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25 October 2008, Volume 30 Issue 05
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  • Articles
    New Taxa of Ranunculaceae from Yunnan

    WANG Wen-Cai

    2008, 30(05):  519-524.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07304
    Abstract ( 2689 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1014KB) ( 2075 )   Save
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    In this paper, one variety and four species of Ranunculaceae, Anemone yulongshanica W. T. Wang var. glabrescens W. T. Wang, Clematis tengchongensis W. T.Wang, C. lushuíensis W. T.Wang , Ranunculus pianmaensis W. T. Wang and R. tengchongensis W. T. Wang , are described as new on the basis of the plant specimens collected from Gaoligong Shan, western Yunnan Province, China in recent years.
    Elettariopsis chayaniana ( Zingiberaceae) , a New Species from Eastern Thailand
    Piyapong YUPPARACH
    2008, 30(05):  525-527.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07291
    Abstract ( 2158 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1285KB) ( 2554 )   Save
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    A new species of Elettariopsis from eastern Thailand, E. chayaniana , is described and illustrated . Key to all species currently enumerated for Thailand is also provided.

    Two New Species of Orchidaceae from China

    LIU Zhong-Jian , , CHEN Sing-Chi , , LEI Si-Peng ,
    2008, 30(05):  528-530.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07285
    Abstract ( 2820 )   HTML ( )   PDF (769KB) ( 2163 )   Save
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    Two new species of Orchidaceae from China, Bulbophyllum malipoense and Arachnis zhaoi, are described and illustrated. The former is related to B. unciniferum, from which it differs by having clustered, ovoid-globose pseudobulbs, smaller leaves 2 - 3.5 cm long, and shorter lateral sepals 1.4 - 1.7 cm long and with their middle margins connate to each other; the latter is akin to A. labrosa , from which it differs by its pale yellow-green flowers lacking red-brown marking, and its petals slightly broader than sepals.
    Miscellaneous Notes on Orchidaceae from China
    金效华, 樊 杰
    2008, 30(05):  531-532.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07325
    Abstract ( 2743 )   HTML ( )   PDF (994KB) ( 2077 )   Save
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    Penkimia , P. nagalandensis, Sunipia cirrhata and Uncifera thailandica were reported as new records to China. Penkimia primarily differs from Ascocentrum by having lateral lobes overlapping the column , lip lacking any appendages, and the conical spur. Sunipia cirrhata is characterized by its inflorescence exceeding leaf, lip with a callus at base, each pair of pollinia with stipe and viscidium . Uncifera thailandica is primarily distinguished from its relatives by its apex of spur curved backwards towards ovary.
    Diversity of Epiphytic Lichens on Tea Trees in Yunnan, China
    WANG Li-Song, , OH Soon-Ok, NIU Dong-Ling, TAN Yong-Hui, HUR Jae-Seoun
    2008, 30(05):  533-539.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07270
    Abstract ( 2828 )   HTML ( )   PDF (947KB) ( 2058 )   Save
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    Twenty five genera and 51 species of lichens were found during a taxonomic survey of lichens on tea trees in Yunnan. 45 of the species were found for the first time on tea trees . Lepraria lobificans and Protoblastenia amagiensis are
    new to China and 20 other species are new to Yunnan . Lichens were found to affect the growth of trees and the quality of tea in the following ways: 1. Acidic substances formed during the growth of the lichens can damage vascular tissues of the trunk and cause premature aging of the tea tree ; 2 . Lichens near the tips of stems can disturb shoot growth , and consequently
    , reduce the quality and quantity of tea leaf production .
    The Karyotype of Yunnanopilia (Opiliaceae), from Yunnan, China
    XUE Rui-Juan , , GU Zhi-Jian
    2008, 30(05):  540-542.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07271
    Abstract ( 2640 )   HTML ( )   PDF (970KB) ( 1846 )   Save
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    A karyotype study was performed on Yunnanopilia, a genus of opiliaceae from the Red River Valley , South-Central Yunnan Plateau, China. The karyotype formulas is: 2 n = 2 x = 20 = 6m + 12sm + 2st . Based on the result, and the existing cytologic data of other genus of Opiliaceae, the karyotype of the genera were briefly compared .
