We used the combined method of general survey surveys, quadrat and transects method, investigated the Cyperaceae plant resources in Jiangsu Province by several field surveys and reviewing of literature, analysed the species diversity, distribution characteristics, distribution patterns and resource value. In order to establish the Cyperaceae plants germplasm bank, understand the distribution of resources application status, and then protect its species diversity and further exploitation. The results showed that specimen and germplasm collected include 116 species belonging to 16 genera, including seven variants. Cyperus rotundus Linn., Cyperus iria Linn., Carex brunnea Thunb. and other 10 species distributed widely, which distribution was widespread and species richness higher. The Cyperaceae plants were concentrated in Lianyungang, Yancheng area and Nanjing, Changzhou area, and lowaltitude section. The distribution types of genera and species were dominated by the world distribution, pan tropic distribution and temperate Asia distribution, have the transition from pan tropic distribution to Temperate zone. The research may collect scientific resources, effective protection, use and provide scientific basis for the evaluation.