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25 September 2015, Volume 37 Issue 05
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  • Articles
    Character of Leaf Epidermis and Their Systematic Significance of Daphne and Wikstroemia (Thymelaeaceae)
    ZHANG Yong-Ceng, SUN Wen-Guang, GAO Cai-Zhen, CAO Wen-Juan, ZHANG Yong-Hong**, LI Zhi-Min
    2015, 37(05):  493-512.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515019
    Abstract ( 934 )   HTML ( )   PDF (77827KB) ( 1627 )   Save
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    Fiftysix species (varieties) of Daphne, fortyfive species (varieties) of Wikstroemia and twelve species of outgroups from Thymelaeaceae, with ten phenotypic characters were selected, to study the leaf epidermal microfeatures by using light microscopy, Results reveal that Daphne and Wikstromia are consistent in most of leaf features. The epidermal cell are polygonal and irregular in shape. The patterns of anticlinal wall are straight, curved and U shape. The cell sizes range in 30-40μm × 10-20μm. Some species have singly hair on surface. Stomatal distribution is random, size range in 20-36μm × 17-25μm, most are broadly elliptical and narrowly elliptical, stomatal frequency are 100-250S/mm2, and the anomocytic stomatal type is dominate. It is apparently that many stomatal and epidermal features in Daphne and Wikstromia are crossed, and no distinguishable features are suitable for separating this two genera. Results from epidermal characters analysis don’t support monophyletic status of Daphne and Wikstroemia. Eriosolena should not be include in the genus Daphne as the special papillae only found in Eriosolena composita rather than in other genera of Thymeleaceae. In compare with other genera, Rhamnoneuron, Eriosolena, Stelleropsis, Daphnopsis and Edgeworthia in Thymelaeoideae, Daphne and Wikstroemia might be derived and originated latter based on the stomatal features.

    Patterns of Floral Variation between Dimorphic and Monomorphic Populations in Distylous Luculia pinceana (Rubiaceae)
    ZHOU Wei-, LI De-Zhu-, WANG Hong
    2015, 37(05):  513-521.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515011
    Abstract ( 926 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2469KB) ( 1088 )   Save
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    Flower morphology plays an important role in the evolution and maintenance of plant mating systems, including disassortative mating of heterostylous species. The transition of mating patterns may be associated with the remodification of intraspecific flower morphology. To determine the functional relationship between floral variation and transition of mating patterns, we conducted a series of morphometric analyses in a distylous species Luculia pinceana, which possesses dimorphic and monomorphic populations. Our results indicate that floral variation was higher between different types of populations than between populations of the same type. Compared to dimorphic populations, some floral characters, reduced stigmaanther separation within flowers and increased overlap of stigmas and anthers (illegitimate spatial matching of sexual organs) among individuals in populations containing only the longstyled morph may have been modified to increase both selfing and intramorph crossing. The observed patterns of floral variation between dimorphic and monomorphic populations coincide with the transition of mating patterns from disassortative mating to selfing and/or intramorph crossing.

    Ecological Wood Anatomy of Avicennia marina
    XIN Gui-Liang, ZHENG Jun-Ming, XIE Zhi-Yong, ZHANG Wan-Chao, DENG Chuan-Yuan
    2015, 37(05):  522-530.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514166
    Abstract ( 815 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4341KB) ( 1301 )   Save
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    The soil physicochemical indexes including edaphic pH values, edaphic salinity and soil nutrient indexes were determined in 8 Avicennia marina populations located in national nature reserve of Shenzhen of Guangzhou Province. The morphological characters in secondary xylem of Amarina populations corresponding to soil sampling which represented different habitats were surveyed by means of light microscopy and electronic microscopy. Some common specialized wood structures in Amarina growing in different habitais can be observed which suggest they function as safely conducting water under high negative pressure and are thus adaptive to intertidal habitats.These characteristics include the occurrence of: (1) some fibriform vessel elements; (2) vessel vestures and helical structures on vessel walls; (3) parenchyma cells contain lots of starch grains;(4) included phloem. Soil organic matter and soil total salt have significant effect on quantitative wood anatomical features by the stepwise regression analysis.With the increase of soil salinity and soil organic matter content which suggest occurrence of more and more serious “physiological drought”, Amarina is characterized by a higher porosity.and double thickness of vessel wall making contact with an adjacent vessel. The trends inferred that variations in the quantitative wood anatomical features of Amarina growing at different sites are adaptive to heterogenous habitats in the intertidal areas.

