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25 December 2010, Volume 32 Issue 6
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  • Articles
    Infrageneric Phylogeny of the Genus Viola (Violaceae) Based on trnLtrnF, psbAtrnH, rpL16, ITS Sequences, Cytological and Morphological Data
    LIANG Guan-Xin-, , XING Fu-Wu
    2010, 32(6):  477-488.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10122
    Abstract ( 3713 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3002KB) ( 3172 )   Save
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    The sequences of chloroplast trnLtrnF (20 species), psbAtrnH(17 species), rpL16 (17 species) and ITS(one species) regions of the genus Viola were analyzed for phylogenetic relationships in the genus with the maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Hybanthus enneaspermus, Scyphellandra pierrei and Rinorea bengalensis were used as outgroups. Additional sequences corresponding to the same DNA regions for the other taxa in Viola were downloaded from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree indicated that subgenViola is not monophyletic. Moreover, some intrageneric relationships in Viola were clarified. Combining sequences with morphological characters and chromosome number, the inference of morphological evolution in Viola was put forward. It was inferred that: 1) erect stems might well be more primitive than stolons and rosettes; 2) long fimbriate margin in stipules and stipules with 1/2-3/4 adnate part might represent distinctive evolutionary trends of sectTrigonocarpae and of sectAdnatae respectively; 3) species with stigmatic beaks might have been derived from ancestors without beaks; simple structure stigmas transformed into complex structure stigmas, and then transformed back to simple stucture patterns.

    Study on the Morphological Changes of the Ectomycorrhizae Formed by Tuber aestivum on Cyclobalanopsis glauca Seedlings
    HU Hong-Dao-, SU Kai-Mei-, CHAI Hong-Mei
    2010, 32(6):  489-494.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10128
    Abstract ( 2685 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11117KB) ( 4150 )   Save
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    Tuber aestivum is a valuable edible symbiotic fungus. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological changes after the ectomycorrhizae of Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings and Taestivum were formed. The results showed Taestivum formed bristle ectomycorrhizae on the rootlet tip with light cream color on Cglauca seedlings on the 14th day by inoculating liquid spores suspension. It formed either typical yellowish brown to brownish ectomycorrhizae with or without bristles or woolly ectomycorrhizae after inoculation in one to two months. Ectomycorrhizae were monopodial, 150-250 μm in diameter and 1-4 mm in length. The fungus mantle was 12-20 μm thick, surface smooth or with bristles, or with extramatrical hyphae. Hyphae in Hartig nets were 1-15 μm in diam. The ageing mycorrhizae became dark brown , wilted and shrunken. The yellowish green extramatrical mycelial strands could be the most important morphological character to distinguish the mycorrhizae formed by Taestivum and those formed by other Tuber species.

    Ultracytochemical Localization of Calcium during Embryo Sac Development in Phaius tankervilliae(Orchidaceae)
    LI Dong-Mei-, WANG Y-Qin-, YIE Xiu-Lin
    2010, 32(6):  495-502.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10139
    Abstract ( 3006 )   HTML ( )   PDF (36150KB) ( 3913 )   Save
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     Ultracytochemical localization of calcium in embryo sac of Phaius tankervilliae(Aiton) Bl. was carried out using potassium pyroantimonate precipitation method. Results of Ca2+ distribution during embryo sac development are as following: (1) Megasporocyte stage: There is no Ca2+ precipitation in the megasporocyte, nucellar cell and micropyle; (2) Functional megaspore stage: Small particles of Ca2+ precipitates appear on the embryo sac wall at the micropylar end, but no apparent Ca2+ can be found in the functional megaspore; (3) 4nucleate stage: There are significant increase of Ca2+ precipitation on the embryo sac wall and large grains of  the precipitates in the micropyle, while a little starts to appear on the membrane of vacuole; (4) 8nucleate embryo sac stage: Ca2+ precipitation continuously increases on the embryo sac wall. Distribution of Ca2+ in embryo sac shows strong polarity. More Ca2+ precipitations are observed in the synergids and the egg cell than the antipodal cells. Accumulation of Ca2+ precipitation is achieved by (1) transferring Ca2+ to embryo sac through the plasmodesmata between the nucellar cells, which mainly occurred at the chalaza end before the embryo matured; (2) forming large amounts of small bubbles of Ca2+ precipitation, which can cross embryo sac wall to enter embryo sac.

    New Species of Meconopsis (Papaveraceae) from Mianning, Southwestern Sichuan
    YOSHIDA Toshio, SUN Hang, BOUFFORD David E.
    2010, 32(6):  503-507.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10105
    Abstract ( 1788 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3226KB) ( 2362 )   Save
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    Two new species of Meconopsis, Mpulchella and Mheterandra are described and characterized. Differences with similar species are discussed and photos showing the diagnostic features are provided.