    Observations on the Formation and Ultrastructure of the Egg Membrane in the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (Parkeriaceae)
    CAO Jian-Guo, YANG Nai-Ying, WANG Quan-Xi
    2008, 30(05):  543-548. 
    Abstract ( 2478 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2237KB) ( 1571 )   Save
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    The mature egg of ferns possesses a layer of egg membrane in the periphery. However, the fine trastructure and the formation of the egg membrane in the egg of ferns are still unclear. The present paper described the formation and the ultrastructure of the egg membrane in the egg of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the egg membrane begins to form at the stage of the maturing egg. The egg membrane in the upper side of the egg is prominent. It is formed by attaching of osmiophilic sheets of endoplasmic reticulum to the inner surface of the plasmalemma . When mature the egg membrane in the upper side of the egg is much thick in the central region and it becomes thinner gradually towards the margin. Some osmiophilic materials are filled in the spaces between the sheets of endoplasmic reticulum . On the contrary, the egg membrane in the lower side of the egg is thin . It is composed of two
    osmiophilic membranes which are associated with each other closely. The formation and the ultrastructure of the egg membrane are described for the first time . Some functions of the egg membrane are also discussed .
    Mega- and Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male
    Gametophytes of Michelia coriacea (Magnoliaceae), a Globally Critical Endangered Plant in South-East Yunnan of China
    ZHAO Xing-Feng , , SUN Wei-Bang, YANG Hua-Bin , LI Wan-Cheng
    2008, 30(05):  549-556.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07292
    Abstract ( 2799 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2365KB) ( 1976 )   Save
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    The mega- and microsporogenesis and development of male and female gametophytes of Michelia coriacea were investigated using paraffin section method . The anther of the species was tetrasporangiate and its anther wall was composed of 5 - 7 layers cells, and the tapetum belonged to glandular type. In the meiosis of microsporocyte, cytokinesis was modified simultaneous type. The tetrads were tetrahedral, decussate and sometimes were anomalous type. Mature pollen grain was twocelled. The ovule was anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellar. The megaspore mother cell undergone meiotic divisions and developed into a linear type of tetrads. The chalazal megaspore of the tetrad was functional. The functional megaspore underwent three successively nuclear divisions to give rise to eight-nucleate embryo sac which was Polygonum Type. The high percentage of abortion could be observed in process of megaspore and microspore genesis and the development of gemetophytes. The abnormality in the reproductive development of this species might be the main cause of its extremely low seed set .
    An Analysis of Genetic Differentiation and Distribution of RAPD Polymorphism in Stipa grandis (Gramineae) Populations
    ZHAO Nian-Xi , GAO Yu-Bao, WANG Jin-Long
    2008, 30(05):  557-564.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07297
    Abstract ( 2485 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1355KB) ( 1807 )   Save
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    The genetic differentiation and RAPD polymorphism of 90 Stipa grandis individuals from five populations were studied using RAPD markers . Sixteen oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify 310 RAPD loci , which were analyzed using several multivariate methods . The Principal Coordinated Analysis (PCoA) clearly clustered 90 Stipa grandis individuals into five groups in 3-dimension plot and the individuals from the same population were clustered into one group, even though the first three coordinates explained only 21.91% of the total variance. The Canonical Discriminant Analysis could
    cluster individuals into their corresponding populations, with 97.8% of the correctness. The Spearman Rank Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis established a strong and significant association between some of the RAPD loci and certain climatic factors ( annual precipitation, ≥10℃ cumulative temperature in a year, annual mean temperature, mean temperature in January and mean temperature in July). All these results indicated that (1) the genetic differentiation of Stipa grandis populations was significant, (2) the RAPD polymorphism was not randomly distributed but associated with the climatic characters of habitats, and (3) the natural selection of climatic divergence played an important role in affecting the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Stipa grandis populations. The results of this study may be useful for guiding the conservation of germplasm of Stipa grandis.