    The Embryonic Development Study on Isoetes yunguiensis, an Endangered and Relict Pteridophyta
    JIANG Zi-Wei, LIU Bao-Dong, CHENG Xiao, LI Xiao-Dong
    2015, 37(05):  531-536.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514171
    Abstract ( 805 )   HTML ( )   PDF (19074KB) ( 1389 )   Save
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    Isoetes yunguiensis is a specialty relict fern of YunnanGuizhou Plateau,which is a national level protected species called living fossil of the study on paleoecology and plant evolutionary in Yunnan and Guizhou area, but its reproduction and endangered mechanism is unclear. On the basis of implementation of artificial breeding and acquisition of adequate research materials, the authors observe the embryonic development of Iyunguiensis using thin sectioning. The main results of observation of the embryonic development are as follows: (1) The zygote doesn’t have the period of dormancy; (2) The angle between the division planes of zygote and the long axis of archegonium is about 30°; (3) The first leaf primordium and the first root primordium develop first. However, the first leaf primordium develop earlier than the first root primordium; (4) The initial cells of ligule begin to divide since the initial stage of the development of leaf; (5) The cells of the openend of archegonium often appear necrosis and affect the embryonic development; (6) The embryo malformation is easy to happen; (7) The sheet structure develop fast, and it provide good protect for the second and third leaf primordium; (8) The order of early vascular development. The article explore the reproductive biology regular and reproductive endangered mechanism of Iyunguiensis. The coalescent form of the original evolution of vegetative organs of vascular plants is analyzed. This article also accumulate technical data for protection of Iyunguiensis.

    Systematic Position of Allium macrostemon Based on nrDNA  ITS and cpDNA trnL-F Sequence Data
    HUANG De-Qing, LI Qin-Qin, ZHOU Song-Dong, HE Xing-Jin
    2015, 37(05):  537-545.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514174
    Abstract ( 829 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1500KB) ( 1619 )   Save
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    Allium macrostemon is an important medicinal and edible plant. Its systematic position and taxonmical classification remain controversial to date. To explore this issue, we reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Amacrostemon and other related taxa using nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnLF markers. The phylogenetic trees derived from Bayesian inference and maximumparsimony analysis showed that Amacrostemon is monophyletic, and has a close relationship with some species of polyphyletic sections Caerulea and Pallasia instead of sections Codonoprasum and Allium. The including of Amacrostemon within section Allium was not supported by both molecular data and morphological characters of spathe, filaments and ovary. Allium macrostemon should be included in a new section, however further studies using additional samples (especially those from Central Asia) is necessary. In addition, we also provided a discussion on the phylogenetic relationships among four original plants (Amacrostemon, Achinense, Acaeruleum and Aneriniflorum) of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus and systematic position of partial species of section Pallasia.

    Revision on Cephalostachyum Munro (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in China
    YANG Han-Qi, LI De-Zhu
    2015, 37(05):  546-550.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514163
    Abstract ( 1107 )   HTML ( )   PDF (840KB) ( 1286 )   Save
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    Species of Cephalostachyum Munro (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from China are distributed in Yunnan and Tibet, mainly in Yunnan. In this paper, we discussed species of Cephalostachyum and compiled a key to species from China, based on recent studies on micromorphological characters of leaf epidermis and molecular phylogenetics of paleotropical woody bamboos. There is a total of seven species of Cephalostachyum distributed in China, all in Yunnan: Cchinense (Rendle) DZ. Li et HQ. Yang,  Cfuchsianum Gamble et Hook. f., Cmannii (Gamble) Stapleton et DZ. Li, Cpallidum Munro, Cpingbianense (Hsueh et YM. Yang ex Yi et al.) DZ. Li et HQ. Yang, Csanguineum (WP. Zhang) DZ. Li et HQ. Yang and Cscandens Bor. Leptocanna Chia et HL. Fung and Cvirulentum YM Yang et F. Du are synonyms of Cephalostachyum Munro and Cfuchsianum Gamble et Hook. f. respectively. On the other hand, Cpergracile Munro and Cvirgatum (Munro) Kurz are morphologically closer to Schizostachyum Nees than to Cephalostachyum, and they should be treated as members of Schizostachyum. This paper is of significance to a worldwide revision of Cephalostachyum.

