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25 November 2015, Volume 37 Issue 06
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  • Articles
    Pollen Morphology of Plants from the Hengduan Mountains and Their Ecological Significance
    ZHENG Xin-, MIN Yun-Jiang-, XU Bo-, SUN Hang-, ZHOU Zhong-Ze
    2015, 37(06):  657-682.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515044
    Abstract ( 757 )   HTML ( )   PDF (16817KB) ( 1135 )   Save
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    Pollen morphology of selected taxa from the Hengduan Mountains, Southwest China are investigated in the present study. Fortyeight taxa (flowering in the summer, 46 species and 2 varieties) of 43 genera belonging to 27 families were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen morphology is described in detail. Two pollen shapes are mainly found in these species: subprolate to prolate (271%) and prolate (25%). Spheroidal, subspheroidal to subprolate, suboblate and tetrad shapes can also be found in some species. Aperture type is mostly tricolporate, with a percentage of 438, and also contains tricolpate, pantoporate, stephanocolpate, 3colporoid, 6 colpate, monocolpate. The most common ornamentation is finely reticulate, with a percentage of 50. Other exine ornamentations, such as coarsely reticulate, finely granulate, smooth, spinulose are also observed. The palynological documentation of these species will provide the modern palynological basis for paleopalynological studies of the Quaternary Strata. On the basis of pollen morphology characters, identification features of some species in the same families were discussed according to the results of cluster analysis used by SPSS. The ecological significance was also discussed based on the ecological properties of these taxa.

    The Classification and Functional Significance of Staminodes in Angiosperms
    CHEN Shan-, REN Zong-Xin-, WANG Hong-, Wu Ding
    2015, 37(06):  683-692.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515060
    Abstract ( 976 )   HTML ( )   PDF (864KB) ( 1215 )   Save
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    All staminodes in an androecium fail to produce viable pollen grains and cannot contribute directly to male fitness. Staminodes are identified in the flowers of approximately 54% of known genera representing >32% of all angiosperm families. The functional morphology and biochemistry of staminodes differs significantly from stamens with fertile anthers. In the absence of sperm production, some staminodes evolved novel adaptations contributing to the reproductive success of their flowers. We subdivided these staminodes into eight functional types: 1) Staminodes offering visual/olfactory cues; 2) Staminodes offering edible/inedible rewards; 3) Staminodes that deceive pollinators with false rewards; 4) Staminodes facilitating or directing the movements of pollinators in flowers;5) Stami
    nodes that facilitate stigma movement; 6) Staminodes functioning as secondary pollen presenters; 7) Staminodes that protect other floral organs; 8) Staminodes that prevent mechanical selfpollination (autogamy). As a component within a flower, the majority of staminodes function as promoters of reproductive success by interacting directly with the pollinator to increase pollination efficiency (both pollen dispersal and deposition). Therefore, it is not surprising that one staminode may have more than one function over the flower′s lifespan and is closely associated with the size, abundance, behavior and taxonomic diversity of pollinators, floral predators and thieves. To correctly evaluate the function of staminodes, multidisciplinary approach using a range of protocols, equipment and materials is suggested. This approach allows us to compare the roles different staminodes play in the reproductive success of both closely and distantly related angiosperms, then uncover their evolutionary significance in angiosperm diversification.

    Study on the DNA Barcoding of Genus Ligularia Cass. (Asteraceae)
    HE Wei-Ying-, PAN Yue-Zhi
    2015, 37(06):  693-703.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515082
    Abstract ( 846 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2403KB) ( 883 )   Save
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    DNA barcoding is a new technology which can identify species rapidly based on short and standardized DNA sequences. Ligularia, a genus of Asteraceae with about 140 species, exhibits high morphological and ecological diversity, which makes the classification and species delimitation difficult, especially in the cases of closely related taxa. In this study, we tested four DNA core barcoding regions (ITS, matK, psbAtrnH and rbcL) in 144 samples representing 35 species of Ligularia. The results revealed that the chloroplast regions (matK, psbAtrnH and rbcL) have extremely low species identification rate due to low interspecific variation. Conversely, ITS sequence showed higher species identification rate (60%) and could discriminate the species which are difficult to identify. The combination of these four gene fragments did not improve the ability of species discrimination.