    Karyotype Asymmetry of Aspidistra (Convallarieae, Ruscaceae)
    QIAO Qin , , ZHANG Chang-Qin, MA Yong-Peng , , TIAN Wei ,
    2008, 30(05):  565-569.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.08008
    Abstract ( 2528 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1139KB) ( 1828 )   Save
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    Two species of Aspidistra from Yunnan, China, were cytologically studied. The chromosome number of A. hekouensis, 2 n = 38 , is reported for the first time. The chromosome number of A. sichuanensis, also 2 n = 38, was consistent
    with earlier reports, but the karyotype differs from the previous report. Furthermore, we used two numerical parameters, A1 ( intrachromosomal asymmetry index) and A2 ( interchromosomal asymmetry index), to estimate the karyotype asymmetry in 34 species of. The results showed that there is no predominant trend towards an increasing of asymmetry of the karyotype in Aspidistra .
    Clone and Function Prediction of Six Novel Small RNAs in Arabidopsis (Cruciferae)
    TANG Fei , , LIANG Gang , , YU Di-Qiu
    2008, 30(05):  570-576. 
    Abstract ( 2727 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1545KB) ( 2285 )   Save
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    We have developed a reproducible method of small RNAs cloning from model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , which will facilitate the research on small RNAs in the future .We have successfully cloned several small RNAs from leaves of Arabidopsis treated by SA ( signal molecule of disease resistance ) , using isolation , adapter ligation , PCR amplification , Tclone, sequence and bio-information analysis and so on . Furthermore , we conducted analysis on their expression profiles and predicted functions of these small RNAs .
    The Response of Incarvillea delavayi (Bignoniaceae) Grown in
    Different Altitudes Subject to Water Availability
    CAI Yan-Fei , , ZHANG Shi-Bao , HU Hong, LI Shu-Yun
    2008, 30(05):  577-585.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07293
    Abstract ( 2533 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1585KB) ( 2349 )   Save
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    Photosynthesis and leaf traits of Incarvill delavayi subjected to water stress were compared in Shangri-La and Kunming to develop effective strategy for domestication and cultivation. The results showed that photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) decreased with the decreasing water availability at both study sites. After transplanted from Shangri-La to Kunming, the photosynthetic rate (Pn ) decreased under the same water availability condition, and the content of chlorophyll and Chl a/b ratio had no significant difference, but the leaf N content per unit area increased. The decrease in stomatal conductance,
    mesophyll conductance and lower nitrogen partitioning coefficients in photosynthetic apparatus contributed to the lower photosynthetic rate in Kunming. Furthermore, the response of photosynthetic performances and leaf traits of I. delavayi subjected to water availability in Kunming was not as sensitive as that in Shangri-La. Interestingly, the growth of I. delavayi in
    Kunming had a water availability threshold ( 40% soil field capacity) ; if soil water availability lower than this threshold, the relative growth rate became negative. The results showed that this species could be introduced to cultivate successfully at lower altitude .
    The Effects of Methyl Jasmonate on the Flavonoids Synthesis in Cell Suspension Culture of Glycyrrhiza inflata (Leguminosae)
    YANG Ying, ZHENG Hui , HE Feng, JI Jia-Xing, YU Long-Jiang
    2008, 30(05):  586-592.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07326
    Abstract ( 2204 )   HTML ( )   PDF (5834KB) ( 2038 )   Save
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    The effects of different concentration of methyl jasmonate on the cell biomass and flavonoids production in cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza inflata were studied. The results showed that the flavonoids production increased when the methyl jasmonate was added into the medium with the appropriate concentration of 10 - 200 μmol/L, while the cell growth was inhibited to some extent. In addition, the content of H2O2, the activity of phenylalanine ammona lyase, catalase, peroxidase and malondialdehyde content all increased with the addition of methyl jasmonate in the medium, which
    suggested that the addition of appropriate concentration of methyl jasmonate can result in the defense response , an increase of the expression of the antioxidant system such as catalases and peroxidases, and the increased flavonoids accumulation with 3.39 times of the control.
