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25 December 2010, Volume 32 Issue S17
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  • Articles
    The Invasive Plants of North America—A Primary Analysis
    MA Jin Shuang
    2010, 32(S17):  1-18. 
    Abstract ( 1920 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1086KB) ( 1907 )   Save
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     Based on various reports both in print and online, 533 species have been selected as invasive species or potential invasive plants from North America. In order to better understand their invasive nature, the primary data on these invasive or potential invasive plants in North America are reported, including the composition of plant taxa, their habits, invasive origin, introduced time, meanings of introduction, most invasive habitats, invasive grades, and distribution in each states/provinces of North America.

    A Review of Leafy Spurge, Euphorbia esula (Euphorbiaceae), the Most Aggressive Invasive Alien in North America
    MA JinShuang
    2010, 32(S17):  19-45. 
    Abstract ( 2695 )   HTML ( )   PDF (859KB) ( 1916 )   Save
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    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L., s. lato.) native to Eurasia is one of the most notorious invasive plant in North America. In order to fully understand the current situation well, details of taxonomy, biology, physiology, invasion, damage and loss, as well as various controls of leafy spurge have been reviewed here, and concise prospects and summary are also discussed, with more than 200 references cited as well.

    Phylogeny of Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus Based on Two Chloroplast DNA Sequences: rbcL and rps4+rps4trnS IGS
    WEI Ran-, ZHANG Xian-Chun-, QI Xin-Ping
    2010, 32(S17):  46-54. 
    Abstract ( 2528 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2241KB) ( 1862 )   Save
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    Phylogenetic relationships and systematic positions of Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus were investigated by using two chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL and rps4+rps4trnS). All the members of these two genera, 25 species representing other related groups and three outgroups were included in the combined analyses of chloroplast DNA sequence data sets which are performed with Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The topologies of gene trees revealed that: 1) Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus form a monophyletic group with high bootstrap value; 2) Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus are not nested in Athyriaceae; 3) Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus show a parallel phylogenetic relationship with Dryopteridaceae and Aspleniaceae. On the basis of combined DNA data sets analyses and morphological characters, Diplaziopsis and Homalosorus are proposed to be treated as a family with close relation to Aspleniaceae.

    Taxonomic Revision of Lepisorus sectSclerophyllon (Polypodiaceae) from China
    QI Xin-Ping-, ZHANG Xian-Chun-, WEI Ran
    2010, 32(S17):  55-64. 
    Abstract ( 3603 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11081KB) ( 2089 )   Save
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    The section Sclerophyllon of Lepisorus from China was taxonomically revised based on herbarium specimen examinations, field observation of native populations, and literature surveys. It turns out the scales and paraphyses characters are quite uniform within this section. But the leaf shape and the position of sori are the most useful characters for species delimitation. As a result, five species and one variety were recognized from China. They are Lepisorus eilophyllus, Lloriformis, Lloriformis varstenistos, Lsublinearis, Lcespitosus and Lpseudonudus. Two published names were reduced to synonyms. Lxiphiopteris= Lloriformis and Llancifolius=Lsublinearis. Key to species, descriptions and distribution maps are provided in this paper, as well as comments on the most important morphological characters for species delimitation.

    Phenotypic Diversity of Gnetum parvifolium (Gnetaceae) in Fujian
    HUANG Shu-Bo-, HU Yong-Hong- , WU Dong- , TIAN Qi- , LI Hong-Qing
    2010, 32(S17):  65-73. 
    Abstract ( 2343 )   HTML ( )   PDF (11256KB) ( 1854 )   Save
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     Fifteen characters were measured in 11 populations of Gnetum parvifolium in Fujian Province, including 1139 leaves from 116 plants. The diversity index is 19281 at species level and 17573 at population level. 9114% of all genetic variation is distributed within populations. UPGMA cluster analysis and Mantel test also support that there is a positive correlation (r=06216, P=00020<0005) between genetic distance and geographic distance. The population differentiation conforms to the isolationbydistance pattern.

    Study on the Sampling Strategy of Sinocalycanthus chinensis for Exsitu Conservation of Genetic Diversity
    CHEN Xiang-Bo-, TIAN Qi
    2010, 32(S17):  74-80. 
    Abstract ( 2305 )   HTML ( )   PDF (583KB) ( 2029 )   Save
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    By analysis of genetic diversity and population genetic structure in natural populations of Sinocalycanthus chinensis with intersimple sequence repeat(ISSR) technique, the sampling strategy were determined based on the gene capture curve of 95% allele captured. The results are as follows: 6 populations to be sampled, the sampling proportion should be 30% and the distance between the sampled individuals are best of 26 m above. After seeds sampling and conduction of Exsitu conservation, the genetic diversity of the offspring population were evaluated that it conserved the genetic diversity of the natural populations effectively. Therefore, the systemic sampling method of endangered plants for Exsitu conservation of genetic diversity were discussed.