    Petrocosmea glabristoma (Gesneriaceae), a New Species from Yunnan, China
    QIU Zhi-Jing, LI Chao-Qun, WANG Yi-Zheng
    2015, 37(05):  551-556.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515018
    Abstract ( 2964 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3920KB) ( 1218 )   Save
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    Petrocosmea glabrstoma ZJ. Qiu & YZ. Wang, a new species from Yunnan Province, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Petrocosmea forrestii Craib and Pmairei Lévl., but differs from them mainly by its leaves triangular or triangularovate, corolla glabrous inside with shorter filament. Molecular and morphological data demonstrate that this new species has a close affinity to Pforrestii.

    Notes on the Species Status of Begonia menglianensis YY. Qian (Begoniaceae)
    YANG Zhen-Zhen-, CHEN Wen-Hong-, CHENG Jia-Shu-, LUO Lin-, ZHANG Rong-Mei-, SHUI Yu-Min
    2015, 37(05):  557-562.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514132
    Abstract ( 993 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11555KB) ( 1389 )   Save
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     Begonia menglianensis YY. Qian was regarded as a synonym of Begonia augustinei Hemsl. After comparing the type and additional collections made from the type locality, we found that this species is distinct, and mostly similar to Begonia rex Putz. in its fruit morphology. However, it can be easily distinguished by its flat and nearly triquetrous superior edge of the major fruit wing. Together with information on its pollen and seeds observed under Scanning Electronic Microscope, a revised description for Bmenglianensis is provided.

    Additional Notes on the Begonia Sect. Petermannia (Begoniaceae) from China
    WANG Jian, CHEN Wen-Hong, HUGHES Mark, YANG Zhen-Zhen, SHUI Yu-Min
    2015, 37(05):  563-568.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514154
    Abstract ( 1944 )   HTML ( )   PDF (7473KB) ( 1044 )   Save
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     Begonia pellionioides YM. Shui & WH. Chen, a new species of the genus Begonia L. (sect. Petermannia (Klotzsch) A. DC., Begoniaceae), is described and illustrated. The new species is endemic to limestone areas in Southeastern Yunnan Province, China, and is most similar to Begonia hainanensis Chun & F. Chun but distinguished by its more elongated leaves with cuneate base and acuminate to caudate apex, tepals adaxially with spiny hairs and sharply triangular capsulewings with truncate superior margin. Besides, the unknown flower morphology of previously published Begonia sublongipes YM. Shui in Begonia sect. Petermannia is described.

    Fruit Morphological Characteristics of Three Woody Bamboos from Yunnan, China
    XIE Ning, SUN Mao-Sheng, YANG Han-Qi
    2015, 37(05):  569-571.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515037
    Abstract ( 1087 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1186KB) ( 1244 )   Save
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    Fruit morphological characteristics of Chimonobambusa ningnanica Hsueh et LZ. Gao and Chimonocalamus delicatus Hsueh et Yi have not been reported so far. Meanwhile, the previous description on fruit morphological characteristics of Dendrocalamus yunnanicus Hsueh et DZ. Li was based on mistaken species identification. Here we presented the fruit morphological characteristics of these three bamboo species according to new specimens collected in Yunnan Province, China. The results of this study will increase our understanding on bamboo fruit characters, and provide more detailed information for the revision of Bambusoideae monographs in the future.