    An Effective Protocol for the Isolation of RNA from Cycad Leaves
    LI Lu , FU Qian-Tang , , YU Di-Qiu
    2008, 30(05):  593-596.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07272
    Abstract ( 2345 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1454KB) ( 1674 )   Save
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    Conventional RNA extraction methods have been shown to produce poor-quality RNA when applied to Cycas revoluta because of abundant secondary metabolites included. With modification of the standard cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method by adding borax (disodium tetraborate decahydrate ) andβ-mercaptoethanol to eliminate the interference of polyphenol and polysaccharides , an effective protocol was developed . This modified protocol could extract high quantities of RNA from cycad leaves at about 930μg per gram of fresh weight . Both A260􊄯230 and A260􊄯280 ratios were around 2, indicating that RNA is of high quality. The RNA quality was confirmed by Northern blotting analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The modified protocol could be successfully extended to other plants containing secondary metabolites .
    Study on the Data Standard of the Integrative Information of Medicinal Plant Resources
    LI Li-Ling , WANG Yu-Hua
    2008, 30(05):  597-602.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07283
    Abstract ( 2668 )   HTML ( )   PDF (827KB) ( 1787 )   Save
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    In human′s research history, the scientific discoveries rely heavily on the accumulation of knowledge , information and data. China is promoting the innovative research approach and calls for the development of self independent intellectual property on drug research and industry . However , the current status of knowledge and data on medicinal plant resources
    are scattered , isolated and unshared which hampers the efficient research . Based on the needs for sustainable use of medicinal plants, this study analyzed the current status of data on medicinal plants and the necessity for data synthesizing and standardizing , developed the framework and provided the standards schema for data exchange under the environment of e-Science. It is intended to construct a platform for information synthesizing and sharing .
    Ethnobotany of Wild Edible Plant Resources in Periodic Markets in Jinping Autonomous County of Miao, Yao , and Dai
    HUAI Hu-Yin , ZHANG Bin , LIU Hua-Shan
    2008, 30(05):  603-610.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.08091
    Abstract ( 2672 )   HTML ( )   PDF (998KB) ( 1989 )   Save
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    Collection and utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) relate not only to living standards of local people, but also to biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in concerned areas. Key informant interview and participatory observation have been used to conduct ethnobotanical field investigations on wild edible plants in the periodic markets in Jinping Autonomous County of Miao, Yao, and Dai in this paper. The results show that diverse wild edible plants were traded at the local main markets, involving 35 species from 27 families. These plants were composed of wild vegetable(82.85%) , wild fruit ( 14 .29%), and wild edible pigment ( 2.86% ). Caesalpiniaceae and Moraceae are two important families which account for 8. 57% of total species respectively. The wild vegetables are mainly from young shoots of trees(34.29%) and aerial parts of grasses (25. 71% ). There are high similarities of the wild edible species between the study area and neighbor regions. The plant parts used and their usages show a significant difference between dry season and rain season. The amounts and prices of wild edible plants in the markets are very low so that the local people′s cash income from the trade of wild edible plants is limited. Women are playing an important role in collecting and trading of wild edible plants in the local community. The geographic location of markets influences the trade of edible plants in the local communities. Based on the market investigation, we conclude that 1) the rich ethonbotanical knowledge remains in the local communities; 2 ) collection and trade of edible plants does not influence the sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources in this area.
    New Bisabolane Sesquiterpene from Culture Broth of the
    Fungus Aleuria aurantia (Pezizaceae)
    ZHANG Ling , , WANG Fei , , DONG Ze-Jun , LIU Ji-Kai
    2008, 30(05):  611-613.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07347
    Abstract ( 2535 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2691KB) ( 1602 )   Save
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    A new bisabolane-type sesquiterpene: (1 R , 7 S ) -15-hydroxy-1-epi-β-bisabolol , named aleuriol (1) was isolated from culture broth of the fungus Aleuria aurantia (Pezizaceae) . The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. This is the first example of bisabolane isolated from the family.