    Temperature Stress on Plant Sexual Reproduction
    ZU Chang-Song-, YU Di-Qiu
    2010, 32(6):  508-518.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10085
    Abstract ( 4279 )   HTML ( )   PDF (658KB) ( 3352 )   Save
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    The sexual reproduction in flowering plants is highly sensitive to hot or cold temperature stresses, thus temperature is fatal to reproductive success. This review describes studies of temperature stress on plant sexual reproductions, which suggests that pollen development may be the most sensitive reproductive stage. Transcriptome and proteomic studies shows that the genes including calmodulin, calcium dependent protein kinase 2, HSFs, and HSPs, might be involved in heat stress response pathways that function during pollen development. Understanding how plants cope with stress during reproductive development provides the oppotunity to identify genetic traits that can improve temperature tolerance in selected crop breeding and agronomic plants by genetic engineering.

    Photosynthetic Response of Incarvillea zhongdianensis (Bignoniaceae) Subject to Growth Irradiance
    XI Xue- , LI Shu-Yun-, YAN Ning-, HU Hong
    2010, 32(6):  519-527.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10095
    Abstract ( 2565 )   HTML ( )   PDF (852KB) ( 2622 )   Save
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    Photosynthesis and leaf traits of Incarvillea zhongdianensis grown in different growth irradiances were investigated in ShangriLa and Kunming. The results showed that the photosyhthetic rate(Pn), content of carotenoids(Car), ratio of chlorophyll a to b(Chla/b)in Izhongdianensis decreased with the decreasing irradiance in ShangriLa, while specific leaf area(SLA), chlorophyll b(Chlb), leaf nitrogen content per unit area(LNCa)increased. The photosynthetic acclimation of Izhongdianensis to growth irradiance was mainly dependent on the adjustment of leaf anatomy, biochemical efficiency and leaf nitrogen partitioning into different photosynthetic components. This species showed a large plasticity in photosynthetic response to light intensity, which was contributive to its introduction and domestication. Izhongdianensis had wide adaption for irradiance in ShangriLa, after transplanted to Kunming, Pn decreased about 10%, but relative growth rate (RGR)increased 30%, which indicated that it could grow well under the irradiance condition of Kunming.

    MS1521 Gene is Required for Anther Development  of Arabidopsis thaliana
    ZHOU Que, HUANG Xue-Yong, YANG Zhong-Nan, ZHANG Sen
    2010, 32(6):  528-534.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10083
    Abstract ( 3268 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5853KB) ( 3245 )   Save
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    This paper described the functional analyses of the MS1521 gene in anther development by using three Arabidopsis male sterile mutants (ms1521, st350 and st454). Mutant ms1521 was generated by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis treatment. Genetic analysis showed that ms1521 mutant was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. A mapbased cloning approach was used, and MS1521 was mapped to a region of 26 kb on chromosome 1 which contained a floralorgan identity gene UFO. Sequence analysis revealed that ms1521 had an AACGAC basepair change in the UFO coding region, which resulted in the replacement of an Asn by an Asp residue in the Cterminal region. The other two mutants, st350 and st454 with same phenotypes of ms1521, were identified from a TDNA insertion mutant population. Direct sequence analyses showed that both mutants had a premature stop codon in the UFO coding region. Allelism tests indicated that ST350, ST454 and MS1521 belonged to the same locus. These three mutants grew normally during the vegetative growth stage, but showed developmental defects at the reproductive growth stage: some stamens failed to develop anther, while others had normal anthers but their filaments were shorter than that of the wild type and others with normal stamens but failed in anther dehiscence. All the defects described above leaded to the sterile phenotype. Further cytological observations showed that the mutant anthers lacked of cell wall fiberization and secondary thickening in the endothecium which was required for anther dehiscence. These results indicated that MS1521 gene played an important role in Arabidopsis anther development.

    Effect of New Specificity and Yield Enhancer on Amplification of lea 3 Gene
    XU Li-Xia, WU Xiao-Lu, TANG Xiao-Qian, YAN Bo
    2010, 32(6):  535-538.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10069
    Abstract ( 2159 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2269KB) ( 2411 )   Save
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    Amplification of a target DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) often requires experimental optimization factors especially when the target sequence contains high content of GC. Dimethyl sulfoxide, formamide, glycerol, NP40 and Tween20 are known to increase, the specificity and efficiency of PCR under certain conditions. In the amplification of lea3 gene in Gramineae, we found a new Extreme Thermostable SingleStranded DNA Binding Protein (ET SSB) and improved yield of PCR. Addition of 200 ng of ET SSB per 50 μl reation decreased the formation of nonspecific DNA fragments and increased the yield of specific PCR products.