    Phenotypic Variation of Gelidocalamus stellatus Wen Complex (Bambusoideae)
    LONG Chun-Ling-, KONG Ting-, LI Wei-Jian-, YANG Guang-Yao-, ZHANG Wen-Gen
    2015, 37(06):  704-712.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515043
    Abstract ( 728 )   HTML ( )   PDF (4645KB) ( 970 )   Save
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    Gelidocalamus stellatus Wen complex includes Gelidocalamus stellatus, Gauritus, Gmonophyllus, Gmultifolius and Gwugongshanensis, indicating the existence of some taxonomic disputes within this taxon. Based on 13 main phenotypic traits, in this paper, 13 populations of the complex are investigated and the results show that 1) All 13 characters have some changes between and within populations, of which the maximum is the height under branch with 276%, while the minimum is the ratio of length and width with 64%; 2) In the JingGang Mountain population (JGM), seven characters, such as the diameter at breast height, the node number, the height under branch, the leaf length, the leaf width, the ratio of leaf length and width, and numbers of each branch, are relatively stable among 4 different populations, and populations of Gstellatus Wen complex can be distinguished effectively by that seven characters, so it maybe have some worth for the clarification of the complex; 3) Besides that JiuYi Mountain population (JYM) and XiaoLongGui population (XLG) share the same or similar traits with that of JGM, there have many remarkable differences between other populations, such the leaf in LianPing Country population (LPC) and HuangHe Village population (HHV), the culm in WuGong Mountain population (WGM) and the numbers of each branch in GanZi Depression population (GZD) and RongJia Cavity population (RJC). With the observation of the culmsheath and the abaxial epidermis of leaves, the taxonomic position of some populations is discussed. Our results still indicate that Gmultifolius (HuangHe Village population) and Gauritus may be null and void. Furthermore, we proposal Gwugongshanensis (WuGong Mountain population) and Gmonophyllus (JiuYi Mountain population) should be as a taxon under Gstellatus.

    Species Diversity and Floristic Characteristics of Vascular Plants in Nanji Island, Zhejiang Provience
    ZHU Hong-, KU Wei-Peng-, RENG Jian-Tao-, XIANG Jia-E
    2015, 37(06):  713-720.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515050
    Abstract ( 831 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1183KB) ( 1172 )   Save
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    A total of 393 species (subtype included) in 267 genera, 97 families were reported in Nanji Island, the main island of Nanji Islands National Nature Reserve. After eliminating all the cultivated and invasive species, there were still 304 species in 210 genera and 81 families belonging to wild vascular plants; To better understand the floristic characteristics of Nanji, we applied analysis in 3 levels: At familylevel, the largest families in pteridophyte were ranked as Pteridaceae、Thelypteridaceae、Lygodiaceae、Dryopteridaceae; In seed plants, almost the largest ones were Cosmopolitan, while the small ones dominented the most, quantitatively and proportionately; The characteristic families of seed flora were consisted of Liliaceae、Amaryllidaceae、Urticaceae、Verbenaceae, cause they got high ratio of VFICS/WFIW; At genuslevel, the Pantropical Distribution (3810%)、the North Temperate Distribution (1630%) and the East Asia distribution (1131%) formed the main part of seed flora; The proportion of the category of temperate distribution and tropical distribution was 6072% and 3928% respectively; Took 6 other sites as reference, through cluster analysis and R/T ratio comparisons, It was proved that Nanji Island were most similar to that of Wuyanling of Zhejiang Provience but showed more tropical affinities; At specieslevel, wild seed plants can also be divided into 9 areal subtypes, The Yangtze River & Southern Proviences subtype dominented at 5390%, following by South China subtype at 2078%. The results showed that Nanji Island had a distinctive transitional characteristics of flora from north to south China with more tropical biological properties, thus the floristic division of Nanji should on the southern margin area of east China.

    Cytology of Dicranostigma and Glaucium (Papaveraceae) from China
    XIANG Chun-Lei-, DONG Hong-Jin-, HU Guo-Xiong-, Nadia B. Zahra-, Tsuneo FUNAMOTO
    2015, 37(06):  721-726.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515104
    Abstract ( 819 )   HTML ( )   PDF (8011KB) ( 841 )   Save
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    The cytological studies were performed in 11 populations of Dicranostigma lactucoides, Dleptopodum, and Derectum and one population for Galucium fimbrilligerum. All three species of Dicranostigma possessed chromosome number 2n=2x=12, of which chromosome numbers for Derectum and Dlactucoides are reported here for the first time. Glaucium fimbrilligerum presented the number 2n=2x=10, which is not only new to the genus but also the known lowest number for Glaucium.

    Raphiocarpus jinpingensis, a New Species of Gesneriaceae in Yunnan, China
    CHEN Wen-Hong-, CHEN Run-Zheng-, YU Zhi-Yong-, ZHU Xin-Tian-, SHUI Yu-Min
    2015, 37(06):  727-732.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515039
    Abstract ( 2320 )   HTML ( )   PDF (12116KB) ( 1556 )   Save
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    Raphiocarpus jinpingensis WH. Chen & YM. Shui, a new species of Gesneriaceae, is described and illustrated, from the Xilong Mountain of Jinping County in Yunnan, China, bordering to North Vietnam. The new species is similar as Rpetelotii (Pellegr.) Burtt in shapes of corolla and yellowish flowers, and differs from Rpetelotii mainly in its plants with dense pubescence and calyx tubes subequal to calyx lobes.Its pollen grains and seeds are reported here under Scanning Electonic Microscope (SEM).