    A New Hydroxyl Acetylenic Fatty Acid from the Basidiomycete Craterellus aureus (Cantharellaceae)
    JIANG Meng-Yuan , , WANG Fei, DONG Ze-Jun, ZHANG Yi , ZHU Hua-Jie , LIU Ji-Kai
    2008, 30(05):  614-616. 
    Abstract ( 1886 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1653KB) ( 1618 )   Save
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    A new hydroxyl acetylenic acid, named (8 E , 10 R , 14 Z ) -10-hydroxy-8 , 14-octadecadien-12-ynoic acid (1), together with two known compounds (2 , 3) , were isolated from the ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of Craterellus aureus. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR experiments). The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be R by computational calculation of optical rotation.
    New Inhibitors of Dual-specificity Protein Phosphatase Cdc25C from Plants
    JIA Rui-Rui , ZENG Guang-Zhi , TAN Ning-Hua, FAN Jun-Ting , ,
    HUANG Huo-Qiang , , JI Chang-Jiu , , HAO Xiao-Jiang ,
    ZHAO Qin-Shi , LI Chao-Ming
    2008, 30(05):  617-620.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07295
    Abstract ( 2359 )   HTML ( )   PDF (6363KB) ( 1521 )   Save
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    Protein phosphatase Cdc25C dephosphorylates the mitotic kinase CDK1 cyclin B, and then triggers the cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Cdc25C is detected in some cancer cells, which made it to be a potential target for anti-cancer drugs. Through Cdc25C assay, compounds 1 - 8 were found to be new natural inhibitors against Cdc25C with IC50 s of 1.66 - 75.07
    μmol/L. Moreover , 3 , 4 , 5 and 7 exhibited cytotoxicities on a panel of ten cancer cell lines with IC50 s below 10μg/mL.
    New Natural Inhibitors of Human Cathepsin B
    JIA Rui-Rui, ZENG Guang-Zhi, TAN Ning-Hua, ZHOU Zhi-Hong, ZHANG Ying-Jun
    2008, 30(05):  621-623.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07305
    Abstract ( 2355 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2923KB) ( 1954 )   Save
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    Cathepsin B is an important member of the papain-like cysteine proteases . It has been implicated in the pathology of many human diseases, especially in the invading and metastasis of most malignant tumors. With random screening, five natural compounds, prodelphinidin B-2 3′-O-gallate (1 ) , prodelphinidin B-2 ( 2), procyanidin B-2 ( 3), puerin A (4) and (- ) epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate ( 5 ) , were found to show potent cathepsin B inhibitory activity with IC50 s of 0.58, 0.44, 0.76, 2.07 and 0.96μmol/L, respectively. Inhibitors 1 - 5 are found with chemotype of flavanols, which are
    new natural inhibitors of cathepsin B.
    The Effects of Aspergillus on the Post-fermentative Process of Pu-Er Tea
    CHEN Ke-Ke, ZHANG Xiang-Lan , ZHU Hong-Tao, YANG Chong-Ren , ZHANG Ying-Jun
    2008, 30(05):  624-628.  doi:10.3724 SP.J.1143.2008.07273
    Abstract ( 2364 )   HTML ( )   PDF (964KB) ( 2335 )   Save
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    In order to explain the effects of microorganism on the post-fermentative process of Pu-Er tea , the temperature and humidity tests, inoculation tests with several Aspergillus species, which were previously purified and identified as the preponderant microbe from the fermentative stacks of Pu-Er tea , as well as the post-fermentation tests with specially prepared microbial reagents with these Aspergillus species are carried out . The results showed that the special characteristic sense of Pu-Er tea was coming from the effects of these Aspergillus species . The specially prepared microbial reagents can
    not only control the post-fermentative process, but also change the characteristic sense, as well as influence to the contents of polyphenols, catechins, gallic acid, theanin and caffeine in Pu-Er tea. In addition, it could improve the riping speeds, the successful rate , as well as the quality stability of Pu-Er tea . With the specially prepared microbial reagents, a standardized
    industrial production of Pu-Er tea becomes possible .