    A Preliminary Study on Seed Germination of Dominant Plants from a Karst Landscape in Bijie, Guizhou
    LIU Qiang-, LAN Qin-Ying-, TAN Yun-Hong-, SHEN You-Xin-, WEN Bin
    2010, 32(6):  539-546.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10123
    Abstract ( 3176 )   HTML ( )   PDF (864KB) ( 2645 )   Save
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    This study compared the germination characteristics of 11 woody species from a Karst landscape in Bijie, Guizhou Province. The results showed that: seeds of Rhus chinensis、Quercus fabri、Hypericum kouytcheouense、Platycarya strobilacea、Pyracantha fortuneana germinated within 4 weeks and the seeds of other species showed different degrees of dormancy, while seeds of Carpinus pubescens had dead embryos. Germination rate of Rhus chinensis、Hypericum kouytcheouense、Platycarya strobilacea was significantly higher in light than in dark which indicated a light demanding for germination of those species. Seeds of Quercus fabric and Pyracantha fortuneana germinated in both light and dark environment and the germination rates showed no significant difference in two treatment which indicated a nonphotoblastic germination. Germination rate of Rhus chinensis、Hypericum kouytcheouense achieved the highest level at 30℃. The optimal germination temperature for Quercus fabri and Pyracantha fortuneana were 15℃ and 20℃, respectively. The seeds cannot tolerate high temperature. The optimal germination temperature for Platycarya strobilacea was 20℃ and seeds could not tolerate both lower and higher temperature. Although the water permeability of seeds of Zanthoxylum dimorphophyllum reached up to 85%, the embryo embedded in the endosperm was very small and undeveloped. The seeds might experience morphological or morphphysiological dormancy. The water permeability of seeds of Cotoneaster horizontalis, Stachyurus himalaicus, Stachyurus yunnanensis all exceeded 20% and the ratio of embryo length and seed length reached up to 1/2 of fully developed embryos. Seeds described above might have physiological dormancy. The water permeability of seeds of Rosa cymosa was about 27% and the ratio between embryo length and seed length reached up to 2/3 and the embryo was undeveloped which indicated that the seeds might have morphophysiological dormancy.

    Effects of the Regional Climate Change on the Plant Growth Trend in Xishuangbanna
    SONG Fu-Qiang-, ZIAO Jun-Bin-, ZHANG Yi-Ping-, XU Zai-Fu-, XIAO Lai-Yun
    2010, 32(6):  547-553.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10140
    Abstract ( 2292 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1236KB) ( 2753 )   Save
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    So far as we know, global warming has notably changed the patterns of the biomes on earth. As the increasing activity of plant growth in high latitudes has been confirmed, the plant growth trend in tropics is still a controversial question concerned. Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is located in southwestern China, and the climate here has changed significantly during the past a few decades. As the temperature rose averagely 018℃ per ten years since 1970s, how would the plants here respond? Here we used the longterm height plant growth data (1974-2003) of 48 tropical conserved species from 28 families in the botanical garden to present their interannual variation of growth responding to the regional climate change. Correlation analysis between the interannual climatic factors and the plant heights were performed to reveal the key climatic factors. Result shows as followed. For the conserved species in Xishuangbanna, interannual mean plant height varies strongly along years since 1974; however, no significant trend is shown. Height growth of the introduced species is mainly impacted by the sunshine duration (negative) and mean minimum temperature (positive) in dryhot season (March and April), which is the period when these plants begin to flush leaves. Yet, rainfall is not included in these key factors. In the perspective of the trends of the 2 key factors, growth of the plants in the botanical garden is expected to be benefited. And this will also benefit the conservation work for tropical plants in the botanical garden.

    The Medicinal Flora of Sambalpur District, Orissa, India
    Chiranjibi Pattanaik, C. Sudhakar Reddy, P. Manikya Reddy
    2010, 32(6):  554-560.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10126
    Abstract ( 2199 )   HTML ( )   PDF (760KB) ( 2075 )   Save
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    This paper describes an analysis of the plants of Sambalpur district of Orissa, India which have been used medicinally by local people. The families having medicinal values are analysed using Moerman′s method of regression analysis. There were 136 plant families recorded from the study area. The analysis of families showed that the Euphorbiaceae family being used most ethnomedicinally by the local people in Sambalpur district of Orissa, whereas Poaceae is used least one. This type of study determines the degree of importance of plant families in the medicinal flora of the region.

    A New Alkaloid from the Fruits of Daphniphyllum longeracemosum (Daphniphyllaceae)
    YANG Ting-Quan-, DI Ying-Tong-, HE Hong-Ping-, HAO Xiao-Jiang
    2010, 32(6):  561-563.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10099
    Abstract ( 2178 )   HTML ( )   PDF (560KB) ( 2549 )   Save
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    A new Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphlongeranine F (1) along with three known iridoid alkaloids were isolated from the fruits of Daphniphyllum longeracemosum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis including mass spectrometry and 2D NMR. It may be worthy to point out that the three known iridoid alkaloids caldaphnidine F (2), daphcalycinosidine B (3) and daphcalycinosidine C (4) which were rarely distributed in this genus, were obtained from Daphniphyllum longeracemosum for the first time.