    Tremacron hongheense, a New Species of Gesneriaceae from Southeastern Yunnan, China
    CA Lei-, CHEN Run-Zheng-, YIN Zhi-Jian-, ZHANG Guo-Xue-, CHEN Wen-Hong-, SHUI Yu-Min
    2015, 37(06):  733-736.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515041
    Abstract ( 1319 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2588KB) ( 1008 )   Save
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    A new species of Gesneriaceae from Honghe County, Southeastern Yunnan, China, Tremacron hongheense WH. Chen & YM. Shui, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to Tremacron forrestii Craib, but differs by its leaf blade adaxially sparsely long setose (vs. densely white appressed pubescent and sparsely rustybrown villous), corolla tube outside short white glandular (vs. nearly glabrous), corolla lobes red and thickening at apex, especially adaxial lip (vs. yellow and not thickening), stamens 16-18cm long (vs. 04-12cm long), staminode 05-14cm long (vs. 02-04cm long).

    Polystichum mulunense (Dryopteridaceae), a New Species from Karst Caves in Guangxi, China
    CHEN Xiao-Lin-, LIU Jing-, JIANG Ri-Hong
    2015, 37(06):  737-740.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515068
    Abstract ( 813 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5287KB) ( 912 )   Save
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    Polystichum mulunense XL. Shen & RH. Jiang, a new species from karst caves in Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. This new species is morphologically similar to Polystichum guangxiense and Pfengshanense, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by rhizome scales lanceolate, margins sparsely serrulate and pinnules coriaceous, attached at ca. 60-75 degree angles to rachis and rhomboidal to trapeziform.

    A New Species and a New Variety of Porella (Porellaceae, Marchantiophyta) from China
    JIA Yu, HE Qiang
    2015, 37(06):  741-745.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515054
    Abstract ( 1206 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3278KB) ( 781 )   Save
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    A new species, Porella recurveloba Y. Jia & Qiang He, and a new variety, Porella campylophylla (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trev. var. integra Y. Jia & Qiang He, are described and illustrated. Both taxa are from China, found in Gansu and Yunnan Provinces respectively.

    New Lineages of Elaphocordyceps Harboring in Lichen Thalli
    JIANG Dai-Feng-, ZHAO Lu-, GUO Hong-, WANG Hai-Ying
    2015, 37(06):  746-750.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515045
    Abstract ( 843 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2184KB) ( 1046 )   Save
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    All species of Elaphocordyceps parasitize the fungal genus Elaphomyces, except for three species growing on scarabid beetle larvae or cicada nymphs. During our study on the diversity of culturable endolichenic fungi, some Elaphocordyceps species are found widely harboring in lichen thalli. A total of 64 fungal strains belonging to Elaphocordyceps were isolated from 42 lichen samples respectively collected from 5 provinces of China and the Antarctic. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS nrDNA shows that these endolichenic fungi are possibly heterospecific. The endophytic fungi of plant often provide benefits to their hosts. However, the endolichenic fungi may be parasites or nutrient competitors of the mycobiont, because they have to obtain nutrient components from mycobionts or photobionts. Our study partly proves this hypothesis, since most known species of Elaphocordyceps are parasites of fungi.

    Root Pressure of Tropical Lianas and Their Relationships with Phylogeny and Environments
    WANG Hua-Fang-, YANG Shi-Jian-, ZHANG Jiao-Lin
    2015, 37(06):  751-759.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515034
    Abstract ( 656 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2435KB) ( 850 )   Save
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     Lianas usually possess large vessels, which are vulnerable to cavitation. Root pressure may play an important role in embolism repair of vessels. However, little is known about the generality of root pressure in tropical lianas. To characterize root pressure of lianas in tropical rainforests, we used pressure transducers to measure root pressure in the rainy and dry seasons for a total of 32 lianas from 14 families common in Xishuangbanna. We further analyzed the associations of maximum root pressure with phylogeny and of transient root pressure with environmental factors. We found that all lianas we selected had root pressure, with maximum root pressure ranging from 2-138kPa. In the dry season, about 72% (23 species) of the lianas had relatively low root pressure (<15kPa) and maintained positive throughout the day. This may be important for water balance for roots and basal stems of lianas. There were three types of diurnal changes in liana root pressure. In Type I, root pressure had obvious diurnal variation in the dry and rainy seasons. In Type II, root pressure did not show obvious diurnal variation in the dry and rainy seasons. In Type III, either in the dry or in the rainy season, root pressure showed obvious diurnal variation. Root pressure varied substantially among lianas, with lianas from two families, Fabaceae and Vitaceae, usually having relatively higher root pressure, suggesting that phylogeny may influence root pressure. Transient root pressure closely responded to photosynthetically active radiation. In most cases, however, it was not related to rainfall and vapour pressure deficit. These results suggest that the associations of liana root pressure with environments need further investigation.

