Plant Diversity ›› 2010, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (6): 477-488.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10122

• Articles •     Next Articles

Infrageneric Phylogeny of the Genus Viola (Violaceae) Based on trnLtrnF, psbAtrnH, rpL16, ITS Sequences, Cytological and Morphological Data

LIANG GuanXin1,2, XING FuWu1   

  1. 1 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China;
    2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-06-13 Online:2010-12-25 Published:2010-09-27


The sequences of chloroplast trnLtrnF (20 species), psbAtrnH(17 species), rpL16 (17 species) and ITS(one species) regions of the genus Viola were analyzed for phylogenetic relationships in the genus with the maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Hybanthus enneaspermus, Scyphellandra pierrei and Rinorea bengalensis were used as outgroups. Additional sequences corresponding to the same DNA regions for the other taxa in Viola were downloaded from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree indicated that subgenViola is not monophyletic. Moreover, some intrageneric relationships in Viola were clarified. Combining sequences with morphological characters and chromosome number, the inference of morphological evolution in Viola was put forward. It was inferred that: 1) erect stems might well be more primitive than stolons and rosettes; 2) long fimbriate margin in stipules and stipules with 1/2-3/4 adnate part might represent distinctive evolutionary trends of sectTrigonocarpae and of sectAdnatae respectively; 3) species with stigmatic beaks might have been derived from ancestors without beaks; simple structure stigmas transformed into complex structure stigmas, and then transformed back to simple stucture patterns.

Key words: Viola, ITS, trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH, rpL16, Phylogeny

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