    The Flora of Siahrude Rudbar Protected Area, Northern Iran
    Ataei-e jaliseh Somayeh
    2015, 37(05):  572-576. 
    Abstract ( 599 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1969KB) ( 1106 )   Save
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    The vascular flora of the Siahrude Rudbar protected area was investigated in the years 2007 and 2008. It is a sylvatic area in the Guilan province with a total area of approximately 28289 hectares. A total of 711 plant specimens were collected and 616 species, subspecies, and varieties, belonging to 373 genera and 101 families were identified. Of these, 14 species (23%) are endemic to Iran. The documented flora exhibited many typically Hyrcanian species, including Hyrcanian endemics. The global phytogeographical affinities of the species were as follows: EuroSiberian 212%, IranTuranian & EuroSiberian 168%, Pluriregional 117%, IranTuranian 106%, and Cosmopolite 55%.

    Overexpression of AtWRKY71 Affects Plant’s Defense Response to Pseudomonas syringae
    WANG Qi-Juan, CHEN Li-Gang, TU Di-Qiu
    2015, 37(05):  577-585.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515022
    Abstract ( 811 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3094KB) ( 1401 )   Save
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    The WRKY transcription factor superfamily plays important roles in numerous processes, such as plant stress responses and plant development. In this study, we first investigated the expression profiles of AtWRKY71 in different organs and developmental stages and under different hormone treatments and pathogen infection. In 12w old WT plants, AtWRKY71 mainly expressed in roots and had stronger expression in 8d old seedlings than that of 14d old seedlings. Under various treatments, AtWRKY71 was induced by SA, ET or JA treatment and infection of the bacterial pathogen Psyringae. Furthermore, compared with wild type, plants constitutively expressing AtWRKY71 were smaller in size and had slightly serrated leaves. Further analysis showed that overexpression of AtWRKY71 increased the sensitivity to the bacterial pathogen Psyringae. The enhanced susceptibility was associated with reduced expression of salicylic acidregulated PR genes. These results suggest that AtWRKY71 is a novel regulator in both plant growth and development and also in plant defense responses.

    The Effect of Low Temperature during Imbibition on Germination Characteristics of Tetracentron sinense (Tetracentraceae) Seeds
    HAN Hong-Yan, XIU Ning, LI Shan, ZHANG Xue-Mei
    2015, 37(05):  586-594.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515007
    Abstract ( 992 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3118KB) ( 1102 )   Save
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    In this paper, the effects of low temperature, soil moisture and freezing time on the germination of Tetracentron sinense Oliv. seeds were studied by simulating wild environment conditions, and the factors influencing the natural regeneration of Tsinense population were discussed. The results are as follows: (1) The imbibition process of Tsinense seed can be divided into four stages, the water absorbing capacity of Tsinense seed after imbibition would increase with the increase of soil moisture, and the seeds would be fully imbibed under the condition of 30% soil moisture; (2) The germination rate, germination force and water content of Tsinense seed increased with the increase of storage time, and the vigor index gradually decreased after increasing before; (3) At different low temperature, the germination rate of Tsinense seed reached the highest when the soil moisture is 20% or 30%; (4) When treated at 20% soil moisture for 2-4 days or 21-28 days, 0℃ is best for the germination rate of Tsinense seed; when treated at 30% soil moisture for 14-28 days, -7℃ is best fort he germination rate of Tsinense seed; (5) When treated at the same condition of freezing time, the germination rate of seeds in fallen leaves had no significant difference with the decrease of low temperature; under the same condition of low temperature (0℃ low temperature except), the germination rate increased after frozen 28 days. The results showed that there is no significant influence of low temperature during imbibition on germination characteristics of Tetracentron sinense seeds and indicating that low temperature during imbibition is not the main factor influencing the natural regeneration of Tsinense population.