    Arabidopsis WRKY8 Transcription FactorAssociated Genes VQ10 and VQ11 are Responsive to Multiple Abiotic Stresses
    HAN Xiao-, WANG Hou-Ping-, BO Jin-Jing-, HU Yan-Ru-, CHEN Xiao-Lan-**, YU Di-Qiu
    2015, 37(06):  760-766.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515042
    Abstract ( 885 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3750KB) ( 838 )   Save
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    Arabidopsis WRKY8 transcription factor physically interacts with VQ9 protein, a member of VQ protein family, to modulate salinity stress tolerance. In this study, we further revealed that a large number of VQ proteins interact with WRKY8 in the yeast twohybrid system. WRKY8 strongly interacts with VQ5, VQ10, VQ11, VQ16, VQ20, VQ23, VQ29 and VQ32 and slightly interacts with VQ9, VQ12, VQ13, VQ14, VQ17, VQ21, VQ25 and VQ31 in yeast. Expression analysis showed that WRKY8associated genes VQ10, VQ11 and VQ23 are responsive to abscisic acid (ABA), suggesting that they may mediate ABA response in Arabidopsis. Further analysis indicated that the expression of VQ10, VQ11 and VQ23 genes are induced by salt stress, osmotic stress, cold and/or heat stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that VQ10 is a nuclear protein and VQ11 localizes in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These results suggest that these WRKY8associated proteins VQ10, VQ11 and VQ23 may modulate multiple abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Encapsulation-Dehydration and Encapsulation-VitrificationBased Cryopreservation of in vitro-Grown Shoot-Tips of Medicinal Plant Astragalus membranaceus
    YIN Ming-Hua, HONG Sen-Rong
    2015, 37(06):  767-778.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515091
    Abstract ( 569 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2763KB) ( 716 )   Save
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     Shoot tips of Amembranaceus excised from in vitrogrown axillary bud were encapsulated in calciumalginate beads. Subsequently, shoot tips were precultured in liquid MS medium enriched with 075mol·L-1 sucrose for 5d at 25℃ and then desiccated aseptically on dried silica gel for 5h to a water content of 231% (fresh weight basis) prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN) for 1d. After rewarming at a 40℃ water bath for 2-3min and transferred to solid culture medium for shoot tip recovery. About 50% of cryopreserved shoottips grew into shoots within 2 weeks after plating. Cryopreservation of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. shoot tips by encapsulationvitrification has also been developed. Excised shoot tips were firstly encapsulated into alginategel beads and then precultured in liquid MS medium containing 1mg·L-1 6BA, 005mg·L-1 NAA and 075mol·L-1 sucrose at 25℃ for 3d. After loading for 90min with a mixture of 2mol·L-1 glycerol and 04mol·L-1 sucrose at 25℃, shoot tips were dehydrated with PVS2 for 120min at 0℃ prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1d. After rapidly thawing at a 37℃ water bath for 2-3min, shoot tips were washed for 10min with liquid MS medium supplemented with 1mg·L-1 6BA, 005mg·L-1 NAA and 12mol·L-1 sucrose at 25℃ and then postcultured on solid MS medium supplemented with 2mg·L-1 6BA, 005mg·L-1 NAA. The regeneration rate of shoot tips amounted to nearly 80%. Both of plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips were morphologically uniform, which both showed as that of control plants. Thus, this encapsulationdehydration and encapsulationvitrification technique appears promising as a routine method for the cryopreservation of shoottips of Amembranaceus.

    The Activity of Principal Antioxidant Enzymes and the Content of Metabolites in Dormancy Breaking and Germination of Davidia involucrate Seeds
    YANG Yan-, LI Yun-Xiang-, XU Xiao
    2015, 37(06):  779-787.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515074
    Abstract ( 729 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2589KB) ( 977 )   Save
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    The principal antioxidant enzymes and metabolites were reported to play a very important role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and maintaining vigour in dormancy breaking and germination of Davidia involucrate seeds. However, the researches on the change laws of content and activity are seldom. In present study, we chose Davidia involucrate seeds which collected from the Mabian Nature Reserve as experimental materials, and then investigated the activity of principal antioxidant enzymes and the content of metabolites in dormancy breaking and germination of the seeds. The results showed that the activity of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) exhibited an increasing trend but the activity of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) decreased greatly in early stage of stratification. Comparing with the decrease of protein (Pr), the content of ascorbic acid (Vc) and free amino acid (FAA) significantly increased. In middle stage of stratification, the activity of SOD and TAOC increased firstly and then decreased at last. The activity of POD always maintained a higher level although the activity of CAT and GR decreased greatly. In terminal stage of stratification, the activities of POD, GR, TAOC and the content of FAA and Vc exhibited an increasing trend, while the activity of CAT and SOD maintained a low level. In germination stage, the activity of all antioxidant enzymes and the content of Vc and FAA were increased obviously (P < 005), but the content of the protein was decreased. These results suggested that Davidia involucrata seeds may have a good ability to efficiently remove the effects on cell structure caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) by keeping the interaction of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites successively during the period of dormancy breaking and germination. This adjustment helps to ensure the germination of seeds by acceleration the postripening in morphological and physiological of progresses.