    Characteristics and Species Diversity of Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii (Lauraceae) Community in China
    TIAN Qi-, HUANG Shu-Bo-, HU Yong-Hong
    2010, 32(S17):  81-88. 
    Abstract ( 2977 )   HTML ( )   PDF (638KB) ( 2244 )   Save
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    The composition, physiognomy, structure and dynamics characteristic, species diversity of the Cinnamomum japonicum varchenii community were studied based on community investigation. The results showed that 71 species in 63 genera 46 families of vascular plants were recorded in 7 plots in total of 700 m2. The analysis on species important value showed that Cinnamomum japonicum varchenii, Celtis sinensis, Ficus erecta varbeecheyana, Machilus thunbergii are dominant species of the community. The physiognomy of the community is ever green all year around. The age structure of dominant populations showed that three out of four main populations of the community are increasing populations. The species diversity of the community is measured with the Margalef index of 99917, the ShannonWiener index of 30657, the Simpson index of 09007, and the evenness index of 07192. The diversity pattern from maximum to minimum is herb, arbor, shrub. Diversity comparison with 4 other different communities showed that the species diversity of Cinnamomum japonicum varchenii community is slightly lower.

    Ethylene Signal is Involved in Regulating Arabidopsis Response to Drought Stress Stimulated by PEG
    YANG Lei-, SUN Ping-, LIN Ying-Chao-, TANG Zhong-Hua
    2010, 32(S17):  89-96. 
    Abstract ( 2697 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3927KB) ( 2885 )   Save
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    Arabidopsis ein25, ein31 and ctr11 are mutants in key genes of ethylene signaling transduction pathway. ein25 is absolutely insensitive to ethylene, ein31 is partly insensitive to ethylene, while ctr11 is constitutive triple response mutant. The morphological observation and measurement showed the rosette growth, shoot biomass and leaf area under PEG stress were restrained more significant in ethylene insensitive mutants ein25 and ein31 than in Col0 and ctr11. From the results, we can conclude that ethylene signal plays a positive role in regulating Arabidopsis growth and morphology under PEG stress. We also determined the physiological status in Arabidopsis under PEG stress. It was indicated that ethylene signal could regulate the plant to reduce the water potential to keep the osmotic potential, resulting in retaining water and enhance the drought tolerance. In the response of ethylene signal to drought, there was more osmotic modulatory substance soluble sugar. And the substance synthesized to a high level in fine ethylene signal pathway plants under PEG stress. We can conclud that ethylene signal can positively mediate the plant to adapt drought stress.

    Study on Coldresistance of Island Plant Cinnamomum japonicum (Lauraceae)
    WANG Feng-Ying-, HU Yong-Hong-, TIAN Qi
    2010, 32(S17):  97. 
    Abstract ( 1741 )   HTML ( )   PDF (535KB) ( 2368 )   Save
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    In order to study physiological responses to the island plant  Cinnamomum japonicum under low temperature stress, the relative electric conductivity, the content of MDA and the activity of CAT were determined under different low temperature treatments for the leaves of Cjaponicum in winter. The results showed that the relative electric conductivity increased, MDA content also increased, CAT showed “M”type changes trend with decreasing temperature.

    The Developing of Nonpolluted Agrichemicals Application in Chenshan Botanical Garden
    LI Li, HUANG Shu-Bo, TIAN Qi
    2010, 32(S17):  101. 
    Abstract ( 2024 )   HTML ( )   PDF (491KB) ( 1822 )   Save
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    Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden (CBGS) is a new one in the global botanical gardens system, which is focused on botanical research, plant collection and public education. In CBGB, there are more than three thousand of plant species and at least six thousand of cultivars were planted. Therefore, the diseases and pests are also in a large amount. Facing to so rich plants and the status of so many visitors, in order to control the disease without harm to both plants and visitors, the pollutionfree agricultural chemicals are necessary to be used in this garden. The using of nonpolluted agrichemicals is still the start in CBGS now. A planning was confirmed by horticulture department of CBGS. According to the planning, we gave a list of pollutionfree agricultural chemicals, including biological pesticide, mineralbased pesticide and organic synthesize pesticide. There are 30 kinds of nonpolluted agrichemicals were listed, fourteen of them are biological pesticide, two is mineralbased pesticide, while the other fourteen are organic synthesize pesticide.