    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Nelumbo Accessions Based on ESTSSR Markers
    XU Yu-Xian, ZHANG Wei-Wei, MO Hai-Bo, LI Chun, CAO Jian-Guo, TIAN Dai-Ke
    2015, 37(05):  595-604.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515004
    Abstract ( 1092 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3691KB) ( 1156 )   Save
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    EST-SSR markers were applied to estimate the genetic diversity for 30 accessions of Nelumbo nucifera, 6 accessions of Nelumbo lutea and 14 hybrids between these two species. The 52 of 123 ESTSSR markers (423%) were screened and then applied to amplify the 50 Nelumbo accessions. A total of 177 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles per locus and Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value varied from 2 to 8 with an average of 34 alleles and from 063 (NNFB1059) to 091 (NNFB750) with an average value of 079, respectively. Jaccard similarity coefficients of the amplification results were analyzed by NTSYSpc2.11 software and the genetic similarity coefficient was from 024 to 086. The clustering dendrogram constructed by UPGMA method indicated that 50 accessions of Nelumbo could be divided into four major groups at the similarity coefficient of 037. Group I and group II included Nnucifera; group III included the majority of AsianAmerican lotus hybrids; and group IV included Nlutea. In addition, the AsianAmerican hybrids were closer to Nnucifera based on genetic relationship, which is consistent with the traditional classification result and the previous reports.

    The Determination of Nuclear DNA Content (2Cvalue) on Some Representative Genus and Species of Magnoliaceae
    YE Lin-Jiang- , ZHANG Zhi-Rong-, SUN Zhi-Xia-, TIAN Shuang
    2015, 37(05):  605-610.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201514164
    Abstract ( 1039 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1603KB) ( 1303 )   Save
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    The plant nuclear DNA content (2Cvalue) is a principal characteristic parmeter to describe biodiversity of species,which has important significance on the study of plant resources. In this study, we choosed 23 species from 10 representative genera (Magnolia、Michelia、Manglietia、Liriodendron、Talauma、 Paramichelia、Tsoongiodendron、Manglietiastrum、Kmeria、Parakmeria) of Magnoliaceae in China. All samples were determined using a flow cytometry technique with a standard of Zea mays (545pg/2C). The amount of nuclear DNA among these species ranged from 325pg (317850Mbp) to 1361pg (1331058Mbp) for Pgrandiflora, Mofficinalis subsp. biloba respectively, and the coefficient of variation (CV) were less than 5%. The results of the study will not only provide references for determination of the nuclear DNA content of Magnoliaceae and other plants, but also lay the foundation for the utilization and conservation of Magnoliaceae plant resources.

    Asymbiotic Seed Germination and in vitro Seedling Rapid Development of Paphiopedilum spicerianum
    CHEN Ying, FAN Xu-Li, GAO Jiang-Yun
    2015, 37(05):  611-615.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515012
    Abstract ( 899 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1603KB) ( 1214 )   Save
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    In this paper, we studied the asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development of Paphiopedilum spicerianum, a wild plant with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China. By analogizing the influences of different media, seed maturity, pretreatments and lights on the seed germination, the results showed that the best germination condition is using the seeds at 270 days after pollination, pretreating with 1% NaOCl for 40 min, on the 1/4MS+10% coconut water medium under 24 hours darkness for 4 weeks. For seedling formation, 30g·L-1 Hyponex No 1 medium with 10mg·L-1 αnaphthlene acetic acid, 05g·L-1 activated charcoal and 10% banana homogenate was the most effective. For seedling development, the same medium used for seedling formation with supplemented 10g·L-1 6benzyladenine was most suitable.

    The Distribution Characteristics and Application of Cyperaceae Plant Resources in Jiangsu Province
    PANG Li-Li, LI Yu-Shuang, CHEN Jie, SUN Jian-Yun, WANG Qing-Ya
    2015, 37(05):  616-628.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515001
    Abstract ( 904 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2511KB) ( 1219 )   Save
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    We used the combined method of general survey surveys, quadrat and transects method, investigated the Cyperaceae plant resources in Jiangsu Province by several field surveys and reviewing of literature, analysed the species diversity, distribution characteristics, distribution patterns and resource value. In order to establish the Cyperaceae plants germplasm bank, understand the distribution of resources application status, and then protect its species diversity and further exploitation. The results showed that specimen and germplasm collected include 116 species belonging to 16 genera, including seven variants. Cyperus rotundus Linn., Cyperus iria Linn., Carex brunnea Thunb. and other 10 species distributed widely, which distribution was widespread and species richness higher. The Cyperaceae plants were concentrated in Lianyungang, Yancheng area and Nanjing, Changzhou area, and lowaltitude section. The distribution types of genera and species were dominated by the world distribution, pan tropic distribution and temperate Asia distribution, have the transition from pan tropic distribution to Temperate zone. The research may collect scientific resources, effective protection, use and provide scientific basis for the evaluation.