    Combining Ability and Heritability Analysis of Bolting Character of Nonheading Chinese Cabbage
    LI Xiao-Feng, SHU Hong-Fang, SHU Yu-Ying, HOU Rui-Xian
    2015, 37(06):  788-792.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515047
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML ( )   PDF (787KB) ( 774 )   Save
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    Combining ability and heritability of bolting character of four nonheading Chinese cabbage inbred lines were analyzed using Griffing diallel cross I. The results showed that the general combining ability of inbred lines M1112 and M1114 were better, with as boltingresistant potential parental material. The broad sense heritability and narrow sense heritability of bolting character were 9742% and 9141% respectively, and mainly affected by additive genes.So,the selection of bolting characters in nonheading Chinese cabbage was effective in early generations.

    Autonomous Selfpollination under Dominant Flexistylous Outcorssing Mechanism in Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae)
    CUI Yu-Wen-, LI Qing-Jun
    2015, 37(06):  793-800.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515070
    Abstract ( 807 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2653KB) ( 964 )   Save
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    Autonomous selfpollination is considered to be a reproductive assurance mechanism for plants when facing extreme environments that scarce in pollinators, and it also has disadvantages like inbreeding depression and pollen/ovule discounting. In several genera of Zingiberaceae like Alpinia and Amomum, a specialized mechanism named flexistyly exists, precedent studies consider its significance as preventing unnecessary selfpollination and sexual interference. However according to our field observation, if pollen grains on cataflexistylous (CATA) flowers remain on the anther when the style curves downwardly, potential exists that the stigma contacts the pollen, thus autonomous selfpollination occurs. Here, we studied the breeding system of Alpinia galanga, the results show that (1) Alpinia galanga is selfcompatible in which inbreeding depression occurs to some degree; (2) The anaflexistylous (ANA) morph of Alpinia galanga allocates more resource into outcrossing than the CATA morph; (3) The P/O ratio of the ANA morph is significantly lower than that of the CATA morph, as Alpinia galanga has constant six ovules in each ovary, the significant difference in P/O value reflects the contrast in pollen production. This phenomenon may be interpreted as the ANA morph provides pollen exclusively for the CATA morph. But the CATA morph, despite delivers pollen to the ANA morph, also need its own pollen for potential autonomous selfpollination. In summary, autonomous selfpollination exists in Alpinia galanga, and while flexistyly functions to avoid unnecessary selfpollination and sexual interference, it also provides advantages for delayed autonomous selfpollination as a necessary reproductive assurance and preventing conflict among these three major features by controlling the time of autonomous selfpollination. This peculiar mechanism in Alpinia galanga thoroughly demonstrates its adaptation to unfavorable surrounding during the evolutionary process.

    Cryopreservation of in vitroGrown Shoot Tips of Red Bud Taro by Encapsulation-Vitrification
    WANG Ai-Ping, YIN Ming-Hua, HONG Sen-Rong
    2015, 37(06):  801-812.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515067
    Abstract ( 604 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1635KB) ( 726 )   Save
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    A simple procedure for cryopreservation of in vitrogrown shoot tips of red bud taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott var. cormosus‘Hongyayu’) by encapsulationvitrification is investigated. Shoot tips were excised from 8weekold stock shoots and encapsulated into alginategel beads. Encapsulated shoot tips were precultured in liquid MS medium supplemented with 35mg·L-1 6BA, 05mg·L-1 IBA, 01mg·L-1 GA3 and 03mol·L-1 sucrose for 24h, then they were loaded with a mixture of 2mol·L-1 glycerol plus 04mol·L-1 sucrose for 30min at 25℃. After dehydration with PVS2 at 25℃ for 20min, the encapsulated and dehydrated shoot tips were plunged directly into liquid nitrogen. After rapidly rewarming in a 40℃ water bath for 3min, PVS2 was drained from the cryotubes and replaced third with liquid MS medium supplemented with 35mg·L-1 6BA, 05mg·L-1 IBA, 01mg·L-1 GA3 and 12mol·L-1 sucrose and each kept for 10min at 25℃and then postcultured on solidified MS medium supplemented with 35mg·L-1 6BA, 05mg·L-1 IBA and 01mg·L-1 GA3 in the dark for 3 days and then transferred to the light conditions. The average survival rate amounted to about 80%. Plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips were morphologically uniform. This encapsulation vitrification procedure promises to become a routine method for the cryopreservation of shoot tips of Chinese genuine red bud taro.

