-259.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1143.2011.10198

• Articles •     Next Articles

Evolution of Pollen in the Dipsacales

 XU  La-1、2, LU  Lu-1, LI  De-Zhu-1, WANG  Hong-1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography; Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China;
    2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-11-08 Online:2011-06-25 Published:2010-12-06


Following APGIII, the order Dipsacales was divided into the two families, i.e. Caprifoliaceae and Adoxaceae. Based on the molecular phylogenetic tree published by Tank and Donoghue in 2010 and pollen data reported previously, pollen diversity of thirty genera in this order was investigated, which represented twentyfive genera in Caprifoliaceae and five genera in Adoxaceae, respectively. Pollen evolution in the Dipsacales was studied by unordered (Fitch) parsimony. This paper lights on the plesiomorphies, synapomorphies and diagnostic pollen characters presented in this order. Key characters were chosen for inferring evolutionary patterns, which were aperture number, aperture type, shape, size and sculpture. Our results showed that Dipsacales presented distinct evolutionary patterns having plesiomorphies like tricolporate, subspheroidal, small size and reticulate ornamentation. Presences of synapomorphies such as prolate, medium and large size, and echinate have strongly supported the monophyletic position of Caprifoliaceae and its subclades. Under the order, the families Caprifoliaceae and Adoxaceae are readily distinguished from pollen morphology, i.e. echinate and reticulate ornamentation respectively. Palynological data were found to be relatively congruent with recent molecular phylogeny, finally, we supported that Heptocodium should be put into Caprifoliaceae and Zabelia into Morinaceae.

Key words: Dipsacales, Caprifoliaceae, Adoxaceae, Molecular phylogeny, Pollen morphology, Character evolution

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