    Investigation on Wild Resource of Valuable Timber Tree Phoebe zhennan (Lauraceae)
    DING Xin-, XIAO Jian-Hua
    2015, 37(05):  629-639.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515002
    Abstract ( 1013 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4288KB) ( 1577 )   Save
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    Phoebe zhennan is an endemic valuable timber tree to China and was listed as one of the national secondclass important protected plants. In the study, we investigated the wild resource of Pzhennan, distinguished its confused species and estimated its potential distribution. The results showed that Pzhennan had a sporadic distribution in the areas of Sichuan Basin and Northern Guizhou. Due to deforestation and habitat destruction, Pzhenann mostly shrinked back to fengshui forests with low regeneration, rarely remained in natural forests and some scattered in bamboo forests, few natural regenerating populations were found during our investigation. Two confused species, Lindera megaphylla and Phoebe hui, were distinguished from Pzhennan with the evidence from morphology and DNA barcoding. The results of potential distribution estimation showed that Pzhennan might distribute in Sichuan Basin and Northern Guizhou, but the distribution in Northern Guizhou was fragmentizing. In the future, with global warming, habitat fragmentation of Pzhennan will be intensified and the distribution would tend to move northward with shrinking. Protection countermeasures and suggestions of Pzhennan are discussed.

    Present Situation of Eleutharrhena macrocarpa in China
    HOU Zhao-Qiang, ZHOU Dan, HOU Shu-Na, MA Chen-Chen, DAI Jun, XIAO Zhi-Qiang, DU Fan
    2015, 37(05):  640-646.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515025
    Abstract ( 1201 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1906KB) ( 1443 )   Save
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     Eleutharrhena macrocarpa is a grade protected wild plant,also known as one of the tiny population. Through consulting relevant literature and records, access specimen investigation and field survey, A survey on geographical distribution、community and population status of it was conducted. The results show that: (1) there are a counter of 19 distribution points of Emacrocarpa, since 1910, the first time it was found in China; (2) E. macrocarpa is discontinuously distributed in the tropical rainforest regions of the south, southeast and southwest of Yunnan and Napo in Guangxi. Due to its habitat were severely damaged, 9 of the original record distribution points were disappeared, the number of existing distribution points which was reliable reduce to 10; (3) According to the reliable survey, the number of it just is about 40 strains, and we did not see its seedlings. it show that its natural regeneration is difficulty. Based on the results of the survey, discuss its endangered reasons, and provides the theoretical basis to protect them effectively.

    Ethnobotany of Mangroves among Jing People’s Folks
    DU Qin, HUI Wen-Meng, MI Dong-Qing
    2015, 37(05):  647-654.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515010
    Abstract ( 1080 )   HTML ( )   PDF (903KB) ( 1420 )   Save
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    Mangrove plants are closely connected with folk customs of Jing ethnic group, and it is one of the symbols of Jing people as marine people. However, rapid economic development and globalization have brought about critical challenges to the cultural traditions of Jing people, and traditional knowledge of mangroves is being lost among Jing ethnic group. To protect folk customs on mangroves of Jing people, we have conducted a series of surveys on mangrove plants which have been used for folk customs of Jing people via ethnobotanical and taxonomical methods. The results showed that there were 14 mangrove plant species used in Jing people’s traditional folk customs. Four species of mangrove plants were used for religious belief, 11 species used in social customs and 7 species for material customs. Avicennia marina, Acanthus ilicifolius and Rhizophora stylosa are with the highest relationship with folk customs for Jing people. Our research can provide more comprehensive interpretation for characteristic on marine culture of Jing people, and improve the knowledge on ethnobotany of mangroves.