    Seed Storage Behavior and Seed Germination of Nine Species of Lauraceae from Yunnan, China
    YANG Ya-Juan, GUO Yong-Jie, QIN Shao-Fa, HU Xiao-Jian
    2015, 37(06):  813-820.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515099
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     Seed banking following internationally agreed standards is an important way for preserving collections of wild plant species ex situ; but this method is not suitable for desiccation sensitive species. Lauraceae comprehends some of the dominant species in the evergreen broadleaved forest in the south of China and contains many species both of ecological and economical importance. However, study on seed biology such as germination and desiccation tolerance of this family is scarce. Seeds of 9 species from 5 genera of this family were collected and their dormancy status and germination requirement were studied; also their desiccation tolerance were determined using a modified 100seed test. The results showed that seeds of Cinnamomum camphora probably have intermediate physiological dormancy; seeds of Actinodaphne forrestii, Actinodaphne obovata, Cinnamomum migao, Lindera metcalfiana var. dictyophylla, Lindera communis and Neolitsea polycarpa are nondeep physiological dormant; Seeds of Cinnamomum burmannii and Phoebe glaucophylla may have no or negligible dormancy. All 9 species lost seed viability after desiccated to 286%-716% moisture content while still retained considerable viability with moisture content ranged from 1732% to 4487% after moist storage; thus seeds of the 9 species are all desiccation sensitive and can not be stored at the conventional seed bank conditions.

    The Development and Application of the Glucose Uptake Stimulating Cell Model
    HU Hai-Jun-, TIAN Wei-Feng-, LU Yan-Ting-, LIU Hai-Yang-, HU Jing-, GONGPAN Pian-Chou-, WANG Fang-, ZHANG Yu-Mei-**, XIONG Wen-Yong-**, KONG Qing-Hua
    2015, 37(06):  821-827.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515046
    Abstract ( 728 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1935KB) ( 925 )   Save
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    The plants are great resources for digging leading compounds, and many current antidiabetic drugs are derived from plants. The key to discover compounds with antidiabetic activities from plants relies on the application of antidiabetic drug screening models. In order to establish a more stable and reliable antidiabetic drug screening model, we optimized the screening model based on the glucose uptake of adipocytes. In the previous models, insulin was used as the only positive control, while in our model both insulin and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls, which made the model more stable and reliable. Furthermore, we expanded the application of the model to screen the insulin signaling pathway inhibitors, and Akt1/2 inhibitor which was an inhibitor of insulin signaling pathway was used as positive control. In the end, we screened 16 compounds isolated from plants using this model and identified three active compounds with glucose uptake stimulating activities. We also performed the doseresponse experiments of compound X15 and X16. Both showed significant doseresponses. These activities were first reported at the cell level, providing fundamental data for their mechanisms study of the activities and for the potential development of the drugs in future.

    Constructive Species’ Coexistence Mechanisms of PineOak Mixed Forest in Qinling Mountains Based on the Niche Differentiation
    WU Hao
    2015, 37(06):  828-836.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515053
    Abstract ( 857 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1923KB) ( 996 )   Save
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    Based on the 15 plots of Pinus tabuliformis and Quercus aliena var. accuteserrata mixed forest in Qinling Mountains, we analyzed this community’s characteristics from the aspects of species composition, niche width and diameter class, also, we used the Canonical Correspondence Analysis to explore the effects of environment on plants’ distributions and conductive species’ morphological characteristics, the main results were as follows: (1) Fifteen plots record 139 vascular plants, belonging to 53 families 102 genera, the families which possessing higher richness were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Poaceae; (2) The niche widths of Ptabuliformis (Bi=2674) and Q var. accuteserrata (Bi=2679) were all higher than other accompanying plants, and there was little niche overlap value (< 01) between them; (3) Organic matter, total nitrogen, elevation and slope mainly effected plant’s distributions; (4) Four morphological characteristics of constructive species in CCA diagram presented a opposite distribution patterns, while elevation, slope position and available nitrogen were the main induced factors; (5) Community stability of this pineoak mixed forest was relatively higher based on Godron index, and two conductive species’ diameter class were all growing type. In conclusion, high habitat heterogeneity of terrain and soil nutrient brought niche differentiation and promoted species coexistence of pineoak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains.

    Population Ecological Characteristics of the Rare and Endangered Plant Camellia rhytidophylla from Guizhou
    LIU Hai-Yan-, YANG NAi-Kun-, JU Tian-Cai
    2015, 37(06):  837-848.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515105
    Abstract ( 707 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3373KB) ( 996 )   Save
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    Camellia rhytidophylla is endemic and endangered and with important economic species, from the ⅢD10d in eastern Asia, which distributed at 573-920m in evergreen broadleaved deciduous mixed forest in Luowang river valley of Kaiyang county. So, it is significant to study the population characteristics, conservation and utilization. We took general survey in suspected distribution area about 6 square kilometers, set up plots in dense area, and analyzed the population structure, development and spatial distribution pattern. The results showed that the structure of Crhytidophylla populations were increasing and the proportion of young tree in population was 4638%. The size of population density was young shrubs>middleaged shrubs>adult shrubs. The survival curve of population was DeeveyⅢ model. There were 2 peaks in the Ⅰand Ⅳ ageclasses on the mortality rate curve and disappearance rate curve respectively, then there are 2 troughs in the Ⅲ and Ⅵ age classed at the same time. The spatial distribution pattern of Crhytidophylla significantly differentiated at different stages of development, the young individuals were aggregated at all spatial scales while the middleaged individuals were aggregated at small spatial scales and randomly distributed at larger scales. Differences in the distribution of adult individuals could be attributed to artificial disturbance and habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern was not close in different stages of development, which all showed negative or no correlation. The spatial distribution pattern of Crhytidophylla was the interaction of the factors, such as its biological characteristics,habitat heterogeneity, and artificial disturbance, etc.. The key factor limiting population development was low natural reproduction rate; the primary factors causing its endemic distribution mainly included habitat heterogeneity, topographical constraints on seed dispersal and artificial disturbance.

    Plant Functional Group Classification of Herbaceous Species in Quercus wutaishanica Communities in the Taiyue Mountains, Shanxi Province of China
    TAO Xue-Qin, ZHANG Qin-Di, BI Run-Cheng
    2015, 37(06):  849-855.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515040
    Abstract ( 748 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5726KB) ( 935 )   Save
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    Quercus wutaishanica is warm temperate deciduous broadleaved forest region one of the typical vegetation types. Qwutaishanica vegetation types as a representative of Shanxi,  is the main part of shanxi forest. Past research focuses on the subject of Qwutaishanica results, the study of the herb layer seldom reported. The understory layer dominant species of Qwutaishanica community on Qiliyu of Taiyue Moutains, whose abundances clearly vary along environmental(altitudinal) gradients.Herbaceous plants highly responsive to changes in environmental conditions that reflect the dynamic relations between vegetation and environment. In this paper, using the method of sample, investigated the community of Qwutaishanica on Qiliyu of Taiyue Moutains, Shanxi. We used the results of this investigation to calculate species importance values and frequency, which were used to identify 27 dominant species in herbages. χ2 tests, together with association coefficient and percentage cooccurrence, were used to measure interspecific associations of the dominant species of herbaceous. Plant functional types (PFTS) were defined according to interspecific associations and cluster analysis of the dominant species. In studies of forest understory plant assemblages, designating PFTs according to dominant herbaceous species is feasible. Dominant herbaceous species formed seven PFTs: each with its unique spatial distribution and morphological characteristics, are identifiedⅠ.amphigenous Ⅱ.pelouseedge Ⅲ.wetsparse Ⅳ.gapdrought resistant Ⅴ.hilledge Ⅵ.alpine Ⅶ.dank. Plant functional types(PFTs) of herbaceous plants varies with altitude gradients, which reflect the relationship between Qwutaishanica and environment well.

    The Exploitation and Utilization of Lycophyte and Fern Resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan
    SU Bo-, CHANG Yan-Fen
    2015, 37(06):  856-860.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515056
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    Xishuangbanna lies in the south of Yunnan. The composition and distributive regulation of lycophytes and ferns in Xishuangbanna are studied in this paper. As a result, 363 species of wild lycophytes and ferns which belong to 76 genera and 31 families are found in this area. The six speciesrich families are Polypodiaceae, Athyriaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Aspleniaceae, Pteridaceae and Selaginellaceae. The geographical distribution of the species shows that this flora mainly consists of Tropical Asia elements. Terrestrial species are the richest of this flora, followed by epiphytic and lithophytic species. The lycophytes and ferns resources of Xishuangbanna are abundant. However, the exploitation and utilization of this group of plants are ignored. This study investigated lycophytes and ferns resources of Xishuangbanna. Medicinal, edible and ornamental ferns in Xishuangbanna have been clearly researched and their utilization and protection have been discussed.

    Diversity of Culturable Bacteria Associated with Tuber panzhihuanensePinus armandii Ectomycorrhizosphere Soil
    MO Shan-Ping- , ZHENG Yi-, SHANG Li-, LIU Pei-Gui-, WANG Ran-, XU Fu-Qiang
    2015, 37(06):  861-870.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515032
    Abstract ( 846 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1836KB) ( 829 )   Save
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    Truffles are edible hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungi which have great economic importance for their organoleptic properties and have significant ecological interests for forestry. Although some new precious Chinese white truffle have been described constantly, the molecular mechanisms that control truffle body formation are largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that ectomycorrhizosphere soil communities may have influences on truffle production. Thus, isolation and molecular characterisation of culturable bacteria were carried out to investigate the bacteria diversity in mycorrhizosphere soil of Tuber panzhihuanensePinus armandii in this work. Sequencing results showed a significant presence mostly affiliated with Burkholderia was βProteobacteria (3098%). The second culturable fraction which dominated by Pseudomonas was γProteobacteria (288%) other isolates were mostly Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium, members of αProteobacteria (1467%), actinobacteria (125%) and Firmicutes (76%) represented by Arthrobacter and Bacillus, respectively. Chryseobacterium ureilyticum was the only bacterial strain belonging to Bacteroidetes. Similarities and differences of culturable bacterial community of ascocarps and ectomycorrhizosphere soil associated with Tuber were discussed.

    Genetic Diversity of Global Aromatic Rice Varieties
    YU Ya-Ying-, SHAO Gao-Neng-, SHENG Zhong-Hua-, JIANG Han-Wei-, HE Ji-Wai-, SUN Yuan-Yuan-, CA Yi-Cong-, HU Pei-Song-**, TANG Shao-Qing
    2015, 37(06):  871-880.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515048
    Abstract ( 852 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1767KB) ( 892 )   Save
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    Genetic diversity of 434 rice accessions collected from 16 countries, including 345 fragrance rice varieties and 89 nonfragrance rice varieties, have been analyzed. A total of 573 alleles were detected by using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSR) primer pairs covering all rice 12 chromosomes. The value of allelic polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0090 to 0845, with an average of 0516 per locus; Gene diversity (GD) varied from 0091 to 0859, with an average of 0573; The mean value of major allele frequencies (MAF) was 0540, covering from 0251 to 0953. In addition, 434 rice accessions are divided into three subpopulations by cluster and population structure analysis, and FST between subpopulations showed a mean of -0116, ranging from -0623 to 0494; The score of genetic distance calculated by Nei′s method appeared from 0207 to 0355. Major allele frequencies within each subpopulation distributed from 0408 to 0746, and gene diversity level from 0354 to 0699, while PIC from 0320 to 0658. Sequencing 6 mitochondrion genes in 18 rice varieties exhibited no different in 5 genes, whereas Mit4 contains a 3 SNPs in the gene body, which acts as an important marker to understanding the relationship between Indica/Japonica differentiation and the evolution of fragrant gene. Finally, genetic diversity and mitochondrion gene sequencing would help to know about the origin of fragrant resource and benefit rice breeding.

    Indigenous Knowledge and Use of Anisodus tanguticus in Pastoral Communities of Eastern Tibet, China, and Its Implications for Local Adaptation
    FU Yao-, WANG Yun-, YANG Yong-Ping-**, YANG Xue-Fei
    2015, 37(06):  881-890.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515098
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3149KB) ( 756 )   Save
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    Wild plant resources and related indigenous knowledge often play important role in facilitating human societies to mitigate the impacts of natural disasters and climate variability. We present a case study of using a traditional herb, Anisodus tanguticus, in a novel way by local pastoralists on the eastern Tibetan Plateau in coping with extreme winter events. Interviews of 13 key informants were carried out in seven villages, and indepth household surveys were conducted in two villages covering all the pastoraldependent households. Participatory observation has also been employed. We found that local herders applying dried above ground part of Atanguticus as a supplementary feed to livestock in winter, with the purpose of helping animals to overcome cold events and snow disasters. According to local communities, time of harvesting and type of animal to be fed are key factors of using this toxic plant. Local communities have accumulated a rich repository of knowledge about Atanguticus, including its habitat, life history, uses, and health enhancing effects. They developed an informal tenure system and benign management practices on this plant. This paper demonstrates that indigenous knowledge evolved from longterm humannature interaction is important in preventing climate induced damages and lowering the risk aroused from climate uncertainties.

    The Investigation on Utilization of Wild Medicinal Plants in Dietary Culture of Quanzhou, Southern Fujian
    HUANG Xiu-Zhen-, ZOU Xiu-Hong
    2015, 37(06):  891-902.  doi:10.7677/ynzwyj201515071
    Abstract ( 942 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2207KB) ( 889 )   Save
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    An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Quanzhou, southern Fujian, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants in dietary. In addition to literature review, data was obtained using ethnobotanical tools and methods, including personal interviews during field trips, collecting herbarium specimens, and species identification by crossreferencing. The results showed that: 1) There are 148 wild medicinal species, belonging to 56 plant families and 117 genera present in Quanzhou, southern Fujian. Among them, 46 species are edible wild herbs, 37 species are medicinal plants, 38 species are used as tea substituting plants or herbal tea,22 species are wild fruits, 4 species are used as spices and 1 species is used to make bean jelly; 2) The plant families which comprise a major part of the pool are Compositae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Orchidaceae and Moraceae; 3) This study explored the utilization of the medicinal plants in Quanzhou area, and proposed methods to inherit the culture of using wild plants in dietary, as well as methods to conserve the edible medicinal wild plant resources.